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From the original Piciure in the possession of the Right Rev. 

William lleathcote de Lancey. 











" It is the privilege of History to impart the experience of age, without 
its infirmities ; to bring back things long obscured by time, or sinking into 
oblivion ; and enable us to form some reasonable conjectures of what may 
happen to posterity." — Paulson's Hist, of Holderness. 





* ^ 


Entered according to the Act of Congress in the year eighteen hundred and forty-eight 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 


TO - 




- BY ^ 


Pond Field Farm, EastchesteR) - 

April nth, 1848. " " 



At the period of the Dutch discovery the Mahicmmi resided 
on the east shore of the Hudson River. " These were the Man- 
kikani and Mohikans of De Laet, tlie Mahiccanders^ Mohick- 
anders and Nahikanders of the Dutch, the Manhikans, Ma- 
hikans, or Mohegans, according to Professor Ebehng, and the 
Mohegana or Miihhekanew. (the original name of Mohegans.) 
According to the English the Mohiccans, Mahiccon, and lastly, 
Mahiccans, were all one people, originally a branch of the De- 
laware nation. The Mahiccans and Delawares both say they 
were once one people."^ " The best information (says Mr. Hecke- 
welder) which I could procure of the extent of the country the 
Mahicanni inhabited, was from an aged and intelligent man of 
this nation, whose grandfather had been a noted chief. His 
report was as follows, to wit : ' When I was a boy, my grand- 
father used to speak much of old times ; how it had been before 
the white people came into this country, (that is, the State of 
New York, in which the relator was born,) and what changes 
took place since, from time to time. The western bounding 
line of the Mahicanni was the river Mahicannittuck^ which 
the white people now call the ' North River.' Our towns and 
settlements extended on the east side of this river from Thyp- 

^ Moulton's Hist, of New York, 226. 


hane or Tnphanne, (a Delaware word for cold stream^ from 
which the whites have derived the name Tnppan,) to the ex- 
tent of tide water up this river; here was the uppermost town. 
From thence our towns were scattered throughout the country 
on the smaller rivers and creeks. Our nearest neighbors on the 
east were the Wanipano.^ "a 

"The country between the banks of the Connecticut River^ 
and the Hudson, (says Mr. Bancroft,) was possessed by indepen- 
dent villages of the Mohegans^ kindred with the Mauhattayis ; 
whose few smokes once arose amidst the forests on New York 
Island. "c Mr. Schoolcraft informs us that " The Mohegans and 
the Minci were two tribes of Algonquin lineage, who inhabited 
the valley of the Hudson between New York and Albany." Mo- 
hegan, (continues the same authority,) is a word, the meaning of 
which is not explained by the early writers ; but if we may trust 
the deductions of philology, it needs create little uncertainty. In 
the Mohegan, as spoken at the present time by their lineal de- 
scendants, the Slockbridges of Wisconsin^ Maihtshow^ is the 
name of the common wolf. It is called, in cognate dialects of 
the Algonquin, Myegan by the Kenistenos, and Myeengun by 
the Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottowattomies. In the old Algon- 
quin, as given by La Hontan, it is Mahingan, and we perceive 
that this was the term employed by the early French writers for 
the Mohegans. In the language of the Indian priests or medais, 
a mystical use of the names of various objects in the animated 
creation is made, in order to clothe their arts with the degree of 
respect and authority, which ignorant nations are ready to pay to 
whatsoever they do not fully understand ; in other words, that 
which is mysterious. Thus, in the medicen songs of the Odjib- 
was. a wolf is called, not Myeengun, the popular term, but Moh- 
hwag. It is believed the priests of the ancient Mohegans made 
similar distortion of their words, for similar ends, and that the 
terms Moh hi Kan and Moh hin gan, used by the early French 

• Moulton's Hist, of New York, part i. 227. 

b Connecticoota, meaning Long River, was the Indian name, says Judge Ben- 

'■ Bancroft's Hist. U. S. A., vol. iii. 239. 


missionary writers for this tribe, furnish the origin of the term. 
The term itself, it is to be understood, by which the tribe is 
known to us, is not the true Indian, but has been shorn of a part 
of its sound, by the early Dutch, French and English writers. 
The modern tribe of the Mohegans^ to whom allusion has been 
made, called themselves Muhhekamew. This is, manifestly, a 
compound declarative phrase, and not a simple nominative, and 
is equivalent to the phrase, '• I am ^ Mohegan." It is in accord- 
ance both with religious custom, and the usage of the Indian 
priesthood, to infer a unity of superstitious practices in nearly af- 
filiated tribes. In this manner the word "Mohegan" was used 
to denote^ not a common wolf, but the caries lupus, under the 
supposed influence of medical or necromantic arts. In other 
words, Mohegan was a phrase to denote an enchanted wolf, or a 
wolf of supernatural power. This was the badge or arms of the 
tribe, rather than the name of the tribe itself. And this also, it 
may be inferred, constituted originally, the point of distinctiouj 
between them and the Minci, or wolf tribe proper. The 
affinities of the Mohegans with the Minciy or Moncees, on the 
west banks of the Hudson, and through them with the Dela- 
waj'Gs, are apparent in the language, and were well recognized at 
the era of the settlement."a 

" The universal name the Monseys have for New York, (says 
Mr. Heckewelder) is Laaphawachking, or the place of string- 
ing headsy ' 

The Mohegans were again sub-divided into numerous bands, 
each known by a distinctiye name. Among these, inhabiting the 
County, may be enumerated the Siwanoys, who occupied the 
northern shores of the Sound *• from Norwalk to 24 miles to the 
neighborhood of Hellgate." How far they claimed jurisdiction 
inland is uncertain. 

The Manhattans had their principal settlement on New 
York island, and from thence north to the bounds of Yonkers, 
nearly opposite T'«pp^n, The WECKauASj^Ecics possessed the 

*■ Proceedings of N. Y. Hist. See. 1844, 8/. 

YoL. I. B 


country '' lying between two rivulets called the Smt Sinck and 
ArtJionck, lying between the East and North rivers." 

The Si NT Sincks occupied the present town of Ossin ing, 
and its immediate vicinity. ^ 

The KiTCHAWoNKs claimed the lands bordering the Kitcha- 
wan or Crotoii River, and as far north as St. Anthony's Nose in 
the Highlands. 

The Pachami and Wappingers possessed the Highlands. 

The Tankitekes "resided in the rear of Sing Sing."* 

The principal Indian villages appear to have been as follows : 

Nappeckamak, Kestaubaiuck, 

Weecquaesguck, Kitchawan, 

Alipconck, Sackhoes, 

Sinck Sinck. Kekisconck, 

Nanichiestawack, Betuck-quapock, 

Momoronuck, Pasquashic. 

" The three prominent Indian names for the Hudson River, 
(says Mr. Schoolcraft) are 'The MohegaUj^ Chatemuc," and the 

Like their neighbors, the Indians of Westchester were in sub- 
jection to the Iroquois, and acknowledged it by the payment of 
an annual tribute. 

* O'Callaghan's Hist, of N. N., 240. 

b Mohegan River. 

e " Shaila, in the cognate dialect of the Odjibwa, means a pelican." " Uc is the 
ordinary inflection for locality "-^Mr. Schoolcraft's Paper, Proceedings of N. Y. 
Hist. Soc 1844. " The great white pelican (P. trachyrhyncus) was formerly nu- 
merous on the Hudson and other rivers and lakes of this State. At the present day- 
it has entirely disappeared, and I do not know of its existence even as an accidental 
visitor."— Nat. Hist, of N. Y., by James de Kay. 



In givino;- a history of the County, it appears proper to begin 
with a recital of the act framing the same, entitled " An Act to 
divide the Province of New York and dependencies into Shires 
and Counties, (fcc." 

"Having taken into consideration the necessity of dividing 
the Province into respective Countys, for the better governing 
and settling courts in the same, be it enacted by the Governor, 
Council and the Representatives, and by the authority of the 
same, that the said Province be divided into twelve Countys as 
followeth : The County of Westchester to conteyne West and 
Eastchester, Bronx-land, Ford ham, Anne Hook's Neck, Rich- 
bells, Miniford's Islands, and all the land on the maine to the 
eastward of Manhattan's Island as farre as the government ex- 
tends, and the Yonkers' land, and northward along Hudson's 
River as farre as the Highland." 

"This bill havingr been three times read before the Governor 
and Council, is assented to the first of November, 1683."^ 

Westchester County was represented in the first Legislative 
Assembly of the Colony, which met at New York on the 9th of 
April, 1691 ;b and it has constituted one County to this time, hav- 
ing been organized as such by the General Acts of 178S and 
1801. It is situated on the east side of the Hudson, immediately 
north of New York County : bounded north by Putnam and 
Dutchess Counties; east by the State of Connecticut ; southerly 
by Long Island Sound and East River ; west by Haarlem River 
and the Hudson, or by New York County, the State of New Jer- 
sey, and the County of Rockland in this State. The area may 
be 480 square miles — 307,200 acres — situated between 40^ 47^, 

» Provincial Laws of N. Y., County Clerk's Office, Queens Co., L. I. The 
above act was confirmed on the 1st of October, 1691. 

b In the person of John Pell, Esq. On the 20th Oct., 1635, James II. appointed 
John Peli, John Palmer, William Richardson, Joseph Horton, sen., and Joseph 
Theale, Justices of the Peace in the County of Westchester. 



and 41*^ 22' north latitude, 103' east, and 32' east longitude from 
New York. 

The County is thus described by William Smith the historian 
of New York, in 175G. 

'' Westchester County is large, and includes all the land beyond the Island 
of Manhallans along the Sound to the Connecticut line, which is its eastera 
boundary. It extends northward to the middle of the Highlands, and west- 
ward to IIudson''s River. A great part of this count)' is contained in the 
manors of Philipsburgh, Pelham, Fordham, and Courtlandt, the last of which 
has the privilege of sending a representative to the General Assembly. The 
count}' is tolerably settled. Tlie lands are in general rough but fertile, and 
therefore the farmers run principally on grazing. It has several towns, 
Eastchesler, Westchester, New Rochelle, Rye, Bedford, and North Castle. 
The inhabitants are either English or Dutch Presbyterians, Episcopalians, 
Quakers, and French Protestants. The former are the most numerous. The 
two Episcopal missionaries are settled at Ri/e and Eastchester, and receive 
each jCGO annually taxed upon the county. The town of Westchester is an 
incorporated borough, enjoying a mayor's court and the right of being repre- 
sented by a member in Assembly.""^ 


FOR 1846. 


Total population. 



Cortlandt, . 


Green burgh, 






Lewisboro, . 


Mount Pleasant,'^ 




Deduct alien. 


Total re- 

taxed, and persons 


of color. 




. 1743 




. 2055 










• Snnilh'8 Hist of N. Y. 

b Mount Pleasant includes the inmates of the county poor-house, which is re- 
turned in the ccnHus separately, as follows ; total number of inmates 184, aliens 
not naturalized, and persons of color not taxed, 25. 



North Castle, 

. 2010 

New Castle, 

. 1495 

North Salem, 

. 1228 

New Rochelle, 

. 1977 


. 3312 


. 486 


. 1427 

Rye, . 

. 2180 


. 1761 

Scarsdale, . 

. 341 


. 5052 

White Plains, 

. 1155 

Yorktown, . 

. 2278 


. 2517 



















A. D. 1731, 
A. D. 1771, 
A. D. 1786, 
A. D. 1790, 



A. D. 1800, 
A. D. 1810, 
A. D. 1835, 
A. D. 1840, 



" The County of Westchester comprises a very important 
section of this state : washed on the west by the Hudson, on 
the south by the East River and Long Island Sound, it enjoys 
very superior advantages for trade and commerce, with a fine soil 
for agriculture, and a charming diversity of surface and of elegant 
situation ; while its contiguity to the great commercial metropo- 
lis of North America, completes a proud superiority of geogra- 
phical position. The north-west corner is considerably broken 
by the south-eastern border of the Highlands, of a mountain 
character; and a range of hills of moderate height extends from 
York Island toward the north-east extremity, on which are 

» Name changed to Ossin-ing in 1846. See Sess. Laws, chap. 30, sec. 5. 
b Part of Somers annexed to Newcastle. See Laws of 1846, chap. 249. 
* West Farms erected from part of Westchester. See Sess. Laws, 184, chap. 


situated the heights and hills much known in the Revolution- 
ary war, particularly in the year 1776. Besides Harlem, Hud- 
son and East Rivers, forming the boundaries, there are several 
small streams that afford many mill seats. Peekskill Creek and 
Croton River, which rise in Dutchess and Putnam counties, run 
south-westward across the north-western part of Westchester 
County to the Hudson. Saw Mill River runs from Mount 
Pleasant to the Hudson at Yonkers ; and Bronx River, the 
largest, Hutchinson's and Mamaroneck Rivers run south into 
the East River. Byram River runs from Westchester, princi- 
pally in Connecticut, and forms two miles of the state boundary 
from its mouth in East River, which receives some other small 
streams from the south-east angle of Westchester County, direct 
across the south-west angle of Connecticut." 

*' The soil of this County admits of no general character, ex- 
cept that its tillage is productive to the agriculturist. The style 
of its agriculture is in the first order, if we except Dutchess. 
The lower part has considerable of ornamental farming and 
gardening, where are the seats of men of opulence, cultivated 
with niuch taste." The manufactures are numerous. White 
Plains and Bedford are the half shire towns. "Tarrytown, 
Sing Sing, and some others, are charming positions on the Hud- 
son, where are small villages and landings, with considerable 
trade. Tappan Bay, a wide place in the Hudson, is here three 
miles in width, where crowds of shipping are constantly seen 
passing in opposite directions, exhibiting a most elegant display 
of commercial activity.''^ 

''The County of Westchester is based on primitive rock called 
hypogcne, or granite gneiss, lons^ ridges of which intersect the 
county, with here and there small veins of iron ore and 
quartz. Large numbers of granite boulders are found here, 
both inland and on the coast; also some fine quarries of white 
marble and two silver and gold mines at Sing Sing and Peeks- 
kill." According to the late geographical survey the principal 
minerals are, white marble, iron ore, galena, sulphate of barytes, 

» See Spafford's Gazetteer of N. Y. 


copper, iron and zinc, oxide of manganese, green carbonate of 
copper, serpentine, calcareous spar, phosphate of lime, hydrate 
and carbonate of magnesia, quartz, drusy, calcedony, agate, jas- 
per, hyroxene, hornblende, asbestos, actynolite, homolite, hyder- 
ous anthophylite, felspar, stilbite, garnet, epidote, chenite, tour- 
maline, sphene, vanquelemite, magnetic pyrites, chromate of 
iron, red ochre and red chalk. 

The natural growth of wood is very extensive, especially 
upon the higher lands. Among the principal varieties may be 
enumerated the White Oak, (duercus Alba,) Red Oak, (Quercus 
Rubra,) Pin Oak, (duercus Paluster,) and the Black Oak, (Quer- 
tetron ;) the White Elm, (ulmus Americana ;) Red or Slippery 
Elm, (Ulmus Fulva,) and the Witch Elm, (Ulmus Montana ;) the 
Plane or Buttonwood, (Platanus ;) the Ash, (Traxinus ;) Bass- 
wood, Lim.e or Linden, (Zelia ;) Beach, (Tagus ;) Birch, (Betula :) 
Maple, (Acer ;) Locust, (Robinia ;) Chesnut, (Castanea;) Walnut, 
(Juglans ;) Hickory, (Carya ;) the Whitewood or Tulip, (Lirioden- 
dron :) Dogwood, (Cornus ;) Hemlock or Spruce, and the Red Ce- 
dar (Juniperus.) 

"This County suffered severely during the Revolution. The 
whole southern part was marked by the marches, works of de- 
fence> or skirmishes and battles of hostile armies ; and, indeed, 
the active operations of the war in 1776 were principally con- 
fined to this region, and in the autumn to this County — and the 
two armies were in full force, constantly on the alert, and under 
the eyes of their respective Commanders-in-Chief And this, too, 
was probably the most interesting period of the war, though 
attended with no exploits of very brilliant fame. The British 
with a numerous army, and a powerful marine, were in posses- 
sion of New York, while Washington, with an inferior and badly 
supplied army, dispirited by the affair of Long Island, was 
merely manoeuvring to keep them in check. The battle of 
W^hite Plains, October '2S(h, will long be remembered, as will 
the dismal prospect of that year, when the Patriot Fathers of 
America had still the couraore to declare Independence, and assert 
the rights of nature and of nations. a But though the morning 

: , "^ July 4. 1776. - > • 



sun of Declared Independence arose thus in a cloud, — while yet 
it wrs morning, Princeton, Trenton and the plains of Saratoga 
enjoyed a broad refulgence, diffusing new spirits over the nation. 
And it were well worthy the attention of every American youth 
to study the history of that war, and thus learn the price paid for 
Independence ; the better to know how to appreciate its value. Nor 
ought we to forget that the privileges so dearly purchased, can 
only be preserved to our posterity, by that zeal for our country 
which governed the conduct of our Aethers, now descended to 
the grave."^ 

''The County of Westchester," says Mr. N. P. Willis, 'Mias 
been made the scene of, perhaps, the best historical novel of our 
country, and, n;ore than any other part of the United States, suf- 
fered from the evils of war. The character and depredations of 
the " Cow-hoys'' and " Skinners,'^ whose fields of action were 
on the skirts of this "Neutral Ground," are familiar to all 
who have read " the Essay" of Mr. Cooper. A distinguished 
clergyman^ gives the following very graphic picture of Westches- 
ter County in those days : — 

" In the autumn of 1777, 1 resided for some time in this County. The lines 
of the British were then in the neighborhood of King's Bridge, and those of 
the Americans at Byram River. The unhappy inhabitants were, therefore, 
exposed to the depredations of both. Often they were actually plundered, 
and always were liable to this calamity. They feared every body whom they 
saw, and loved nobody. It was a curjoijs fact to a philosopher, and a melan- 
choly one to hear their conversation. To every question they gave such an 
answer as would please the inquirer ; or, if they despaired of pleasing, such 
a one as would not provoke him. Fear was, apparently, the only passion by 
which they were animated. The power of volition seemed to have deserted 
them. They were not civil, but obsequious ; not obliging, but subservient. 
They yielded with a kind of apathy, and very quietly, what you asked, and 
what they supposed it impossible for them to retain. If you treated them 
Hindly, they received it coldly ; not as a kindness, but as a compensation for 

» .SpafTord's Gazetteer of N. Y. Upon the evacuation of New York by the 
British forccfi, Nov. 2^, 178.3, the Governor of the Stqite and Commander-in-chief 
were escorted by a body of Westchester Light horse, commanded by Captain Dela- 
van." — Editor. 

t Dr, Timothy Dwight's Travels, 3d vol. 


injuries done them by others. When you spoke to them, they answered you 
without either good or ill nature, and without any appearance of reluctance or 
hesitation ; but they subjoined neither questions nor remarks of their own ; 
proving to your full conviction, that they felt no interest either in the conver- 
sation or yourself. Both their countenances and their motions had lost every 
trace of animation and of feeling. The features were smoothed, not into se- 
renity, but apathy ; and, instead of being settled in the attitude of quiet think- 
ing, strongly indicated that all thought beyond what was merely instinctive, 
had fled their minds for ever. 

" Their houses, in the meantime, were in a great measure scenes of desola- 
tion. Their furniture was extensively plundered, or broken to pieces. The 
walls, floors, and windows were injured both by violence and decay ; and were 
not repaired, because they had not the means to repair them, and because they 
were exposed to the repetition of the same injuries. Their cattle were gone. 
Their enclosures were burnt, where they were capable of becoming fuel ; and 
in many cases thrown down where they were not. Their fields were covered 
with a rank growth of weeds and wild grass. 

" Amid all this appearance of desolation, nothing struck my eye more forci- 
bly than the sight of the high road. Where I had heretofore seen a contin- 
ual succession of horses and carriages, life and bustle lending a sprightliness 
to all the environing objects, not a single, solitary traveller was seen, from 
week to week, or from month to month. The world was motionless and si- 
lent ; except when one of these unhappy people ventured upon a rare and lonely 
excursion to the house of a neighbor no less unhappy ; or a scouting party, tra- 
versing the country in quest of enemies, alarmed the inhabitants with expecta- 
tions of new injuries and sufferings. The very tracks of the carriages were 
grown over, and obliterated ; and where they were discernible, resembled the 
faint impressions of chariot wheels .said to be left on the pavements of Hercu- 
laneum. The grass was of full height for the scythe ; and strongly realized to 
my own mind, for the first time, the proper import of that picturesque declara- 
tion in the Song of Deborah : ' In the days of Shamgar, the son of Anath, in 
the days of Jael, the highways were unoccupied, and the travellers walked 
through by-paths. The inhabitants of the villages ceased ; they ceased in 
Israel.' "«• , ■- ^ 

The subjoined account of the County, in 1780, is taken from 
Dr. Thacher's Military Journal : — - ' . - 

" The country which we lately traversed, about fifty miles in extent, is 
called " NpuTRAL Ground ;" but the miserable inhabitants who remain are 

» American Scenery, by Bartlett and Willis. 
\^PL. I. 


not much favored with the privileges which their neutrality ought to secure to 
ihem. They are continually exposed to the ravages and insults of infamous 
banditti, composed of royal refugees and lories. The country is rich and fer- 
tile ; and the farms appear to have been advantageously cultivated, but it now 
has the marks of a country in ruins. A large proportion of the proprietors 
having abandoned their farms, the few that remain find it impossible to har- 
vest the produce. The meadows and pastures are covered with grass of a 
summer's growth, and thousands of bushels of apples and other fruit are rot- 
ting in the orchards. We brought otf about two hundred loads of hay and 
grain ; and ten times the amount might have been procured, had teams enough 
been provided. Those of the inhabitants of the neutral ground who were 
tories, have joined their friends in New York, and the Whigs have retired into 
the interior of our country. Some of each side have faken up arms, and be- 
come the most cruel and deadly foes. There are within the British lines ban- 
ditti, consisting of lawless villains, who devote themselves to the most cruel 
pillage and robbery among the defenceless inhabitants between the lines ; many 
of whom they carry off to New York, after plundering their houses and farms. 
These shameless marauders have received the names of Cowboys and Skin- 
ners. By their atrocious deeds, they have become a scourge and terror to 
the people. Numerous instances have been related of these miscreants sub- 
jecting defenceless persons to cruel tortures, to compel them to deliver up 
their money, or to disclose the places where it has been secreted. It is not 
uncommon for them to hang a man by his neck till apparently dead, then re- 
store him, and repeat the experiment, and leave him for dead. One of these 
unhappy persons informed me, that when suffering this cruel treatment, the 
last sensation which he recollects, when suspended by his neck, was a flash- 
ing heat over him like that which would be occasioned by boiling water poured 
over his body ; he was, however, cut down, and how long he remained on the 
ground insensible, he ki^ows not. A peaceable, unresisting Quaker, of con- 
siderable respectability, by the name of Quincy, was visited by several of 
these vile ruffians ; they first demanded his money, and after it was delivered 
they suspected he had more concealed, and inflicted on him the most savage 
cruelties in order to extort it from him. They began with what they call 
scorching, covering his naked body with hot ashes, and repeating the applica- 
tion till the skin was covered with blisters ; after this they resorted to the 
halter, and hung the poor man on a tree by his neck, then took him down, and 
repeated it a second, and even a third time, and finally left him almost life- 

Westclicsier CoutUy under the late constitution formed the 
Second Senatorial, and Assembly Districts; under the present, 

• Thacher'd Military Journal, 232. 



she constitutes the Seventh Senatorial with Rockland, and is di- 
vided into two Assembly Districts. 


John Pell 


John Waters 


Caleb Heathcote 


Caleb Tompkins . 


William Wiliett 


William Jay 


Frederick Phillips . 


Isaac Requa 


Isaac Honeywell 


Jonathan Ferris . 


John Thomas 


William Miller . 


Lewis Morris, Juu. 


Edward Kemeys 


Samuel Purdy 


St. John Constant 


William Leggett 


Ezra Lockwood . 


Nathaniel Underbill 


Henry White 


John Thomas . 


John Townsend . 


Robert Graham 


Nehemiah Brown, Jun 


Stephen Ward 


Aaron Vark 


Gilbert Drake . 


Joseph A. Constant 


Ebenezer Lockwood 


George Case 


Jonathan G. Tompkins 


Albert Lockwood 


Ebenezer Pardy 


Robert J. Hart . 


Albert Lockwood . 1847. 


Edward Collier . 




1688 to 1691 

Joseph Lee .... 

1691 to 1698 

Benjamin Collier 

1698 to 1707 

John Clapp 

1707 to 1711 

Daniel Clark 

1711 to 1722 

William Forster 


1722 to 1732 

Benjamin Nicoll 

1745 to 1746 

John Bartow 

1760 to 1764 

Richard Hatfield 

1777 to 1800 

Thomas Ferris . 

1807 to 1815 

Elijah Crawford 

1815 to 1820 

William Requa 

1820 to 1821 

Nehemiah S. Bates 

1821 to 1829 

Nathaniel Bayles 

1829 to 1833 

John H. Smith . 

1833 to 1837 

Chauncey Smith 


1837 to 1839 

Charles A. Purdy 

1839 to 1843 

Munson I. Lockwood 

1843 to 1849 




Thomas Wheeler, under the Dutch, .... 1654 to 1664 

Resolve Waldron, High Sheriff of the North Riding, . 1664 to 1670 

Robert Coe, . " " ditto " " . . 1670 to 1671 

John Manning . " " ditto " " . . 1671 to 1672 

Benjamin Collier, High Sheriff of Westchester County, . 1688 to 1692 
Roger Barton ..... j . October 14, 1702 to 1706 

Nicholas Cooper 1733 to 1737 

Isaac Willet 1737 to 1766 

Lewis Graham 1766 to 1768 

John de Lancey 1768 to 1769 

James de Lancey, Jun., last of the Colonial, . . . 1769 to 1775 

John Thomas January 6, 1778 to 1780 

Jesse Hunt 1780 to 1781 

John Thomas 1781 to 1785 

Jesse Hunt 1785 to 1788 

Thomas Thomas 1788 to 1792 

Samuel Haight 1792 to 1796 

Elias Newman 1796 to 1799 

William Barker 1799 to 1806 

Daniel Delavan 1806 to 1807 

St. John Constant 1807 to 1810 

Elijah Ward 1810 to 1811 

St. John Constant 1811 to 1814 

Lyman Cook 1814 lo 1815 

Zabud June 1815 to 1818 

Lyman Cook 1818 to 1821 

Ward B. Howard 1821 to 1823 

John Townsend 1823 to 1826 

Alan McDonald 1826 to 1829 

David D. Webbers 1829 to 1832 

Aaron Brown 1832 to 1835 

Joseph 11. Anderson 1835 to 1838 

Amos T. Hatfield 1838 to 1841 

Joseph Lyon 1841 to 1844 

William H. Briggs 1814 to 1847 

James M. Bates 1847. 


John Bartow 
<yaleb Fowler 
Richard Hatfield 

1754 to 1761 
1761 to 1778 

1778 to 1787 



Philip Pell . 
Elias Newman . 
Samuel Young . 
Edward Thomas 
Samuel Young . 
Ezra Lockwood 
Henry White 
Samuel Young . 
Ebenezer White, Jun 
Jonathan Ward . 
Alexander H. Wells 
Frederick I. Coffin 
Lewis C. Piatt , 

1787 to 1796 
1796 to 1800 

1800 to 


1807 to 1808 

1808 to 1815 
March 16, 1815 to 1819 
July 8, 1819 to 1821 
Feb. 17, 1821 to 1823 

1823 to 1839 
1839 to 1844 
1844 to 1847 
1847 to 1852 

Deputies from Westchester County to the Provincial Congress, 
met at New York, May 23d, 1775. 

Gouverneur Morris • Philip van Cortlandt 

Lewis Graham James Holmes 

James van Cortlandt David Dayton 

Stephen Ward John Thomas, Jun. 

Joseph Drake Robert Graham 

William Paulding. 

Members of the New York Convention from Westchester 
County for deliberating on the adoption of the Constitution of 
the United States, assembled at Poughkeepsie, Jnne 17, 1788. 

Lewis Morris Philip van Cortlandt 

Philip Livingston ■••,.7-- Thaddeus Crane " ' 

Richard Hatfield Lolt W. Sarles. 

Delegates from Westchester County to the Convention met at 
Kingston, Ulster County, to frame the Constitution of the State 
of New York, April 20th, 1777. 

Pierre van Cortlandt 
Gouverneur Morris 
Gilbert Drake 
Lewis Graham 

Ebenezer Lockwood 

Zebediah Mills 
Jonathan Piatt 
Jonathan G. Tompkins. 

Delegates from Westchester County met in Convention for 


framing the late Constitution of the State of New York, Novem- 
ber lOth, 1S21. 

Peter A*. Jay, Peter Jay Munro, Jonathan Ward. 

Delegates from Westchester County met in Convention, for 
framing the present Constitution of the State of New York. 
John Hunter, «. Aaron Ward. 

A List of the Officers chosen in the several districts of the 
South Battalion of Westchester County, {except Westches- 
ter,) A. D. 1775. 


John Cock, Captain. John Warner, 2d Lieutenant. 

William Belts, 1st Lieutenant. Jacob Post, Ensign. 

New officers to be chosen for this company, no commission issued. 

Stephen Sneden, Captain. Daniel Sersing, 2d Lieutenant 

Thomas Pinckney, 1st Lieutenant. William Pinckney, Ensign. 

Commission issued, dated September 20. 

And Manor of Pelfiarn. 
Joseph Drake, Captain. James Willis, 1st Lieutenant. 

David Guion, 2d Lieutenant. 
Commission issued and dated 20th September. 


Upper Company. 
Abraham Ledew, Captain. John Belyea, 2d Lieutenant. 

Benjamin Brown, 1st Lieutenant. John Oakley, Ensign, (son of Isaac.) 

Commission issued September 2, delivered to Mr. Pauldino-. 


Tarrytown Company. 
Abraham Storms, Captain. Joseph Appleby, 2.1 Lieutenant. 

George Combs, Ist Lieutenant. Nathaniel Underbill, Ensign. 

Same date, delivered to Mr. Pauldinor. 



East Company. 
David Storms, Captain. Gilbert Dean, 2d Lieutenant. 

Benjamin Vermilyea, 1st Lieutenant. Gilbert Requaw, Ensign. 
Same date delivered to Mr. Paulding. 


Lower Company. 

Isaac Vermilyea, Captain. Isaac Honeywell, 1st Lieutenant. 

Dennis Lent, 2d Lieutenant. 
Dated September 20, delivered to Mr. Paulding. 


Except the Upper End of King Street. 
Robert Blomer, Captain. Ezekiel Halstead, 2d Lieutenant. 

Alexander Hunt, 1st Lieutenant. Daniel Horton, Ensign. 


And Brown''s Point. 
Joshua Hatfield, Captain. Anthony Miller, 2d Lieutenant. 

James Verrian, 1st Lieutenant. • . John Falconer, Ensign. , - 


And the Upper End of King Street. 
Henry Dusinberry, Captain. - Caleb Paulding, 2d Lieutenant. 

Lyon Mills, 1st Lieutenant. Gilbert Dusinberry, Ensign. 


East Company. - " 

Benoni Piatt, Captain. Abraham Knapp, 2d Lieutenant. 

David Hobby, 1st Lieutenant. Jonathan Guion, Ensign. 


South Company. 
Benjamin Ogden, Captain. Caleb Merritt, Jun., 2d Lieutenant. 

Jeremiah Hunter, 1st Lieutenant. James Brondige, Ensign. 

In Northcastle, North Company, there were not persons suf- 
ficient in number who had signed the association, to make offi- 
cers of; so that nothing was done. 



Eastern District. 

Lewis McDonald, Jun., Captain. Henry Lord, Sid Lieutenant. 

James Miller, 1st Lieutenant. Jesse Miller, Ensign. 


Western District. 

Eli Seely, Captain. Ephraim Raymond, 2d Lieutenant. 

Hezekiah Grey, 1st Lieutenant. Gabriel lliggins, Ensign. 

Joseph Lockwood, Captain. William Fansher, 2d Lieutenant. 

Noah Bouton, 1st Lieutenant. Gilbert Reynolds, Ensign. 


South District, 

Abijah Gilbert, Captain. Sands Raymond, 2d Lieutenant, 

Jacob Haight, 1st Lieutenant. Joseph Cooley, Ensign. 


Northern District. 

Thaddeus Crane, Captain. Ezekiel Hawley, 2d Lieutenant. 

Jesse Truesdale, 1st Lieutenant. Ebenezer Brown, Ensign. 

A List of the Officers chosen in the several districts of the 
North Battalion^ of Westchester County. 


The District late commanded by Francis Lent. 

James Kronkhyte, Captain. Staats Degrete, 2d Lieutenant. 

Abraham Lamb, 1st Lieutenant, David Penore, Ensign. 

The District late commanded by Bartow Underbill. 
Gilbert van Cortlandt, Captain. 

Daniel Haines, Ist Lieutenant ; signed the association the day he was chosen. 
James Teller, 2d Lieutenant. 
Hermanns Gardiner, Sen., Ensijjn. 


The District late commanded by Jeremiah Drake. 
Gilbert Lockwood, Captain. 

John Drake, 1st Lieutenant; signed the association the day he was chosen. . 
Joshua Drake, 2d Lieutenant ; the like. 
Peter Carman, Ensign ; the like. 

The District late commanded by Joseph Strang. 

John Hyatt, Captain. 
John Drake, 1st Lieutenant. 
Obadiah Purdy, 2d Lieutenant. 

Joseph Horton, Ensign ; signed the association the day he was elected. 
Commission issued, dated September 20. 

The District late commanded by Ebenezer Theall. 

Andrew Brown, Captain. John Crissey Miller, 2d Lieutenant. 

Samuel Haight, 1st Lieutenant. Solomon Purdy, Ensign. 

Commission issued, dated September 20. ' - ' 

The North Division of the District, late commanded by Levi 
Bailey. ' " , . 

Nathaniel Delavan, Captain, Titus Runnells, 2d Lieutenant. 

Thomas Nicliolls,Jun., 1st Lieutenant. Abraham Purdy, Ensign. 
Commission issued, dated September 20. 

The South Division of the same District. 

Gideon Selah, Captain. Caleb Hobby, 2d Lieutenant. i 

Samuel Lawrence, 1st Lieutenant. Abraham Todd, Ensign. 

The Company commanded by David Montross refused to 
choose officers. ^ . 

A List of Officers chosen in the several Districts of the North 
^ Battalion of Westchester County. 

Manor of Cortlandt, the District late commanded by Francis 
Lent. ■ V 

James Kronckhyte, Captain. Abram Lamb, 1st Lieutenant. ••> 

Staats Dregrete, 2d Lieutenant. David Penore, Ensign. 

Vol. L D 


The District late commanded by Bartow Underbill. 

Gilbert vaa Cortlandt, Captain. 

Dan. Hains, 1st Lieutenant ; signed the association the day he was chosen. 

James Teller, 2d Lieutenant. 

Hermanns Gardinear, sen'r, Ensign. 

The District late commanded by Jeremiah Drake. 

Gilbert Lockwood. Captain. 

John Drake, 1st Lieutenant ; signed the association the day he was chosen. 

Justus A. Drake, 2d Lieutenant ; the like 

Peter Carman, Ensign ; the like. 

The District late commanded by Joseph Strang. 

John Hyatt, Captain. 

John Drake, 1st Lieutenant ; commission issued dated Sept. 20. 

Obadiah Purdy, 2d Lieutenant. 

Joseph Horton, Ensign ; signed the association the day he was elected. 

The District late commanded by Ebenezer Theall. 

Andrew Brown, Captain. 

Samuel Haight, 1st Lieutenant. 

John Crissey Miller, 2d Lieutenant ; commission issued dated Sept. 20, 

Solomon Purdy, Ensio;n. 



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Intitled List of Field Officers for Westchester County^ Sept. 

12, 1775. 

(Endorsed on the back, "an old letter on Military Returns," Sec. Stat. Office, fol. 

26, 1775, page 13.) 

Commissions issued dated October 14, 1775. 


First Regiment. 
Joseph Drake, Colonel. 
James Hammond, Lieutenant. • * 

Moses Drake, 1st Major. 
Jonathan G. Graham, 2d Major. 
Abraham Emmons, Adjutant. 

- Theophilus Bartow, jun'r, Quarter Master, 
r - 

''■ / • Second Regiment. 

'. Thomas Thomas, Colonel. 

Gilbert Budd, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Ebenezer Lock wood, 1st Major. 

Thaddeus Crane, 2d Major. 

Jonathan G. Tompkins, Adjutant. - ... 

John Thomas, 2d Quarter Master. 

Third Regiment. 

' ' Pierre van Cortlandt, Colonel. 

' Gilbert Drake, Lieutenant-Colonel. - . " -' 

.Toseph Strang, 1st Major. ' ■ ] ■ 

Ebenezer Purdy, 2d Major. 
K John Cooley, Adjutant. 

Isaac Norton, Quarter Master. 


During the Revolution. 

John Pine, Michael Dyckman, 

John Odell, James Oakley, 

Abraham Dyckman, Frederick Martin Post, 

Isaac Odell. 


The " Westchester Herald," edited by Mr. Caleb Roscoe, published at 
Sing Sing. The " Westchester Spy," Mr. Manuel Noah, Editor, published 


at White Plains. The "Peekskill Republican," Messrs. Richards and 
Bronson, published at Peekskill. The " Hudson Rivfr Jhronicle," 
Mr. James B. Swain, Editor, published at Sing Sing. The " Eastern 
States Journal," Mr. Edmund G. Sutherland, Editor, published at White 
Plains ; and the " Star Spangled Banner," Mr. A. Hanford, Editor, pub- 
lished at New Rochelle. 


Established in Westchester County. 

Names of the Petitioners for Cortlandt Lodge, L O. of O. F., 
No. 55, located at Peekskill, Westchester County. 

John C. Hitchcock, James L. Seabury, 

Caleb H. Bosworth, James M. Spear. 

Charter granted by G. L. of N. Y., August 18, 184L 


Names of the Pelitioners.for Cryptic Lodge, L O. of O. P., No. 
75, located at Peekskill, Westchester County. 

Joseph L. Cook, 
Ephraim D. Fuller, 
C. W. Rogers, 
William Travis, 
W. Gorden, 

Charter granted November 2, 1842. 

James R. Ferris, 
James Summerbell, 
Isaac Hadden, 
John McCoord, 
E. D. Hinsdale. 

Names of the Petitioners for Westchester Lodge, L O. of 0. F., 
No. 77 J located at Tarrytown. 

Thomas Lindley, 
Jacob Storms, 
William G. Darley, 

Charter granted November 2, 1842. 

Caleb G. Wildey, 
Thomas Archard, 
Albert Lewis. 


Names of the Petitioners for Putnam Lodge, I. O. of O. F., 

No. 89, located at West Farms. 

Aaron E, Hovey, James H. Jessup, 

William Bayard, Robert L. Archibald, 

John P. Descaso. 

Charter granted June 15, 1843. •• ' ^ 

Instituted June 22d, 1843. . ; . 

V ■ - ■ ''^ 

Names of the Petitioners for Ossinsin Lodge, L O. of O. F. 
No. 97, located at Sing Sing. 

Edward van Wart, C. B. Blanchard, 

Charles Southvvorth, Benjamin Underwood, 

Jonathan Knapp, David J. Foster, 

William Campbell, . .' E. J. Sutherland. 
Charter granted November 1, 1843. - ■ 

Names of the Petitioners for Melancthon Lodge, I. O. of O. F., 
No. 163, located at Portchester. 

J. V. Wilson, . - C. G. Whiting, 

W. A. Todd, J. J. Dealls, " ' /. 

William Stivers. 

Charter granted June 16, 1845. 

Names of the Petitioners for Nepperhan Lodge^ I. O. of O. F., 
No. 181, located at Yonkers. 

Samuel W. Chambers, William Mann, 

James Borlane, - James Hughes, .. 

Horatio S. Gates, ' ' Peter Garrison, 

Ezra B. Keeler, ' William Henry Garrison, 

Alfred H. Hyatt, William P. Reviser, 

Matthias Warner. 

Charter granted September 30, 1845. 

Names of the Petitioners for Throgmorton Lodge, I. O. of O. 
F., located at Westchester. 



Timothy S. Gibbons, 
Titus H. Adee, 
Andrew Naudain, 
James A. Timpson, 
"William W. Waldron, 
Matson S. Arnow, 
Andrew Arnow, 

Charter granted June 24, 1846. 

George Granger, 
Alexander Tennent, 
William Bogie, 
Joseph Barllett, 
Isaac Poole, 
Morris E. Linn, 
John Mitchell. 

Presbyterian Church. Bedford. 






St. Matthew's Church, Bedford. 

The half shire town of the county forms in shape nearly a 
square, each of its sides being six miles in length. The name is 
probably derived from the town of the same title in Bedfordshire, 
England, from whence the early settlers came. The earlier ety- 
mology of its name in the Saxon language was Bedanpoxd.^- 

Among the Mohegan Indians Bedford formed a portion of tlie 
great territory of Rippowams, whicii extended eighteen miles 
north of Stamford on the Sound, also eiglit miles east and west 
of tlie same. 

It will be shown presently that the chief proprietors of Rippo- 

^ Camden's Brittania. 

Vol. 1. 


warns in 1640, were Ponus, sagamore of Toquams, and Wascus- 
sue. sagamore of Shippan. 

Cornelius van Tienhoven, (an early Dutch authority.) in de- 
scribing the bounds of the Indian territory of Wechquaesqueck, 
says, "tiiis land is situate between two rivulets called Sint Sinck 
and Armonck, lying between the East and North rivers."* The 
term Armonck (here alluded to,) is supposed to have been the 
original Indian appellation for the Byrani river, whose springs 
arise from the Comonck hills in this town, sometimes called Coha- 
mong ridge ;^ the last syllable onck or ong^ when taken in connec- 
tion with the rest of the word, denotes "the place or locality 
where shells are manufactured into wampum." From this we 
infer that the seawan (the specie currency of the natives,) was 
once manufactured in large quantities upon the banks of the 
Byram or Armonck. 

It may not be amiss to inform our readers that " Seawant or 
Seawan was one of the names for Indian money, called also 
Wampum, Wampum peague, and Peague, which consisted of 
herds formed of the shells of the Gluahaug,^ or wilk, a shell fish 
which was formerly very abundant on our coasts, but lately of 
more rare occurrence. It was of two colors, the black being held 
of twice the value of the white ; indeed the last was formed of an- 
other shell fish, called Meteauhock, or Periwinkle, also named 
Suckautock. The current value was six beads of the white or 
three of the black for an English penny. The first account we 
have of the English dealing in this currency was in 1627."<i 

A. D. 1650, the following act was passed by the Dutch council 
of the New Netherlands, in consequence of " the corruption of 
loose seawant, among which (here are current money that are not 
perforated, and half finished, and also made out of stone, bone, 
glass, muscle shells, horns, and some out of wood, and broken 
ones, whereby occasion is given for repeated complaints from the 

» O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. 211. 

b Rec. of to. Roads, Co. Clerk's office, page 1. 

t The round clam (venus mercenaria, Lin.) " called Quehog, by the Mohegans- 
From the internal purple part of this shell fish, the colored beads of the aborigines 
were manufactured." Nat. Ilist. of N. Y. part 1, Moluscte, 217, 18. 

d Alb. Rec Notes of translator. 


inhabitants that they cannot go with such seawant to the market ; 
therefore no loose seawant shall be current, nor be a lawful tender 
except that the same shall be strung. Comniercial seawant to 
consist of six white or three black seawants for one stuyver ; the 
base strung seawant shall pass eight while or four black for one 

III 1658, it was reduced from six tp eight of the white, and from 
three to four of ihe black, for a stuyver. In IG63, seawan had 
got into much disrepute, and was finally discontinued in 1682. 

Sometime subsequent to the sale of 1640, the whole township 
of Bedford was emphaiically styled by the early planters Catonah's 
land, after the Indian chief and proprietor of that name ; hence 
we deduce the origin of the present local term Cantiloe, which 
yet survives in the northern part of the town, the termination oe 
denoting the place of that sachem's residence. 

Catonah must have assumed the supremacy over these lands 
about 1680, for his first conveyance to the proprietors of the Hop 
grounds bears date 23d December of that year. He appears to 
have been living in 1703. What connection (or if any) existed 
between Catonah and his predecessor Penaghag, (the grandson of 
Ponus,) it is impossible to determine at this distant period. 

In the vicinity of Bedford both Visschers and Vander Donck 
in their maps of the New Netherlands, locate the Indian village of 
Nanichiestawack, while further south was situated that of Be- 

A bold eminence lying to the north of Bedford village, still re- 
tains the aboriginal name of Aspetong. Two roads in the west- 
ern part of the town traverse the Indian paths of Potiticus and 
Suckebonk, while Muscoota path runs near the northern line. 
The summit of the high mountain ridge east of Bedford continues 
to be called the ^'' Indian farm" There is a tradition current 
in the neighborhood, that the south side of this mountain, some- 
times denominated Stony hill, was the scene of a bloody fight 
between the early settlers and the aborisfines. Mrs. Martha 
Holmes an aged inhabitant of Bedford, (still living,) remembers 

"^ Dutch Trans. Rec. City Clerk's office, N. Y. p. 30, 31. . ; 



in 1765, to have seen several Indian mounds at the foot of this hill, 
(a little south of the old school house,) which were pointed out 
to her as the graves of those who fell in the conflict. This may 
have been the battle fought between the Dutch and Indians in 
Feb. 1644, an account of which is recorded in the journal of the 
New Netherlands. JNIr. O'Callaghan thus details the action in his 
history of the N. N. : " On his return from Heemstede, Capt. Un- 
derbill was ordered to Stamford, to obtain particulars of the where- 
abouts of the savages. He brought word back, that they were en- 
camped some five hundred strong in that direction, and that the 
old guide urged the forwarding a body of troops immediately 
thither, as he was desirous, on the one hand, to prove that the for- 
mer ill success of the Dutch was not his fault ; on the other hand 
anxious for protection, as his life was in constant danger. 

"One handrcd and thirty men embarked accordingly, under 
Capt. Underbill and Ensign Van Dyck, in three yachts, and 
landed the same evening at Greenwich. But a severe snow storm 
having set in, detained them at that settlement the whole of the 
night. The weather, however, moderated towards morning, when 
the party set forward and arrived soon after, at the foot of a rocky 
mountain,^ over which some of the men had to crawl, with con- 
siderable difriculty, on their hands and feet. The evening, about 
eight o'clock, brought them to within a few miles of the enemy. 
Their further progress was, however, now impeded by two riv- 
ers, one of which was some two hundred feet wide, and three in 
depth. It was considered best to remain here awhile, in order to 
refresh the men and to make arrangements for the coming attack. 
After a rest of a couple of hours, the party again set forward at 
ten o'clock. It was full moon, and the night so clear — 'a win- 
ter's day could not be brighter,' — that the Indian village was soon 
discovered at a distance. It consisted of three rows of houses or 
huts, ranged in streets, each eighty paces long, and backed by a 
mountain which sheltered it from the nprth-west wind. 

"But the Indians were as much on the alert as their enemy. 
They soon discovered the Dutch troops, who charged forthwith, 
surrounding the camp, sword in hand. The Indians evinced on 

* Supposed Stony hills, a mountainous ridge north of Bedford. 


this occasion, considerable boldness, and made a rush once or 
twice, to break the Dutch line, and open some way for escape. 
But in this they failed, leaving one dead and twelve prisoners, in 
the hands of the assailants, who now kept up such a brisk fire, 
that it was impossible for any of tlie besieged to escape. After a 
desperate conflict of an hour, one hundred and eighty Indians 
lay dead on the snow outside their dwellings. Not one of the 
survivors durst now show his face. They remained under cover, 
discharging their arrows from behind, to the great annoyance of 
t?ie Dutch troops. Underbill now seeing no other way to over- 
come the obstinate resistance of the foe, gave orders to fire their 
huts. This order was forthwith obeyed ; the wretched inmates, 
endeavoring in every way, to escape from the horrid flames, but 
mostly without success. The moment they made their appear- 
ance, they rushed or were driven precipitately back into their 
burning hovels, ' preferring to be consumed by fire than to fall 
by our weapons.' 

"In this merciless manner were butchered, as some of the In- 
dians afterwards reported, five hundred human beings. Others 
carry the number to seven hundred ; 'the Lord having collected 
the most of onr enemies there, to celebrate some peculiar festival.' 

" Of the whole party, no more than eight men escaped this ter- 
rible slaughter by fire and sword. Three of these were badly 
wounded. Throughout the entire carnage, not one of the suffer- 
ers — -man, woman or child, was heard to utter shriek or moan. 

" This expedition having been thus crowned with complete suc- 
cess, the wounded, fifteen in number, Vv^ere attended to, and sen- 
tinels posted to prevent surprise. Large fires were then kindled, 
as the weather was still excessively cold, and the conquerors bivou- 
acked during the remainder of the night, on the field of battle. 
They set out next morning on their return in good order, ' march- 
ing with great courage over that harrassing mountain, the Lord 
enduing the w^ounded with extraordinary strength,' and arrived at 
Stamford at noon, after a march of two days and one night, during 
which they had little repose and less comfort. The English re- 
ceived the soldiers with friendly hospitality, proffering them every 
possible kindness. Two days afterwards the detachment arrived at 
Fort Amsterdam, where a public thanks-giving was ordered for 


the brilliant success which attended the New Nelherland arms.* 

" The late punishment (continues the same authority,) inflicted 
upon these Indians, and the approach of spring, made them desirous 
of peace, and they therefore solicited the inter7ention of Capt. 
Underhill to procure a cessation of hostilities. 

"JMamaranack, chief of the Indians residing on the Kicktawanc, 
or Croton River, Mongockonone, Pappenoharrow from the 
^Veckquaesqueecks and Nochpeem, and the Wappings from Stam- 
ford, presented themselves in a few days (April 6, 1(344,) at Fort 
Amsterdam, and having pledged themselves that they should not, 
henceforth, commit any injury whatever on the inhabitants of 
New Netherland, their cattle and houses, nor show themselves, 
except in a canoe, before Fort Amsterdam, should the Dutch be 
at war with any of the Manhattan tribes, and having further pro- 
mised to deliver up Pacham, the chief of the Tankitekes, peace 
was concUided between them and the Dutch, who promised on 
their part, not to molest them in any way, but to allow them to 
cultivate their fields in peace ; and as a guarantee of their sincerity, 
surrendered several of their prisoners.''^* 

Upi)n the 1st of July, 1640, Nathan Turner, in behalfof the peo- 
ple of Qninipiacke, (New Haven,) " bought of Ponus, sagamore 
of Toquams, and of Wascnssue, sagamore of Shippam, (the other 
Indians consenting thereto,) all the ground belonging to the said 
sagamores, except a piece of ground which Ponus reserved for 
himself and the other Indians to plant upon." This purchase em- 
braced all the land sixteen miles north of the Sound. The In- 
dian name of the tract was Rippo warns. ^ 

'•'The consideration was twelve coats, twelve hoes, twelve 
hatchets, twelve glasses, twelve knives, two kettles, and five 
fathoms of white wampum." The liberty of liunting and fishing 
on the land, was reserved by the Indians. ^^ The above sale was 
confirmed to the inhabitants of Stamford, on the 10th of August, 
1655, by Ponus, and Onox his eldest son : "extending sixteen 

* Journal Van N. N. 

b O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 300, 1, 2, 3. 

c On thf^ 30th of Oct. 1640, Mr. Andrew Ward and Mr. Robert Coe, on behalfof 
tliemselves and twenty other planters, purchased Puppowanns of New Haven, for 
X33 sterling. Lambert's History of New Haven, 176, 

d Lambert's Hii^tory of New Haven. 


miles north of the town plot of Stamford, and two miles still fur- 
ther north for the pasture of their cattle ; also eight miles east and 
west, (the same as paid for before ;) and as a further recompense, 
four coats of English cloth was given them.''^ This grant com- 
prised nearly tLie whole township of Bedford. 

The next purchase was made of the Indians on the 23d day of 
December, 16S0: 

" Witness these presents, that we whose names ave underwritten, nannely : 
Katonah, Stockahwac. Segotah, Jovis, Tohmacogyah, Yannayo, Kakenoud, 
we do for ourselves, our heirs and executors, administrators and assignees, and 
for and in the behalf of all other proprietors of ye lands, commonly called ye 
hopp grounds : we say we do hereby sell, alienate, assign and set over, from 
these our heirs, executors, administrators and assignees, a certain parcel of up- 
lands and meadows, commonly called and known by ye name of ye hopp 
grounds, which land begins at ye north end of Stamford bounds, as it is al- 
ready bounded with marked trees, only the west line to be extended southward 
until it shall meet with its south-west line, drawn from three marked white 
oaks, standing, and very near together, at south-west corner of ye said land, 
and ye above named, do hereby sell, alienate and assign, and set over from us 
and ours ye land above described with ye rights and privileges thereunto belong- 
ing, forever unto Richard Ambler, Abraham Ambler, Joseph Cheoles, Daniel 
Weed, John W^escot, Jonathan Petit, John Crosse, John Miller, Nicholas 
Webster, Richard Ayres, William Clarke, James Seely, Joseph Stephens, 
Daniel Jones, Thomas Yomoyou and Benjamin Stephens, from their heirs, 
executors, administrators and assignees forever, quietly to possess and enjoy, 
without molestation by us or ours, or by any by our means or procurements ; 
moreover, we the above named Katonah, Rockaway, Segotah, Jovis, Tohona- 
cogyah, Yannayo, Kakenard, do herein and hereby grant, sell and give, free 
liberty of timber and herbage, for their creatures, upon our adjacent lands for- 
ever, and free liberty of timber, and do hereby acknowledge to have received 
full satisfaction for ye land abovesaid, in witness of truth we have caused this 
bill of sale to be made, and hereunto set our hands and seals, the day and dale 
above written, Dec. 1680. Signed, sealed and delivered, in ye presence of us, 

Joshua Knap, David Waterbury.^ 

Katonah ><^ his marke. 

RocKAHWAY tsj his markc. 

Segotah t^ his marke. 

Jovis \x his marke. 

CoHMACOYYoH ci his marke. 

Yannape O* his marke. 

Kakenoud t> his marke. 

'^ Lambert's Hist, of New Haven. 

b Original document in possession of the Hon. W. Jay, Bedford. 


The same year there appear to have been no less than twenty- 
two proprietors of the Hop grounds, and from the town records 
we learn that £43 10s 6d, had been paid for its purchase. 

Upon the 1 1th of October, 16S1, the proprietors of the Hop 
ground agreed that no one might be admitted as an inhabitant, 
nor should have power to sell or exchange the land that might 
be allotted to him, nor should he have any voice in disposing of 
lands, but that any inhabitant on paying forty shillings should 
have an equal share with the proprietors in all the undivided 

At a court of election holden in Hartford, May 11th, 1682, the 
following license was granted to the people of the Hop ground. 

" Upon the petition of the people of the Hop ground, this court 
doth grant them the privilege of a plantation and do order that the 
name of the town be henceforth called Bedford, and this court 
doe appoint Joseph Theall to be the present chief military officer 
for the train band of Bedford, and Abraham Ambler is also em- 
powered by this court to grant warrants to swear officers and wit- 
nesses, and to joyne persons in marriage according to law, and 
they doe free the sayd towne of Bedford from county rates, for 
the space of three years next ensuing.^ 

May the 2d, 1683, Catonah sagamore, and Papiaghis son, Tan- 
daquid, Q,ueraway and Chickhaag sold to the proprietors of Bed- 
ford tlieland and meadow of Cohamong (Armonck) commonly so 
called — " which said land and meadow lyeth to the south west, 
going to the bounds of Bedford.''^ 

By the settlement of the colonial boundaries, November, 1664, 
Bedford fell within the jurisdiction of Connecticut, the line be- 
tween the two colonies commencing from the east point of 
Mamaroneck River, where the fresh water falls into the salt at high 
water mark, north north west to the line of Massachusetts. On 
the ground that this decision was erroneous, a farther agreement 
was concluded at New York, 28th of October, 1683, between the 
governor of Connecticut and certain persons appointed to act with 
him, by which it was stipulated that the line between New York 
and Connecticut should begin at Byram River, at the east point, 

■ Connecticut Col. Rec. Hartford, volume iii. folio 131, 134. 
b Town Rec. 


called Lyon's Point, and so np along the said river to the country- 
road, thence north west 8 miles from Lyon's point, and then twelve 
miles east north east, and then in a line parallel to the North River, 
and twenty miles distant therefrom, to the south line of Massa- 
chusetts. The whole matter heing left subject to the king's ratifi- 
cation. By this settlement Bedford would have been transferred 
to New York ; but the king's death unfortunately took place on 
the 6th of February, 1684, before its completion, in consequence 
of which the whole matter was again left open for a long and 
angry discussion which soon ensued. 

In 1685 the general court of Connecticut issued an order to the 
effect, that all towns should take out patents in due form, and that 
the same should be legal evidence of their rights. Before the 28th 
of January, 1688, the town ordered that as much money should be 
raised as may be necessary to pay for a patent. 

It v/ill be seen, however, tliat the patent was not granted un- 
til May, 1697. The names of the inhabitants including the re- 
sident proprietors of Bedford in 1690, numbered thirty-one. 
Their names are as follows : 

John Green, 
Joseph Miller, 
John Holmes, 
John Miller, 
Mrs. Wildman,, 
M. Denham, 
Zachariah Roberts, 
John Webb, 
Stephen Clason, 
Stephen Holmes, 

William Clark, 
John Holmes, sen., 
Richard Ayres, 
John Holmes, jun., 
Abraham Wildman, 
Isaac Denham, 
Jeremiah Andrews, 
Richard Wescote, 
Daniel Simpkins, 
William Clark, 

John Brown, 

John Miller, jun., 
Jonathan Miller, 
John Ambler, 
David Mead, 
Daniel Jones, 
Caleb Webb, 
Thomas Asten, 
David Clason, 
John Higgins, 

Abraham Ambler. 

Upon the 25th May, 1692, Catonah, Noname, Wappowaham, Wevvewana- 
poage, Chuckheag and Pommescecan, sell to Daniel Simpkins of Bedford, a 
certain piece of land lying west of the bounds of Bedford, that is to say, half 
a mile square, as it is already marked and laid out by the Indians, and boun- 
ded as followeth, viz. east by the bounds of Bedford , and south by a brook run- 
ning off from the west ridges, and west and north as it is marked by the above- 
said proprietors.^ 
Witnessed and delivered in the presence Catonah X his mark. 

of us, Stephen Holmes Wappowham Ix his mark. 

Vol. I. 

* Town Ilea. 



and John Brown. Pummesecham 5,5 his mark. 

Chickheag '^ NoNAME O* his mark. 

February 10th, 1695, the town ordered that the rates shall be 

issued according to the following valuations,* viz. 

Each head or person . . . £12 

"Ox, 4 

'' Cow, .... 300 

" Horse, . . . . 2 

All improved lands, . . . 15 

All improved meadow with fence, . 10 

In March, 1695-6, we find Governor Fletcher of New York, 
writing to Governor Treat concerning sundry persons in Rye and 
Bedford who desired to have their land titles confirmed. ^ 

At a meeting of ye governor and council, held at Hartford, 
January 19th, 1696, protection was granted to the towns of Rye 
and Bedford, as members of their corporation ; and on the 10th 
of May following, Daniel Simpkins was appointed ensign for the 
latter town. January 2lst, 1696-7, Rye and Bedford applied to 
be united to Connecticut, upon which that colony concluded to 
receive ihem.'^ 

In a letter from Governor Fletcher, to the authorities of Con- 
necticut, dated April 5th5 1697, the former complains about the 
latter's receiving Rye and Bedford, and thus withdrawing them 
from the obedience of New York.^ 

To compel the refractory towns into obedience, Governor 
Fletcher issued a proclamation upon April 15ih, 1697, in which 
he required Rye and Bedford to return to their allegiance. « 

April 19th, 1697, Governor Fletcher states that Major Sellick 
had interfered in favor of Connecticut, with fifty armed men.f 

In reply 30th of April, 1697, Connecticut disclaims the use of 
violent measures, and refers the whole matter to the King.g 

Governor Fletcher and counsel, in answer to Connecticut, May 
10th, 1697, entitles the reasons of the latter subterfugeesj and 
complains of her making a disturbance in time of war. In con- 

a Town Rec. b Boundary letters, Hartford, fol. 10, letter 137. 

c Bound, letters, fol. 10, p. 138. d Bound, letters, 140. 

• Bound. letterF, 141. f Bound, letters, 141-2. 
r Bound, letters, No. 144. 


elusion, Connecticut may rest assured that New York will use all 
lawful means to reduce these people to obedience.^- 

Upon the 1st of May, 1697, the town petitioned for a patent, 
embracing ten miles in length, from the north end of Stamford 
bounds to ten miles northward into the woods, and eight miles 
wide. The patent (which bears the Connecticut seal,) was taken 
out May 13th, 1697. From the town records, it appears that Zac- 
hariah Roberts, was allowed by the town, three shilhngs aday, and 
half his expenses, and the town further ordered that every man 
should pay him two pounds of flax for his expenses in going to 
Connecticut about the said patent. 

In answer to Governor Fletcher's letter of May the 10th, the 
Governor and general assembly of Connecticut reply May 19th, 
1697, that they consider the arguments of New York weak and un- 
satisfactory, and are therefore, determined to protect these people. ^ 

May the 31st, 1697, CTOvernor Fletcher and council find just 
fault with Connecticut for using " such a stile," and assert that 
Connecticut gave up these towns by arrangement, in 1683, and 
made no claim to them for twelve years or more, New York is 
therefore determined to pursue her duty.<^ 

Upon the accession of Lord Bellamont to the government of 
New York, April, 1698, we find Connecticut sending a delega- 
tion to congratulate him. In a letter dated May 6th, Lord Bella- 
mont expresses his thanks and good will towards Connecticut, 
and encloses a letter from the Lords Commissioners of Trade, in 
regard to Rye and Bedford ; he also denies their reasons for coun- 
tenancing those towns in their revolt. ^ 

In reply, May, 1698, the deputy governor and assistants ex- 
press the kindest and most friendly feelings towards his excellen- 
cy, but cannot answer concerning Rye and Bedford until Gov- 
ernor Winthrop's return. ^ 

Upon the 29th of March, 1700, King William the third gave his 
approbation and confirmation to the agreement and survey of 1683 
and 1684, whereby Rye and Bedford were included in New York.f 

a Bound letters, No. 145. b Bound. leiters, No 146. 

c Bound, letters, No 147. d Bound, l.'tters, No.l48. 

« Bound, letter.^, No. 149. f Bound, letiers, fol. XL, letters 4S-9. 


On the 10th of October, 1700, the general court of Connecti- 
cut released Bedford from all allegiance. 

October, 1713, Connecticut appointed certain commissioners to 
meet those of New York in fixing the line. A final agreement 
and conclusion took place between the commissioners at Dover, 
in Dutchess Co., May the 14th, 1731, a by which Bedford and 
Rye were forever hereafter included in ye province of New York. 

The followins: grant and conformation under the hand of Kito- 
nah, occurs on the 24th of July, 1700. 

'' Kotonah Sagamore and chief proprietor of ye land about Bedford, hav- 
ing formerly sold unto the inhabitants of the town of Bedford, a certain 
tract of meadow land and upland northerly from the town and joining to their 
first purchase, which tract of land is bounded by a small brook east, which runs 
north on the west side of Potiticus falls, and west by Beaver Dam River, 
northerly by the Cross River, and southerly by Bedford's land. This above 
named tract of land (of Cotonah) Cotonah have sold from me and mine or any 
Indian or Indians laying claim thereunto, to the inhabitants of Bedford, for a 
valuable consideration in hand, already received to my full satisfaction, &c., 

Signed sealed and delivered Katonah ><1 his mark. 

in presence of us, Toyebeakup Ix his mark. 

Benjamin Hart Rurahquosh ^ his mark. 

and Abraham Finch." 

On the 13th of March, 1703, the town sold to John Johns- 
ton one hundred acres of land for £56, and some months after 
Crosses vineyard for £8. At a town meeting held in Bedford Oct, 
4th, 1701, 

" The town by a major vote, doth order the committee to proceed with ye 
Indians about purchasing ye lands westward of ye old purchase, and now 
marked the old purchase, formerly bought of the Indians, November 3d, 1701. 
The town doth also agree that ye land westward of the first purchase, shall be 
paid by heads ; and every head that payeth the Indians for it shall have every 
one of them an equal share, according to what they pay. At the same time a 
committee is chosen by vote, consisting of Zacariah Robertson, John Holmes, 
jun,, and Jonathan Petit, to see ye Indians satisfied for ye land formerly 
bought of them, which is west of the first purchase." 

Upon the 4th of February, 1702, the town of Bedford sold to 

» Bound, letter?, fol. XI., letter 136 


John Dibble, Crosses vineyard purchase for £18 ; on the 16th of 
March (1702,) John Dibble agrees to sell lUO acres of the same 
to Jacobus Van Courlland, 6cc. 

By a grant dated April 20, 1702, Katonah and Wackemane 
convey to the inhabitants of Bedford all that tract of land within 
the following bounds, viz : 

*' To begin where Beaver dam river and Cross River meet and so to run on 
the north west side of a brook called miry brook, and then to run across the 
hills westerly on the west side of Cisqua meadows until it meets the river call- 
ed Cisqua River, and a great swamp, and so to run up the brook and by mark- 
ed trees to the north end of Byram pond, and so to the north end of Cohamong 
pond, and then to a great red oak tree formerly marked by the Indians for Bed- 
ford southermost bounds which stands on the west side of the west turn of 
Meanau's River, and this above said land, we Katonah and Wackemane do sell 
for us our heirs, &c., to the inhabitants of Bedford, 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of Katonah s] his mark, 

Zachariah Roberts and John Holmes, Wackemane }x} his mark, 

Cararoea o his mark, Arattom H his mark, 
Mangakom p his mark, Simon ^ his mark, 

Upon the 4th of January 1703-4, Ketonah Sagamore and Wackemane, chief 
proprietors of the lands about Bedford, have sold, and by these presents doe 
sell &c., unto John Dibble of Bedford, in the county of Westchester, &c. a 
certain tract of upland and meadow, &c. all within ye bounds hereafter named 
and bounded by marked trees, from one branch of Beaver dam River southward 
of Stone hills, then to rise westward of Stone hills, northward by ye marked 
trees until it meets with a brook coming out of Stone hills, and so to be bounded 
by ye said brook until it meets the Cross River, and bounded by the said Cross 
River until it meets a small brook, and then bounded westward by Bedford's 
cross vineyard purchase, and then bounded by Bedford's first purchase, south- 
erly and eastwardly until it meets ye aforesaid branch, which' tract of land 
thus bounded we Catonah and Wackemane for us our heirs, &c,, have sold to 
the above said John Dibble, &c,'* 

Caroroca n his mark, Catonah ><| his mark, [l. s.] 

MoNAQui >H his mark, Wackemane p^ his mark, [l. s.] 
Simon ^ his mark, Mangocken 72 his mark, [l. s.] 

The same year we find John Dibble and wife, conveying to 
Jacobus Van Conrtland, 700 acres of land lying in Bedford, called 
the vineyard purchase, besides a certain parcel of meadow and 

o The original documents in possession of the Hon, William Jay. . . 


upland in ye bounds of said Bedford, first purchased, with marked 
trees northerly, eastwardly by a small brook which runneth into 
Cross River, and northerly by the Cross River, containing about 
400 acres. 

Upon the 5th of Ma)', 1703, Catonah Sagamore and Wackemane, for them- 
selves and in behalf of any other Indians concerned, sell to Zachariah Robert- 
son of Bedford, all that land between Bedford bounds and Muscotah River 
which lyeth between Cisqua River and ye Cross River, for the several particu- 
lars hereinafter named. 

This is ye truth of ye bargain test. Zacariah Robertson. 

10 pieces of eight which is paid, 
6 shirts, 
4 dozen coats, 
2 blankets, 

1 broad cloath coat, 
4 hatchets, 

4 lbs of powder, 

2 gallons of rum. 

The last Indian deed for lands in Bedford bears date, July 24th, 

Wherein Catonah and Wackemane sell to Jacobus Van Courtland of the 
city of New York, and Zacariah Robertson, a certain tract of upland meadow 
and swamp, all within ye bounds hereat'ter named, that is to say to begin where 
Beaver dam River and ye Cross River meets, and so to run westvvardly by 
Bedfords marked trees until it comes to a black oak tree marked upon a high 
hill, and then to run west to Muscotah River, and then to keep the south side 
of Muscotah River, until it meets ye Cross River, and to keep the said Cross 
River until it meets ye aforesaid Beaver dam River, &c. 
Signed sealed anH delivered in presence Catonah 3 his mark, 

of us, Nathan Clark, Joseph Hunt, Wackemane q his mark, 

Hezekiah Roberts. Mequacom ^ his mark, 

NoAPAPiN |x his mark, Cacoporo p5 his mark, 

Mashato 14 his mark, Mamtero 01 his mark, 

Amboock<1 his mark, 

By a patent issued on the 8th day of April, 1704, Glueen Anne 
confirmed the inhabitants of Bedford in all their legal rights. 

"Whereas the general court of Connecticut on the 13th day of May in ye 
year of our Lord Christ, 1697, hath granted unto the proprietors, inhabitants 
of the town of Bedford, then within that colony, all those lands, &c., in their 
abutments, viz : southerly on ye bounds of the township of Stamford, west* 


wardly by ye wilderness, north on ye wilderness, and eastwardly on ye wilder- 
ness or land not laid out, every of which sides is six miles in length, whinh said 
lands have been by purchase or otherwise lawfully obtayned of the native Indian 
proprietors thereof &c., and the governor and company of the said colony as- 
sembled in general council by virtue of their charter afterwards to wit, ye 21st 
day of May, in the ninth year of King William, did give, grant, ratify and con- 
firm &c. unto John Miller, sen., Daniel Simpkins, Zacariah Roberts, Samuel 
Seely, Jeremiah Andrews, John Wescoate, John Miller, jun., and John Holmes, 
jun., and the rest &c. The aforesaid parcel of land six miles square the privi- 
leges of being one entire township by patent. 

We have given, granted, &c. to our loving subjects, Zacariah Roberts, sen., 
John Holmes, sen., Cornelius Seely, sen., Zacariah Roberts, jun., Cornelius 
Seely, jun., John Miller, jun., Jonathan Miller, John Holmes, jun., David 
Miller, Richard Holmes, Jonathan Holmes, David Holmes, Capt. Peter 
Mathews, Col. Jacobus Van Courtland, Obadiah Seely, Stephen Claeson, John 
Westcoate, jun., Richard Westcoate, Nathan Clarke, Joseph Hunt, Richard 
Ay res, Jeremiah Andrews, Joseph Palmer, David Meade, John Dibble, Daniel 
Jones, John Clapp, Thomas Hovi'ard and Vincent Simpkins, their heirs the 
said tract of 23,000 acres called ye town of Bedford, &c. Witness our right 
trusty and right well beloved cousin, Edward Vicount Cornbury, Captain Gene- 
ral and Governor in chief of our province of New York and New Jersey, and ye 
territories and tracts of land depending on them in America, Admiral of the 
same, &c., in council at Fort Anne, New York, the 8th day of April, in the 
third year of our reign A. D. 1704.^ 

In the sprit]g of 1714 a rate was levied on ye proprietors of ye 
township of Bedford, in proportion to their several properties 
therein, for ye raising ye sum of £50 for ye discharging of her 
majesties dues of quit rent for ten years. 

The proportion of Col. Jacobus Yan Cortland for 
2565 acres in ye north west corner of ye patent lands 

was £6 08 06 

For his vineyard purchase, 607 acres . . . 1 10 05 
For his right in Dibble's purchase, 762 acres . 1 18 00 

For his right in ye new purchase. . . . 2 13 04 
The following document is extracted from a manuscript vol- 
ume entitled " the receipt book of the quit rents of Bedford, paid 
from 1714 to 1767." 

" Received of Mr. Jonathan Miller and Joseph Seely the sum of fifty pounds, 
proclamation money, being in full for ten years quit rent for the town of Bed- 

a Albany Book of Pat. No. vii. 271. 


ford, to the Hoih of March last, witness my hand this 1st day of May, A. D. 
jCoO procl. money. T. Bverly, Coll. 

Upon the 12th of October, 1705, John Dibble,^ by a bill of sale 
conveyed all his right, title and interest in the town of Bedford to 
Jacobns Van Cortland ; the latter individual subsequently became 
invested in the rights of Jonathan Miller on the 15lh of October, 
1713, and Zacariah Roberts on the 13th of October, 1717. 

Upon the 23d of June, 1736, '' the land to the north of Cross 
River was divided by lot among the twenty nine proprietors of 
Bedford." ' 

On the 10th of April, 1738, Jacobus Van Cortland devised ''all 
his tenements and hereditaments situated within the patent and 
township of Bedford to his son Frederick Yan Cortland of Yonkers 
and his three daughters ; Margaret, wife of Abraham Depeyster ; 
Anne, wife of John Chambers ; and Mary, wife of Peter Jay, the 
parties giving mutual leases and releases to one another."<^ 

Frederick Van Cortland one of the above devisees obtained a re- 
lease from the following freeholders of Bedford on the 21st of 
September, 1741. 

Hezekiah Roberts, John Holmes, Daniel Holly, 

John Miller, Jonathan Westcoat, Nathan Clark, 

Joseph Seely, Richard Westcoat, Moses Fountain, 

Jonathan Holmes, Daniel Miller, John Miller, 

^acariah Mills, Richard Holmes, Samuel Miller, 

Jonathan Seely, Daniel Haight, Samuel Barras, 

Ebenezer Holmes, Philip Ayres, Ebenezer Owen, 

Jonathan Miller, Vincent Simpkins. 

From an original map drawn up by Samuel Purdy, surveyor, 
it appears that a partition of Jacobus Van Cortlandt's estate took 
place in 1743. To Frederick Van Cortlandt, was allotted 1424 
acres, to Abraham De Peyster 1110 acres, to John Chambers 1282 
acres, and to Peter Jay 1299 acres. 

a The original in possession of William Jay of Bedford. 

^ The ancestor of John was Thomas Dibble a freeman of Dorchester, Massachu- 
setts, who removed to Windsor, Conn, 
c Co. Lib. G. foho 298. 



Upon the death of Peter Jay, Esq. in 1782, his share fell to 
three sons, Peter, Frederick, and John. The latter was subse- 
quently invested with a laro^e portion of the original allotment. 

By the decease of the Honorable John Jay in 1S29, his son 
William Jay, Esq. became the sole proprietor of tlie Bedford es- 
tate. Mr. Jay therefore, is the only descendant of Jacobus Van 
Cortlandt, that owns a foot of the original patent in the town of 
Bedford. Abraham De Peyster sold to various individuals. The 
descendants of the ancient proprietors of the Hop grounds (resident 
in Bedford) are still very numerous, viz : the Green's, Miller's, 
Holme's, Robert's, x\mbler's, Clark's, Ayre's, Westcoat's, Simp- 
kin's, Mead's, Webb's, Clason's and Higgin's. 

The village of Bedford is delightfully situated a little north of 
the Mehanas River, in a large and fertile vale almost environed by 
high hills. The surrounding country, is well wooded, and water- 
ed by several streams tributary to the Croton. The principal of 
these are the Pepemighting misnamed the Kisco, the Cisqua or 
Beaver dam, and the Peppeneghek or Cross River. Bedford beino- 
a half shire town with White Plains, (which is located sixteen 
miles south.) The courts are held alternately at both places. 

Court House, Bedford. 

As early as 16S0, the proprietors of the Hop ground (then re- 
siding at Stamford,) appointed a committee " for the purpose of 
Vol. I. 3 


laying out a town spot, and house lots, the latter to consist at 
least of three acres each, also a town common field or park, was 
directed to be laid out." At this period the Hop ground formed 
a part of Stiimford township within f^'airfield county, and was 
therefore under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. In 1681 the 
general court of that colony ordered the laying out of a plantation 
at the Hop ground. 

On the 11th of October, 1681, the proprietors of the Hop 
ground appointed a committee to lay out and divide the residue of 
the land at the Hop ground. It was also agreed to receive eleven 
inhabitants in order to form a town, and a committee appointed 
to go and view the land for the purpose of laying out a cart way 
to the Hop ground. 

'^ Upon the 11th of May, 1682, the general court ordered that 
the name of the town be henceforth called Bedford.'''' 

The town records, preserved in the clerk's oflice, contain the 
following items, which, from their curiosity we insert: — January 
14ih, 1682, a committee was appointed to take measures for build- 
ing a grist mill for ihe town." July, 1682, at the first town meet- 
ing held in Bedford it was voted that any person having a right 
in land and not building a house by the last of next May, or who 
should build a house and not inhabit it for three years, should 
forfeit his right to the town. 

January 29th, 1688. The town by vote doth order, that every 
one here present at the town meeting shall have a piece of 
land consisting of four acres added to the former dividend, for 
their faithfulness in attending town meetings. Seventeen were 
present on this occasion. On the 9ih of January, 1699, the town 
agreed to give six acres of land for a grind stone. November 
17ih, 1701, the town bought a mill for £15. The present village 
contains a court house and prison, two churches, an academy, 
two taverns, three stores, forty dwellings, and about two hun- 
dred and fifty inhabitants ; it is fourteen miles from Sing Sing, 
and sixteen from Tiirrytown, on the Hudson, forty-four from 
New York, and twelve from Greenwich in Connecticut, on the 
sound. Near the western border of the town is situated the Bed- 
ford railroad station. The Bedford academy has been in sue- 



cessfiil operation for several years ; its present principal is Mr. 
Odell Close. Besides the above institntion, there are eighteen 
school districts. The old parish grave yard lying on a declivi- 
ty near the Methodist meeting house, contains many curious 

The Sacred 

Decea to the memory of 

sed Col. Lewis McDonald Esq. 

Thomas and Sarah his wife 

Woolsey being a native of North Britain 

born in borne at Strathspey 1709 

the year and departed this life 24 July 1777 
A. D. 1655. 

W. W. 

here lies the 
body of Thomas 
Jacob Briam 
son of Thomas 
born Sept. 1733 ob. 1760.- 


to the memory of the 

Rev'd Ebenezer Grant 

17 years minister of the 

Presbyterian Church in Bedford 

who departed this life Sept. 6. 1821. 

aged 48 years _ , 

Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord 
from henceforth, yea, saith the spirit, that •■ 

they may rest from their labors 
and their works do follow them. 
Rev. 14: 13. 
The Methodist Episcopal Church was erected in 1837, and 
incorporated on the ISth of January, ISSS.^i A prior incorpo- 
ration of this society, appears to have taken place 24th July, 
1825. John Fountain, Robert Knowlton, Joseph Clark, James 
Fountain, Gabriel Smith, trustees.^ A third occurs 9 April, 1844.^ 
Upon a commanding eminence which rises north of the vil- 
lage stands the Presbyterian Church, a modern structure of wood, 
surmounted with a small cupola and spire. The old church 
which was burnt during the revolutionary war, stood south east 
of the present edifice, near the foot of the hill. The first reli- 
gious society organized at Bedford in 1680, was Congregational, 
at that time the established religion of the colony of Connecticut. 

a Religious Sec. Co. Rec. Lib A. 
bib. Lib. B.p. 53. 
c lb. Lib. B. 88. 


The proprietors of the Hop ground appear to have made early 
provision for the erection and support of a church, for, in 1680j 
" it was agreed that a meeting house should be erected on the com^ 
mens." In 1681, the general court instructed the committee who 
were to la^^ out a plantation at the hop ground, " to take care that 
there should be a suitable lot laid out for the first minister of the 
place, and a lot for the minister forever." December 8th, 1681, 
the proprietors agreed to give Mr. Prudden a call to be their 
minister. In 16S8 the Rev. Thomas Denliam must have been 
settled here, for on the 2Sih of January, (nf that year.) the town 
ordered £20 to be raised and collected for Mr. Denham's salary. 
September 23, 1689. The town b}^ vote agreed that in " case 
Mr. Abraham Ambler, sen., will come up and live at Bedford 
and carry on tlie Sabbath as God shall enable him, we will 
give unto him the sum of £20 a year, so long as he shall per- 
form the work among us." The following month (October 15) 
it was agreed to build Mr. Abraham Ambler a frame house forty- 
feet by twenty- two. 

*' 16th of December, 1692, David Mead was chosen by the 
town to k'eep the town druu), to keep it in repair and to beat it 
when necessary, and to be allowed 10 shillings yearly." 

Prior to the use of bells in New England, the meetings were 
summoned by beat of drum, or the blowing of the conch shell: 
to this practice the poet alludes : 

"New England's Sabbath day," 
Is heaven-like, still, and pure, 
Then Israel walks the way 
Up to the temples door : 
The time we tell, 
When there to come, 
By beat of drum, 
Or sounding shell. 
On the 19th of October, 1694, the town agreed to buy 
a house and lot of John Ambler for a parsonage, provided his price 
do not exceed £35. 

On March 2 1st, 1698, the town voted that every man should 
pay three pence per acre for all the land he had for the support of 
a minister. 

Upon the 9th of January, 1699, the inhabitants of the town re- 


quested the ministers in the county to inform them wliere they 
could procure a minister, at the same time offering forty acres 
of land and £30 in current provision as his pay.* 

On the 26th of December, 1699, the town agreed with Mr. 
Joseph Morgan, minister as follows, viz : first to give him the use 
of the parsonage, on condition he stays three years ; secondly, to 
build him a two story house, twenty-seven feet by twenty, 
the house to belong to his heirs if he die in the town ; if he 
removes he shall pay the towfj the expence of building the house ; 
third, to give him the first year £40, and plant and manure forty 
acres for him, and after the first year to give him £20, and to 
raise ten acres of winter grain for him yearly, to cut and cart his 
fire wood, and transport himself and family to Bedford free of ex- 
pence. In a summary account of the state of the church in the 
province of New York, as it was laid before the clergy, convened 
October 5di, 1704. at New York ; it is therein stated that " there 
is an independent church at Bedford where the minister designs 
to leave them ; they are well affected to the church, and it is 
hoped when he is gone they will be in communion with Iier.''^ 

The following year Col. Caleb Heathcoate informs the secreta- 
ry of the Propogation Society, " that sometime prior to his coming 
into the Province, Rye and Bedford had a minister, one Mr. 
Denham, and afterwards one Mr. Jones at Bedford. ^ 



Install or call, Ministers. ''' - 

1681 ; ..r- Rev. Peter Prudden, 

1688 ■ r Rev. Thomas Denham, ^ 

Oct. 1689 ' Rev. Abraham Ambler, 

1699 Rev. Joseph Morgan, 

1704 ' Rev. Eliphalet Jones,^ 

a November 14, lfi99, the town agreed to give sixteen acres of ploughed land to 
Mr. Copp, in condition he would inhabit among them. 

b See Church Rec Francis L. Hawks, D. D. vol. i. No. 16. ^^ . 

c Church Record 1841, vol. i. No. 29. 

d Styled in the Co. Rec. minister of the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ in Bed- 

e Son of the Rev. John Jones, of Fairfield, born at Concord, January 11, 1641. 


A^ V 

The first regularly installed Presbyterian pastor of Bedford, 
^vas the Rev. Wihiam Tennent ; this individual upon his first i^r- 
rival in America, (in 1716,) settled at East Chester, A. D. 1720 ; 
the exact date of his removal to Bedford has not been determined ; 
it probably took place in 1721. a 

The Presbyterian Society was incorporated by virtue of an act 
of the legislature of this state " entitled an act to enable all relig- 
ious denominations in this state to appoint trustees who shall be 
a body corporate, for the purpose of taking care of the temporalities 
of their respective congregations, and for other purposes therein 
mentioned, passed 6th of April, 1784, " to be known by the name of 
the trustees for the Presbyterian Church and congregation of Bed- 
ford, to be governed in discipline and worship according to the 
Directory of the now established Church of Scotland," first trustees 
Zebadiah Mills, Israel Lyon and Joseph Owen.b 



Install or call, JMinisters. Vacated by 

1721 Rev. ^ViUiam Tennent, resig. 

1740 Rev. Robert Sturgeon, do. 

1743 Rev. Samuel Sackett, do. 1753 

Jan. 1, 1769 Rev. Ehphalet Ball, do. Jan. 1, 1769 

Dec. 13, 1769 Rev. Samuel Mills, do. May 18, 1786 

May IS, 1786 Rev. John Davenport, do. May 4, 1791 

Nov. 15, 1798 Rev. Josiah Henderson, do. Nov. 15, 1803 

Sept. 20, 1804 Rev. Ebenezer Grant, ob. Sept. 6, 1821 

April 16, 1828 Rev. Jacob Green, present minister. 

First elders of the church, Ebenezer Miller, and Jacob Smith, 
first deacon Ebenezer Miller. 


A. D. 1826, communicants 141, baptisms 19, 

» The Rev. William Tennent was the founder of the Log. College, Penn. See 
Biographical sketches of the founder by A. Alexander, D. J).— Assembly Magazine, 
May, 1805. 

t Religious Soc. Incorp. Co. Rec Lib. A. 4. 


A. D. 1S36 communicants, 191, baptisms, 6, 
1846 ditto 194, ditto 7, 

Present number of communicants in (1847,) 200. 

The Bedford presbytery,^ which was created in 1829 consists 
of the following churches, Bedford, So lers, South Salem, Pound- 
ridge, Rye, K^. Green burg. White Plains, Mt, Pleasant, Yorktown, 
North Salem and Greenburgh. 

About half a mile north of the Presbyterian church, lies a 
small scattered hamlet consisting of two churches, an academy, 
two stores and several dwellings; through it the northern road to 
Cantetoe passes. In the northern part of this hamlet is situated 
St. Mathews Episcopal Church, a neat structure of brick, erected 
in 1807, by public subscription. 

Bedford originally constituted one of the three districts of Ryo 
parish, having been annexed thereto by the general acts of assem- 
bly, passed in 1693, 1696 and 1700. The first rector of the parish 
was the Rev. Thomas Pritchard ;b from a letter addressed by this 
individual to the Venerable Propogation Society, dated Novem- 
ber 1st, 1704, we learn that the Rev. Mr. Stewart was laboring as 
a missionary at Bedford. V ' 

The quota furnished by the Bedford precinct towards the 

Rector's tax in 1725 was £16, 2s. Od, in 1745, £30, 

throughout the year 1728. Tiie Rev. Timothy VVetmore officiated 
here, and the Rev. Mr. Lampson in 1745; at this date there ap- 
pear to have been four hundred families within the two precincts 
of Bedford and North Castle. In 1753, the Rev. Timothy Wet- 
more informed the Propogation Society, ''that the congregations at 
Bedford and North Casile were large and flourishing." 

In the spring of 1762, the precincts of Bedford and North Cas- 
tle were visited by the Rev. George Dibble and St. George Tal- 
bot, Esq. The latter gentleman, (says Mr. HuQ)phreys,) willing to 
know the religious state of the people, desired Mr. Dibble to ac- 
company him to Bedford, Crumpond and Peekskill, and to return 
by way of Croton and White Plains, which he did, and preached 

* The earliest meeting of the Presbytery in America, is supposed to have taken 
place in 1705. , a 

b See Rye. ' ' ? 


in each of those places, and baptized ten children; he found no 
person of any denomination in any of these places except at Bed- 
ford, in each of them he met with several families professors of 
the Cluirch of Enghtnd. 

St. George Talbot subsequently devised in trust, " certain sums 
of money,'' "for the use and benefit of the churches of North Cas- 
tle and Bedford."'^ 

" From letters received by Dr. Auchmuty, Rector of Trinity 
Church, and jMr. Livingston (executor of the late Mr. St. George 
Talbot,) dated December 8th, 1769, it appears that the heirs at 
law leave no method untried to defeat the purposes of Mr. Tal- 
bot's will and that by evasive practices in law, the cause is 
still undetermined. "t> 

In 1771, Mr. John Livingston informs the Propogation Society, 
that with regard to Mr. Talbot's will the attorneys have judged 
it expedient to come to an agreement with the heirs of Mr. Tal- 
bot, by which the executors should pay them £1300, in full 
for their claim and demand on the real and personal estate. It will 
be seen, however, that the Church did not receive the legacy until 
the year 1803. 

The Episcopal Church of Bedford was first incorporated on the 
19th of April 1789, under the stile of " the Trustees of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church in the townships of Bedford and North 

In consequence of an act passed for the relief of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church on the 17ih of March, 1795 ; this church was 
again incorporated under the name and title of " the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United towns of Bedford and New Cas- 
tle, the church at New Castle to continue by the regular name 
of St. George's Church." Charles Haight of New Castle, and 
William Miller, Esq. of Bedford, Churchwardens ; Samuel Ray- 
mond, Gabriel Smith, David Haight, James McDonald, Marma- 
duke Forster, Gilbert Martin. Nicholas Haight and Samuel Smith 

* " Which said money is now in possession of Lewis McDonald and others," ex- 
tracts from will of St. George Talbot, Esq. 
b Reports of Propogation Society, 
c Incorp. of lieli^'ious Soc- Lib. A. 12. 


vestrymen." Theodosius Bartow appears to have been minister 
of the united parishes at the time of election. »• 

At a meeting of the vestry November 12th, 1795, it was " order- 
ed that WiUiam Miller, Esq., be empowered to commence and 
carry on a suit against Philip I. Livingston for money left by St. 
George Talbot to the churches of Bedford and New Castle." 

At a meeting of the vestry held on the 3rd of March, 1803, 
"Mr. Miller informed the board that the money bequeathed to 
the united churches by the late St. George Talbot, had been recov- 
ered by a judgment obtained in the supreme court against Philip 
I. Livingston, and the said money after deducting charges will 
probably amount to about twenty-five hundred dollars." The 
vestry at the same meeting resolved to purchase a certain house 
and forty acres of land in Bedford, at the price of sixteen hundred 
and twenty-five dollars, for a glebe and parsonage ; the purchase 
was subsequently made and a new parsonage erected thereon in 
1822. In 1804, Trinity Church, New York, liberally endowed 
the united churches of Bedford and New Castle with the sum of 
one thousand dollars ; also in 1808 the further sura of one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. ^ - .. - 

At a vestry meeting held on the 8th of December, 1805, it was 
resolved " that the residue of the bequest of St. George Talbot 
be appropriated towards defraying the cost of building a church 
in Bedford. c 

The communion silver belonging to St. Matthew's Church, 
was the united gift of Mrs. Banyar and Ann Jay, on the 29th of 
October, 1810. 

The service books were presented by Mrs. Ann Raymond of 
Bedford. In 1839 the church was repaired and new seated ; the 
first delegate from this parish to the Diocesan convention in 1787, 
was Stephen de Lancey, Esq. 

^ Incorp. of Relig. Soc. Lib. A. 64. 

b Hist, of Trinity Ch. N. Y. by Samuel Berrien, D. D. 

c The church at New Castle having been found too much decayed for public 
worship, was taken down in 1839 ; from that time services have been entirely con- 
fined to Bedford. 

Vol. L 4 




Institution or call, Incumbents, by resi 

1704, Rev. Stewart, clericus. ditto 

1796, Rev. Theodosius Bartow, Presb. ditto 

30lh July 1S04, Rev. George Strebeck, Presb. ditto 

1S09, Rev. Nathan Felch, Presb. ditto 

16th June 1S16, Rev. George Weller, Deacon, ditto 

ISiy, Rev. Samuel Nicholls, Presb. ditto 

12th Aug. 183S, Rev. Alfred Partridge, pr. incum. 


1745, baptisms 14, communicants 00 
1810, ditto OS, ditto 10 

1815, ditto 19, ditto 24 

1844, ditto 09, ditto 88 

The burying ground adjoining the church contains memorials 
to the families of the Amblers, Guions, Olmsteds, CoUyers, Ray- 
monds, Parks, Gardeners and Banks. 

Within the before mentioned hamlet, near the junction of the 
Sing Sing and Bedford roads, stands the Baptist Church. The 
Baptist Society was first organized September 22d, 1798, seven of 
its members having received legal letters of dismission from the 
Baptist Church of Stamford, to form a new society under the pas- 
toral charge of Elder Jones ; on the eighth of May 1802, elder 
Ezra Fountain was elected Pastor of this church, an office which 
he held with great acceptance until his death which took place 
November 26th, 1837. The Rev. Ezra Fountain was interred 
on his farm, at present occupied by John A. Miller, in this town, 
where a monument has been erected to his memory, which con- 
tains the following epitapth, written by himself: 

" A dying preacher I have been," 

To dying creatures such as you, 
A dying preacher I rennain, 

To all who come my grave to view. 

It may be truly said of this good man, though dead he yet 
sp3aketii. Mr. Fountain was succeeded in the pastoral charge by 


Elder Charles H. Underbill wlio continued for two years. Their 
successors have been Elder Samuel Covel, and Elder Nathan 
Reed, the present pastor is a licentiate from the Baptist Semina- 
ry of Madison County, New York. Present number of communi- 
cants, 250. 

The Union Academy of Bedford occupies a prominent situation 
south east of the Baptist Church ; its principal is Alexander G. 

Near the hamlet, are situated the residences of William Hursell 
and Jabez Robertson, Esqrs. 

To the south east lies the Hook farm, the property of Phinehas 
Barrett Esq., (formerly belonging to Col. James Holmes.) Upon 
(he 5th of April, 1774, James Smith and Mary his wife sold to 
James Holmes, "all that messnage lying in Bedford, conmionly 
called the Hook, containing seventy-three acres. 

Col. James Holmes was the son of John and Jemima Holmes ; his 
father John Holmes was a respectable farmer, a man of extensive 
real and personal property, a large proportion of which descended to 
him from his father John Holmes, who emigrated to this country 
from Beverly, Yorkshire, in England, about the year 1660, and 
was one of the original proprietors and settlers of this town. 
John Holmes, father of the said Col. James Holmes held many 
civil and military appointments. He was many years a town clerk. 
Justice of the Peace and Captain of the Militia, which appoint- 
ments he held till the time of his death. 

During the French war between France and Great Britain, in 
1757-8, Col. James Holmes volunteered in the service of his coun- 
try, and was in the great and destructive battle under the com- 
mand of General Abercrombie, in which were nineteen hundred 
men killed and wounded. After the conquest of Canada he re- 
turned to Bedford. 

Upon the commencement of hostilities between America and 
Great Britain, he was appointed by the New York Convention 
one of a committee of three, viz : Col. James Van Courtland, Capt. 
Montgomery, (afterwards Gen. Montgomery,) and himself, to pro- 
ceed to examine the heights about Kingsbridge, and report where 
it wonld be advisable to fortify. They performed this duty and 
reported satisfactory. The same convention ordered four regi- 


ments to be raised. The first was given to Alexander M'Doiigal, 
the second to G. Van Schaick, the third to James Clinton, and 
the fourth to James Holmes. Tliese regiments were immediate- 
ly advanced to the northward. In 1777, he retired from the 
service of his country, owing to certain circumstances which 
had tended to dampen his military ambition, and returned to his 
farm. In the spring of 1778, he was arrested by order of the 
committee of public safety, and conveyed to Bedford. 

He subsequently accepted the appointment of Lieut. Colonel of 
the corps of West Chester County refugees, in the British service ; 
in this corps he remained till the end of the war. Colonel James 
Holmes died at New Haven, July, 1824; leaving issue by his 
wife Tamar, two daughters ; Tamar, who married James Ronalds, 
father of William R. Ronalds, Esq., of New York, and Sally, the 
wife of Jeremiah Lounsberry of this town. a 

The village of Bedford was burnt during the Revolutionary 
war, (by a party of British light horse on their route to Fairfield,) 
and much vahiable property destroyed in its immediate vicinity, 
but the inhabitants continued firmly attached to the interests of 
their country. 

On the 15th of July. 1779, General Heath having ascertained 
that the enemy's shipping had gone down towards New York, 
moved his troops and took a strong position between Ridgefield 
and Bedford, sending out patrols of horse and foot on all the 
roads. b 

On the evening of the 29ihof December, 1780, (writes General 
Heath,) a party of the enemy from Delancey's corps, consisting of 
about one hundred infantry and fifty horse, came up to North 
Castle where after a short halt they proceeded towards Bedford 
new purchase. Capt. Pritchard who was posted at Bedford with 
a company of continental troops, and some militia, immediately 
advanced towards them, attacked their van, who retreated, as did 
their main body. Capt. Pritchard pursued them as far as Youngs. 
It was said that one of the enemy was killed and several wound- 

» Extracts from life of James Holmes, Esq., printed in 1815. 
b Heath's Mem. p. 270. 


ed who were carried off in a wagon. Four oxen, and between 
thirty and forty sheep were retaken, eight or ten head of cattle 
were driven off; the captain sustained no injury.^ - 

On the morning of the sixteenth, 1781, (contiijues the same au- 
thority,) " the enemy made an incursion from Morrisania, to- 
wards Bedford, and took Lieuts. Carpenter, Wright and Peacock, 
and five other inhabitants prisoners; burnt five houses, plunder- 
ed and stript several other inhabitants, and returned ; they were 
pursued by Capt. Pritchard, but could not be overtaken. ^ 

One of the most prominent objects in the immediate vicinity 
of Bedford village, is the round hill called Aspeiong, celebrated 
for its beautiful views of the surrounding country, its summit 
affords a favorite resort for parties during the summer season. <^ 

The road proceeding north from the village descends into the 
valley of the Beaver dam, (Cisqua,) watered by a beautiful stream 
of the same name, which rises in the adjoining town of Pound- 
ridge. In its progress to the Croton the Beaver dam is fed by 
the waters of broad and muddy brooks. By the process of gaug- 
ing in 1833, (at a fair minimum,) the Beaver dam and Broad brook 
yielded four million nine hundred and sixty-three thousand four 
hundred and eighty gallons per diem.'i 

The former stream appears to have been in a peculiar manner 
the haunt of the beaver ; hence the origin of the name Beaver 
dam. This timid animal, (says Van der Donck,) " always con- 
structed its dwellings over running streams, having apertures in 
the lower stories which communicated with the water from which 
they could more easily retreat under water to places of safety 
which they have always prepared near their houses ; these consist 
of a hollow or hole entwining under water from the side of the 
stream whereon their house was erected, and adjoining under the 
bank into which they retreat on the approach of danger, wherein 
they seem to be safe and secure that no person can molest them. 
Eighty thousand beavers (the same authority asserts,) were killed 

=1 Heath's Mem. p. 268. 
b Heath's Mem. p. 274. 

c 11th May, 1772, John Farnam conveys to James Holmes a lot of land lying in 
Bedford near a place called Aspetong. 
d Report of water commissioners. 


annually, during his residence of nine years in the New Nether- 

The beaver's favorite food was the bark of the willow, birch, 
and maple trees which still flourish on the banks of the Cisqua, 
(Beaver dam.) Rising above the banks of this stream on the west 
is an extensive ridge called the " Deer's delight." 

It appears that the old road laid out to the vineyard purchase 
in 1739, " extended north from Harris's mill at the west side of 
Cantetoe ridge on the east side of " deer's delight," and so 
through to the purchase.^ 

Deer must have been very numerous here in 1656, for the same 
authority just quoted says " the land abounded with them every 
where, and their numbers appear to remain undiminished ; we 
seldom pass through the fields without seeing deer more or less, 
and we frequently see them in herds ; there are also white bucks 
and does, and others of a black colour. The Indians aver that the 
haunts of the white deer are much frequented by the common 
deer, and that those of the black species are not frequented by the 
common deer."^ 

The wolf appears to have abounded in proportion to the other 
wild game. So destructive had this ferocious animal become in 
1694 that the town of Bedford offered " twenty shillings bounty 
for the killing of wolves." 

In the northern part of this town is situated the residence and 
estate of the Jay family. Here the Hon. John Jay spent the latter 
part of his life. The house is delightfully seated on a rising ground 
backed with luxuriant woods. The surrounding scenery is ex- 
ceedingly picturesque, particularly on the west overlooking the 
Kisco and Croton vallies, and the hills bordering the Hudson. 
Among these is the distant Dunderberg. A sunset view from 
this place is uncommonly grand. The interior of the mansion 
contains a number of excellent portraits. These consist of the Hon. 
John Jay, head by Stewart, Stephen Van Rensselaer, by ditto, 

»■ Van der Donk's Hist. N. N. New York Hist. Soc. collect, 
b Book of Co. Roads, Co. Clerk's office, lib. L. A. D. 1728. 
« Van der Douk's N. N. 



Hon. Egbert Benson by dilto, Augustus Jay, co))y from an old 
French picture, Mrs. Balch by West, and a bust of the Hon John 
Jay after a model by (.^arrncio.^ 

The following notice of the death of the Hon. Jolin Jay occurs 
in Hammond's Political History of the state. 

" The venerable John Jay died on the 17ih of May, at his man- 
sion in Bedford, at the advanced age of ei<^hty three years. Al- 
though he had been "long remembered," he was not entirely for- 
gotten. The Supreme Court being in session in New York, the 
gentlemen of the bar, held a meeting, of which David B. Ogden 
was chairman, and John Suydam was secretary, and at wliich a 
committee was appointed, consisting of Greene C. Bronson, Jan^es 
Tallmadge, J. A. Spencer, D. S. Jones, G. Griffin, and J. J. Rose- 
velt, who reported among others the following resolution, which 
was unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved that the members of this bar are impressed with 
deep grief upon the decease of their illustrious brother John Jay. 
They find, however, a consolation in the reflection, that his 
conduct through a long and useful life, has given a lustre to our 
profession, and to this bar ; and that while his character for pri- 

Residence of tlie Hon John Jay. 

* Frazee the sculptor executed several busts of this distinguished individual from 
the model of Carracio ; one of these was ordered by Congress for the Supreme Court 
of the U. S. 


vate virtues and public worth has justly endeared him to the na- 
tion, liis patriotism, his great talents as a statesman, and his great 
acquirements as a jurist, his eminent purity as a christian, and 
his probity as a man, all unite to present him to the public as an 
example whose radiance points to the attainment of excellence." 

Tiie memory of this great and good man will be embalmed in 
the heart of every true friend of liberty, virtue and the honor and 
prosperity of the state of New York and her civil institutions, as 
long as the history of this state and nation shall be known and 
read ."a 

A little east of the house flows Spruce Creek, the former divis- 
ion line between the vineyard and the Dibble purchases. 

North east of Cautetoe lies the valley of the Peppeneghek, 
(Cross River,) celebrated for its picturesque beauty. 

Whitlocksville is a small settlement in the north west corner 
of Bedford situated near the junction of the Croton and Cross riv- 
ers. Upon the latter stream are located the grist mill and clothier 
works of Warren Whitlock. The Cross River, (Peppeneghek,) 
is said to discharge at the rate of nine million one hundred and 
forty-two thousand four hundred gallons per diem. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of this place was first erected 
in 1837, and incorporated on the 25th of February the same year : 
Norman William Miller, Walter P. Lyon, Joseph Wilson, Joel 
W. Miller and Noah Smith, trustees. ^ 

The settlement also contains a post office, three stores and twen- 
ty-five houses. The West Chester Rail Road passes a little east 
of the place : the Peppeneghek and the Cisqua intersect a mile to 
the eastward. Previous to the erection of the Croton dam, the 
shad fish annually ascended the river to Whitlocksville a distance 
of nearly thirty miles from the Hudson ; trout are taken here in 
great abundance. 

" The several tributaries of the Croton in this town supply a 
great abundance of mill seats. There is also a small stream that 
runs north from tfie village of Bedford to Long Island Sound 

» Hammond'fi Polilical Hist, of N. Y. vol. ii. 310. 
b Relig. See. Lib. B. 69. 


(to which we have already alhided,). called the Mahanas river. 
The mills are numerous and more than equal to the wants of the 
inhabitants. The general surface of Bedford is elevated, and 
though broken by small hills, and valleys, has very little of waste 
ground. The arable, pasture, and meadow lands, are in very just 
proportion for a good farming country, and the whole is well 
watered by springs, brooks, and rivulets, the latter of a good size 
for mills ; the summits of the hills afford many extensive and in- 
teresting prospects, but the hills are stony and hard to till though 
they yield good crops of grain, grass, and all the common 

In the vicinity of Bedford sulpheret of iron, and the oxide of 
iron occur in beds of sand, also quartz and slate are found in nu- 
merous localities. 

The following extracts are taken from the town records :^ 

" July, 1682, was held the first town meeting.'' " At a town 
meeting held March 17, 1686, the town by vote did choose Zacha- 
riah Roberts town clerk, for to record town matters and to keep 
the town books and papers." 

The first independent election for town officers, took place on 
the 7th of April, 1784, when the following officers were chosen : 

Peter Fleming. — Supervisor. 

Philip Leek. — Town Clerk. 

Lemuel Light. — Constable and Collector. 

Philip Leek, ] 

Richard Sackett, ! Assessors 
John Miller, f ^^^^-^^o^^- 

Ephraim Raymond, J 

James McDonald 

Eli Tyler, J> Commissioners of Roads. 

Zebediah Mills. 

a The town records consist of four volumes, No. 1 entitled Record of the town, 
1683. No. 2 the Laws and Orders of Connecticut Colony, &c., entered upon record 
by Zachariah Roberts, recorder, in the year 1699. No. 3 commences April 30, 
1708. No. 4, 1786. 

Vol. I. 5 - 




fc=t. PctQi's Church, PeekskHl. 

This town formerly- 
belonged to the great 
manor of Cortlandt, 
which also compre- 
hended the present 
townships of North Sa- 
lem, Somers and York- 
town. The name itself 
is derived from the 
ancient family of the 
Yan Cortland t'Sj the 

mesne Lords and first 
grantees from the Indians. Under the Mohegans or River Indians, 
Cortlandt-town appears to have been divided between the two 
chiefs of Sachus and Kitchawong, the former of whom exercised 
jurisdiction over the lands of Wishqua, Canopus, Wenneebees, 
Appamaghpogh and Meahagh, a territory extending from the 
south side of Verplanck's Point to St. Anthony's nose in the High- 
lands, whilst the latter held authority over the lands of Kitcha- 
wan, lying south of Verplanck's Point, including Senasquaneck, 
(Teller's Point,) and the small island of Oscawana. 

The Indian villages in their order were, first, Kitchawonk, sit- 
uated near the mouth of the Croton, so called from the original 
name of the river, viz : " Kitchawan,"a term which is descriptive 
of a large and swift flowing current. Croton, the present name 
of the same stream, is said to have been adopted from an illustri- 
ous sachem of that name who resided here at an early period. 

"The first name of importance above the island (remarks Mr. 
Schoolcraft,) is Croton, a name of classic sound, but unquestiona- 


bly derived from the Indian, though a corrnption of the original, 
and not originally applied by them to the River. 

In a deed dated 16S5, which is quoted by Jud^e Benson, the 
river is called Kitchawan. " Croton as stated by the same author- 
ity is a corruption of the name of a chief who lived and exercised 
his authority at the mouth of this stream. It is clearly a deriva- 
tive from Kenotin or Knoten, or as it is oftener used without 
the pronoun prefixed, Noten, meaning in either case the wind or 
a tempest. It is a man's name still common in the west and 
north. "a. 

The Indian castle of Kitchawan (according to tradition) occu- 
pied a commanding position on the neck proper overlooking the 
Croton and Haverstraw bays, a little northwest of tlie manor 
house. This site was chosen for the purpose of protecting the 
fisheries, and overawing the neighboring tribes. A variety of In- 
dian weapons are occasionally found in the neighborhood, con- 
sisting principally of battle-axes, javelins and arrow heads. The 
Indian burying ground is situated near the entrance of Senasqua 
Neck, (Teller's Point.) The sachem of Kitchawan in 1641, was 
Metse wakes. 

"Upon the 10th July, 1641, appeared before the counsel, the 
following chiefs summoned by Oratan, chief of Hackinkesacky, 
agreeably to the conversation with him on the 27 of May, viz., 
Sowanare, chief of Weckquaeskek, and Metsewakes, chief of Ket- 
chawangh, alias Slauper Haven ; they expressed a desire to live 
on friendly terms with the Dutch and to detach themselves from 
the Esopus Indians.''^ 

Upon the 22d of April, 1643, the chief of Hackinkesacky was 
delegated by the Indians of Kitchawan to conclude a peace with 
the Director General. c 

In 1644, Mamaronack was chief of the Indians residing on the 
Kitchawan. f^ 

!^ Pro. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 1844, 100. 

!XL::::...o. • 128101S 

d O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 302, 


A. D. 1645, Aepjen chief sachem of the Mohegans signed a 
treaty of peace in behalf of the Kitchawanghs.a 

On the 15th of September, 1663, occurs the name of Meghte- 
sewakes, chief of Kitchawan, and in 1699, that of Sackama 

The next Indian village north of the Croton, was Sachus or 
Sackhoesj which stood near the site of the present village of 
Peekskill. The chief of this place in the year 1682, was Sir- 

The early Dutch maps place the villages of Keskisko, (a name 
that partly survives in theKisco River,) PasquashiC; and Noapain 
south ot the Highlands. 

The Wappinger Indians occupied the region of St. Anthony's 
nose and the Kittatenny mountains, (Highlands. )'» 

The Indians are said to have been very numerous in and 
around Peekskill as late as 1740, especially during the fishing 
seasons. c 

At an early period, Teller's Point or neck passed from the 
native Indian proprietors to William and Sarah Teller. " The 
point or peninsula, (says Judge Benson,) the northern chop of the 
bay or entrance into Croton River, the Skippers called Sarah's 
Point, the Indians gave it to Wilham and Sarah Teller, hus- 
band and wife, and she survived him."<i 

On the Sd of June, 1682, occurs a sale from the Indian proprietors, Acke- 
mak, Jangheor, Nawakies, Wettatane, Kaegara, Pewengen, Askawanes, Sig- 
geres, Owarrevvie, Aronjsack, Serram, Geckawock, Garhanck, Awoejhac- 
kias, Armawain, Ogkan, Nennafarick, Wapeken, Sepaacktan, and Awe- 
maracktow, to Cornelius Van Burgum, consisting of all that parcel neck or 
point of land, with the marsh, meadow ground or valley thereto adjoining and 
belonging, situate, lying, and being on the east side of the North or Hudson's 
river, over against the Verdrida Hooke, commonly called and known by the 
name of Slaupers Haven, and by the Indians Navish, the meadow being by the 
Indians called Senasqua, being bounded by the said river and a certain 
creek called or known to the Indians by the name of Tanrackan and Sepperak, 

a N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll. N. Ser. vol. i. 276. 

y> Moulton's History of New York, p. 221. 

• This is stated on the authority of Mr. Mandeville of Peekskill. 

<i Benson's Mem. of the state of N. Y. 47. 


and divided from the main land by certain trees marked by the Indians, togeth- 
er with half the said creek, &c. &c., for and in consideration of a certain sum 
or quantity of Wampum and divers other goods, paid by Cornelius Van Bur- 

It is certain that some time prior to 1748, Sarah Teller held 
the neck as tenant at sufferance nnder the Van Cortlandt fami- 
ly. A branch of the Teller family were early connected with 
the Yan Corllandt's by marriage. Andrew Teller in 1671 hav- 
ing married Sophia, daughter of the Right Hon. Oloff Stevensen 
Yan Cortlandt. 

The common ancestor of the Tellers was a Dutch clergyman 
of some distinction in the New Netherlands. 

Upon the 30th of July, 1667, occurs an act of the English Gov- 
ernor and his council, concerning William Teller and his chil- 
dren, wherein the payment of eighty-five beavers is enforced as 
his daughter's share besides other portions to his remaining chil- 
dren ; one of these was a son named Andries.b 

The names of Jacob Teller en zyn buys vrow (and his wife) 
occur in the church books of Sleepy Hollow. 

Upon the 14 of July, 1800, the heirs of William Teller, con- 
veyed part of the neck to Elijah Morgan of Cortlandt-town • 
6th of November, 1804, Elijah Morgan, jr., and Ann his wife 
re-sold the same to Robert Underbill ; on the 16th of August 
1804, Robert McCord and wife conveyed another portion of the 
neck to Robert Underbill ; upon the death of the latter individual 
the whole became vested in his two sons, the present proprietors 
of Croton Point. 

In 1683, the Hon. Stephanus Yan Cortlandt, purchased of 
the native Indian proprietors the territory of Meabagh, (Yer- 
planck's Point,) and the lands east thereof called Appamaghpogh 
as follows : 

To all Christian people to whom this present writing shall come Pewemine, 
Oskewans, Turham, Qaerawighint, Siecham, Jsighers and Prackises, all In- 
dians, true and rightful owners and proprietors of the land hereinafter mention- 

a Co. Rec. Lib. A. p. 189. 

b Surrogate's office, New York, 30. 


ed, as for themselves and the rest of their relations send, greeting, know ye 
that for and in consideration of the sum of twelve pounds in wampum and sev- 
eral other merchandises, as by a schedule hereunto annexed more at large, 
doth and may appear to them the same Indians in hand paid before the enseal- 
ino- and deHvering thereof, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and 
for other divers causes and considerations, they, the said Indians have granted, 
barcrained and sold, aliened, enfeofted and confirmed, and by these presents do 
full}^ clearly and absolutely grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeof, and confirm 
unto Stephanus Tan Cortlandt of the city of New York, merchant, his heirs 
or assignees forever, all that certain tract or parcel of land situate, lying or 
being on the east side of the Hudson River, at the entering of the High- 
lands, just over against Haverstraw, lying on the south side of the creek call- 
ed Tammoesis, and from thence easterly in the woods to the head of the creek 
called Kewightahagh, and so along said creek northerly to Hudson River, and 
thence westerly to the utmost point of the said tract of land, and from thence 
southerly along said Hudson River to the aforenamed creek, Tammoesis, which 
said tract or parcel of land known by the Indians by the name of Appamaghpogh 
and Meahagh, including all the lands, soils, meadows and woods within the 
circuit and bounds aforesaid, together with all, and singular the trees, timber- 
woods, under-woods, swamps, runs, marshes, meadows, rivulets, streams, 
creeks, waters, lakes, pools, ponds, fishing, hunting, fowling and whatsoever 
else to the said tract or parcel of land within the bounds and limits aforesaid, 
is belonging or in any wise appertaining without any restriction whatsoever, to 
HA.VE AND TO HOLD the Said parcel or tract of land, and all and singular other the 
premises and every part and parcel thereof unto the said Stephanus Van Cort- 
landt, his heirs and assignees to the sole and only proper use, benefit and behoof 
of him, the said Stephannus his heirs and assignees forever, and they, the said 
Tndians do for themselves their heirs and every of them consent, promise, and 
engage, that the said Stephanus Van Cortlandt his heirs and assignees shall and 
may from henceforth and forever lawfully peaceably and quietly have, hold, pos- 
sess and enjoy the said tract or parcel of land, and all and singular the other the 
premises with their appurtenances without either let, hindrance, disturbance or 
interruption of or by them, the said Indian proprietors, or their heirs or any 
other person or persons claiming, or that shall hereafter, shall or may claim, 
by from under them or either of them, and that they shall and will upon the 
reasonable request and demand made by the said Stephanus Van Cortlandt, give 
and deliver peaceable and quiet possession of the said tract and parcel of land 
and premises, or of some part thereof and in the room of the whole under such 
person or persons, as by the said Stephanus Van Cortlandt shall be appointed 
to receive the sar^c, in witness whereof the said Indians Pewemind, Oskewans, 
Turham Querawighint, Siecham, Isighers, and Prackises, the Indian owners 
and proprietors aforesaid, have hereunto set their hands and seals in New 
York, this twenty-fourth day of August in the thirty fifth year of his majesties 
j^ign, Anno Domini, 1G83. 



Signed and delivered in presence 
of us, Francis Rambolett, Gulian 

This is the mark of q 

This is the marke of P 

The mark of b3 

This is the mark of H 

The mark of I^ 

The mark of O 

The mark of M 

A schedule or list of goods paid by Stephanus Van Cortlandt, in his deed ex- 
pressed. , ^ ^ .. 

8 guns, 

9 blankets, 

5 coats, '" r . 

14 fathom of Duffels, 

14 kettles, 

40 fathoms of black Wampum, 

80 fathoms of white Vv'ampum, 

2 ankers of rum, 

5 half vats of strong beer, 

6 earthen jugs, 

12 shirts, 

50 pounds of powder, ■ •' ; 

30 bars of lead, ^' . 

18 hatchets, ' ■ 

18 hoes, 
14 knives, 
a small coat, 

6 fathom of stroud water cloth, 
6 pair of stockings, 
6 tobacco boxes. 

This purchase was afterwards confirmed to Stephanus Yan Cort- 
landt, to be holden of his majesty and his successors in com- 
mon soccage according to the tenure of East Greenwich in Eng- 
land, the patentee paying yearly therefore (as a quit rent,) two 
bushels of good winter wheat. 

The following year Thomas Dekay, Richard Abramsen, Jacob 
Abramsen, Sybout Harche, Jacob tlarche and Samuel Dekay, 
" obtained liberty and licence to purchase of the Indians, (each of 
them,) three hundred acres of land, lying and being in the high 
lands by the north of Stephen Yan Cortland t's land, which is 
called by the Indians, Wenebees^ lying between two creeks, 
over against the Thunder hill, (Diinderburgh,) on the east side of 
the river. &c. Sisjned Thomas Don^an.^" 

The same year Thomas Dekay, Kichard Abramsen, Jacob 

a Co. Rec. Lib. A. fol, 189, date of license, 6th of March, 1684. The prtncipa] 
part of the above purchase is now covered by the farm of John McCoy. 



Abramsen, Sybout Harche, Jacob Harche, and Samuel Dekay, 
purchased of the Indians, Sirham, sachem of Sachus, Pannskap- 
ham, Charrish, Askewaen, Pewinenien, and Sickham, eighteen 
hundred acres of land "situate on the highlands north of Stepha- 
nus Van Cortlandi's land, which is called by the Indians Wene- 
bees, i5cc." 

The above grantees on the 21st of April, 1685, made a second 
purchase of land from the same native proprietors consisting of : 

" All that tract or parcel of land situate lying and being on Hudson's River 
at a certain place called by the Indians Sachus, and stretching by the north 
side of Mr Stephanas Van Cortlandt's land to the said river to another creek, 
and so runs up said creek in several courses to a certain tree marked with R, 
and from the said marked tree southerly by marked trees all along to a marsh 
to another marked tree, marked R, west up to the aforesaid creek which lies 
by said Mr. Stephanus Van Cortlandt's land, &c., &c." 

Here followeth the schedule or particular of wampum and goods paid for 
the said land. 

100 fathoms of white wampum, 

60 guilders of silver, 

8 fowling pieces, 

8 blankets, 

10 match coats, 

8 brass kettles, 

6 Stroud water coats, 

50 yards of stroud water, 

15 shirts, 

40 bars of lead, 

15 earthen jugs cont. 50 lbs powder, 

1000 fish hooks, 

3 pistols, 

100 tobacco pipes, 

1 anker of rum, 

15 bottles, 

15 pair of stockings, 

12 coopers knives, 

5 bullet moulds, 

15 axes, 

15 hoes, 

40 knives. 

2 rolls of tobacco, 

3 lead ladles, 
100 Indian awls,^ 
20 tobacco boxes, 
200 needles, 

2 swords, 
8 coats, 

4 half vats of beer. 

Signed sealed and delivered in the presence of Brant Schuyler, Levinius 
V. Schayck, George Brewerton. 

The mark of kj Weskhewen Sachem, 
The mark of X Tupaine, 
The mark of N Amterone, 
The mark of ?3 Shaphame.'* 

» Used in perforating wampum. 
b Book of Pat. Alb. vol. v. 87. 


A third sale from Sirhain, Indian sachem of Sachus, and 
other Indians, occurs on the 25th of June, 16S5, to Jacobus De- 
kay, <fcc. 

" Of all that tract or parcel of land, situate and being on the east side of Hud- 
son's River, commonly called and known by the name of Wishqua, beginning 
at a great creek, called by the Indians John Peake's creek, it being in the 
mouth of the west side of the sqid creek and so running up along the said riv- 
er to another small creek and fall, including all fresh and salt meadows within 
the said bounds, together with all, &c., &c., for the value of four hundred guild- 
ers, seawant."a 

The Indian territory of Sachus was subsequently confirmed 
by Royal Patent on the 23d day of December, 1685, to Tennis 
Dekay and his associates in the following manner : 

Thomas Dongan, Lieut. Governor and Vice Admiral of Nev/ York, and its 
dependencies, under his majesty James the Second, by the grace of God, of 
England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, defender of the faith &c.. Su- 
preme Lord and proprietor of the colony and province of New York, and its 
dependencies in America, &c. To all whom this shall come, sendeth, greeting ; 
whereas, Teunis Dekay, Richard Abramsen, Jacob Abramsen, Sybout Harchie, 
Jacob Harchie, and Samuel Dekay, all of the city of New York, have by virtue 
of my order or lycense, bearing date the 6th day of March, Anno Domini, 1684- 
5, according to the law and practice of the said Province, for a valuable con- 
sideration purchased of the natives and Indian owners, their right, title, inter- 
est, clayme and demand of, in and to all that certain tract or parcel of land 
herein after mentioned and expressed, for their own proper uses and behoofs 
as by the Indian deed of sale, bearing date the 21st day of April, A. D. 1685, 
remaining upon record in the secretary's office of the said province may more 
fully and at large appear ; and whereas Samuel Dekay, one of the purchasers 
is since deceased, and Jacobus Dekay his father hath since his decease desired 
that his said purchase and share may be confirmed unto his grand sonne, Jacob 
Dekay, to him, his heirs and assigns for ever. Now know ye that by virtue of 
my commission and authority devised unto me, and power in me residing, in con- 
sideration of the quit rent, hereinafter received, I have given, granted, ratified 
and confirmed, and by these presents do give, grant, ratify and confirm unto 
the said Teunis Dekay, Richard Abramsen, Jacob Abramsen, Sybout Harchie, 
Jacob Harchie , and Jacobus Dekay, jun., all that certain tract or parcel of land 
situate, lying, and being on Hudson's river, at a certain place called by the In- 
dians Sachus, and stretching by the north side of Stephanus Van Cortlandtjhis 

a Alb. Book of Pat. vol. v. 

Vol. 1. 


land up to the said river, to another creek, and so runs up said creek ill several 
courses to a certain tree marked with T R, and from the said marked trees 
southerly by marked trees all along to a marsh, to another tree marked with 
T R, west of the aforesaid creek which lyes by said Stephanus Van Cortland's 
land, including all the meadows both fresh and salt within said bounds contain- 
ing in all 1800 acres, or thereabouts, together with all, and all manner of rivers, 
rivulets, runs, streams, waters, feedings, pastures, woods, underwoods, trees, 
swamps, moors, marshes, meadows, easments, profits and commodities, fishing, 
fowling, hunting and hawking, and all other appurtenances whatsoever, to the 
said tract or parcel of land within the bounds and limits, aforesaid belonging, or 
in any wise appertaining to have and to hold, the said tract or parcel of land, 
and all and singular other the premises unto the said Teunis Dekay, &c., their 
heirs and assigns for ever, to their sole and only proper use, benefit and. 
behoof, of them the said Teunis Dekay, &c., and their heirs and assigns forever 
to be holden in free and common soccage according to the tenure of East 
Greenwich in the County of Kent in his majesties kingdom of England, yield- 
ing, rendering, and paying therefor, every year, for the use of our Sovereign 
Lord the King's majesty, his heirs or successors in such affair or affairs, as 
by him or them shall be appointed to receive the same, ten bushels of good win- 
ter merchantable wheat, yearly, on the five and twentieth day of March, at the 
city of New York. And for the better preserving the title of the above recited 
parcel of land and premises, I have caused these presents to be entered in the 
secretary's Oilice, of this province. Given under my hand and sealed with the 
seal of the province at Fort James in New York, the 23d day of December, 
A. D. lG85.a 

Thomas Dongan. 

The above patent, commonly called " Ryck's Patent," passed 
by purchase to Hercules Lent, as appears by certain releases, the 
first bearing date 2Uth of April^ 1715, wherein Jacob Abramsen, of 
ye upper Yonckers, one of the original patentees, for the consid- 
eration of £150, confirms Hercules Lent, yeoman, in all his right, 
title and interest in ye patent called Ryck Abramsen's Patent. ^ 

On the 29th of December, 1729, Sybout Harchie Krankhyte, 
Hercules Johnse Krankhyte, and Jacobus Krankhyte, release to 
Hercules Lent " a certain tract of land on the east side of Hudson's 
river, at a certain place called by the Indians Sachus, and is 
bounded on the north, east, and south, by the manor of Cort- 

• Alb. Book of Pat. Lib. A. fol. 114 to 117, Co. Rec Lib. L p. 145. 
b Co. Rec, Lib. E., 157. 


landt, and on the west by Hudson's river aforesaid, containing 
1800 acres, reference being had to a certain patent granted by 
Thos. Dongan, &c. (fcc."'^ The following receipts are for quit 
rent, due on the Ryck Patent. 

Received of Mr. Philip Yan Cortlandt three hundred and eighty 
bushels of wheat for thirty eight years quit rent, due to his ma- 
jesty from the within patent, and in full for the said time. Wit- 
ness my hand this 2Sth of December, 1726. 

Archibald Kennedy, Rec. Gen. 

Received of Hercules Lent twenty bushels of wheat for two 
years quarter upon the within tracts in full to the 25th of March 
last. Witness my hand this 2d of May, 1729. 

Archibald Kennedy, Rec. Gen. 

In A.D. 1766, Hercules Lent, of Ryck's Patent, bequeathed 
his lands by will to his children in the following order : 

'^ Item. I give and devise to my son Jacob all that farm he 
now lives on, containing 350 acres, lying and being, &c. on the 
southeast part of a tract of land formerly granted to my father, 
Ryck Abramsen Lent and others, which is commonly known by 
the name of Ryck's Patent, and by the Indian name of Sackhoes, 
to have and to hold, (fee. To my son Hendrick all that farm I 
now live on, containing 350 acres, in the southwest part of Ryck's 

To my son Abraham all that land he lives on, containing 350 
acres, adjoining to Hudson's river, and on the south side of the 
aforesaid devised to my son Hendrick. 

To my grandchildren, Abram Lamb, Jane Lamb, Ira Lamb, 
Rachel Lamb, and Rachel, wife of James Lamb, (the father and 
mother of the above children,) all that part of my lands and 
meadow situate, lying and being in Orange county, by Hudson's 
river, known by the name of Stony Point. To my daughter 
Catherine, wife of Hendrick de Ronde, lands by Stony Point."b 

The descendants of the testator are still numerous in Cortlandt- 
town. Hercules Lent, a great grandson of the patentee, holds a 
portion of the patrimonial estate, and occupies the family home, 

a The original document is in the possession of Mr. Nathl. Bedle, of PeekskilL 
b Surrogate's Office, N. Y., No. 25, 337. 


stead. On the west bank of the Annsville creek was situated the 
property of John Krankhyte, consisting of 300 acres. 

The lands of Kitchawan, in tliis town, were conveyed by the 
native Indians in 16S6 to Thomas Dongan, Captain General, and 
Governor-in-chief, and Yice Admiral in, and over, the province of 
New York and territories depending thereon in America, under, 
his majesty James IL, by the grace of God, of England, Scot- 
land, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the faith, &c. 

" To all whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : Whereas, Emi- 
gent, Askewans, Penarand, and Tagehkint, natives and principal owners of the 
tract of land commonly called or known by the Indian name of Kechtawong, 
did in and by their certain deed or writing, under their hands and seales, bear- 
ing date the day of August now last past, for the consideration therein men- 
tioned, grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoffe and confirm unto me the said Thom- 
as Dongan, my heires and assigns, all that tract or parcel of land situate, 
lying and being on the east side of Hudson's river, within the county of West 
Chester, beginning at Kechtawong Creek, and so running along Hudson's riv- 
er northerly to the land of Stephannus Van Cortlandt, from ihence to the east- 
wardmost end of the said Yan Cortlandt's land, and from thence to a great 
fresh water pond called Keakates, and from the said pond along the creek that 
runs out of the said pond into Kitchtawan creek, and so downward on the 
south side of the said creek to Hudson's river, including all the land, soil and 
meadow within the bounds and limits aforesaid, together with, &c. And 
whereas I, the said Thomas Dongan, in and by a certain deed under my hand 
and seal, bearing date 12th day of October, did grant and sell over unto John 
Knights, of the city of New York, all my right and title in the same, &c. 

I do, by these presents, ratify and confirm the same to John Knights, this 
20th day of March, 1686." 

Upon the 20th of April, 1687, we find a conveyance from John 
Knight, gent., to his Excellency, Governor Dongan, of the same 
territory, called Kitchtawong.a 

It will be seen hereafter that the royal patent of the manor of 
Cortlandt recites "sundry grants" made by Governor Dongan to 
the patentee. One of which was doubtless the above conveyance. 
Col. Slephanus Yan Cortlandt subsequently received a confirm- 
ation for the same, from the Indians, bearing date August the 8th, 

»Co. Rec, Lib. A., 121. 


" We, Sachima Wicker, sachem of Kightavvonck, Koraghfall, Avvoghran, 
Moninghme, a squaw, Marackenegh, a squaw, Poking, a boy, Wighquekameeck, 
quean, a boy, Massarcett, Ilowogharint, Johnny Taparinock, Oghgniawe, 
Crraragquock, Pagkerngkinck, Ravisson, IMighegaroe Tapugh, a squaw, Tap- 
pawahigh, a squaw, Aratissanck Maentigroo kaas, his Kapoaghpurmin Sawap- 
pawall, all right, just, natural owners and proprietors of all the land hereinafter 
mentioned, lying and being within the bounds and limits of the marriners of 
Cortlandt, &c. &c., have sold, for a certain sum of money, all that tract and 
parcel of land situate, lying and being in the manner of Cortlandt, in West 
Chester county, beginning on the south side of Kightawonck Creek, and so 
along the said creek to a place called Kewighecock, and from thence along a 
creek called Peppeneghek to the head thereof, and then due east to the limits 
of Connecticut, being the easternmost bounds of said manner, and from thence 
northerly along the limits of Connecticut aforesaid to the river Mattegtecos 
ten miles, and from thence due west to Hudson's river, together with all the 
lands, soils, &c. &c. 

Her mark I Tapahuck, a squaw, 
Sackima wee, The mark of Sawappen, a squaw, 

sachem of Kichtawank, N " R Arahsant, 

his mark. " X Maantick, 

Corachpa, r^ . - - "A Kakiskagin, a squaw, 

Wechrequa, '^ " Q Ackparum, a squaw, 

Monrechro, ^ " V Ockququqrie, 

a squaw, " fi Oranack Rank 

Manackawagh, a squaw, kh " iy} Paghkinekink, 

Pooghkink, a lad 15 years of age, g " ><J Rawefen, 
signer of the rights of his father, " C Michhacharo, 

" Papruch, a squaw, 

" 1-5 Wighquach kanno, 

" N Q^^ez, a youth 13 years old, 

" — Masacott, 

" "^ Koocparen, 

" ^ Jonyeo, 

" P Taparmuck. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of John Nanfan, A. Depeyster, 
James Graham, A. Livingston. "* 

The Hon. Stephanus Yan Cortlandt being now vested in the 
fee simple, the whole territory was by royal charter erected into 
the lordship and manor of Cortlandt, which, according to actual 
survey, contained eighty three thousand acres. It is said that the 

» Book of Indian Deeds, Alb. warrant for survey, Lib. i., 88. 


governor's fees on this occasion amounted to three hundred pieces 
of eight. 

Over the extensive forests of Cortlandt (celebrated for their fat 
venison,) the lord of the manor was constituted, '-the sole and 
only ranger, to have and enjoy all the benefits and perquisites, (fcc. 
that of right doth belong nnto a ranger according to the statutes 
and customs of the realm of England." 

The lords of Cortlandt also enjoyed the extraordinary privi- 
lege of sending a representative to the provincial assembly. 

The whole manor was held by the feudal tenure of paying 
therefor yearly to the Crown, upon the feast day of the Annun- 
ciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, the rent of forty shillings. 


Gulielmus Tertius Dei Gratia, Angliae, Scotiae, France et Hiberniae, Rex, 
fidei defensor, &c. &c. 

" To all to whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : Whereas, 
our loving subject, Colonel Stephanus Van Cortlandt, one of the members of 
our Council of our Province of New York, &c., hath by his petition present- 
ed unto our trusty and well beloved Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, Captain Gen- 
eral and Governor-in-chief of our said Province of New York and territories 
depending thereon in America, &c., prayed our grant and confirmation of a 
certain parcel and tract of land situate, lying and being upon the east side of 
Hudson's river, beginning on the north line of the manor of Phillipsburg, now 
in the tenure and occupation of Frederick Phillips, Esq., one of the members 
of our said Council, and to the south side of a certain creek called Kighta- 
wanck Creek, and from thence, by a due east line, running into the woods 
twenty English miles, and from the said north line of the manor of Phillips- 
burgh upon the south side of the said Kightawanck Creek, running along the 
said Hudson river northerly as the said river runs into the north side of a high 
hill, which high lands, commonly called and knov^'n by the name of Anthony's 
nose, to a red cedar tree, which makes the southernmost bounds of the land 
now in the tenure and occupation of Mr. Adolph Phillips, including, in the said 
northerly line, all the meadows, marshes, coves, bays and necks of land and 
peninsulas that are adjoining or extending into Hudson's river within the bounds 
of the said line, and from the said red cedar tree another due easterly Ime run- 
ning into the woods twenty English miles, and from thence along the partition 
line between our r',olony of Connecticut and this our Province, until you come 
into the place where the first easterly line of twenty miles doth come — the 
whole being bounded on the east by the said partition line between our said 
Colony of Connecticut and this our Province, and on the south by the north- 


erly line of the manor of Phillipsburg to the southward of Kightawanck Creek 
aforesaid, and on the west by the said Hudson's river, and on the north from the 
aforesaid red cedar tree by the south line of the land of Adolph Phillips, and 
also of a certain parcel of meadow lying and being situate upon the west side 
of the said Hudson's river, within the said high lands over against the afore- 
said hill called Anthony's nose, befjinning on the south side of a ereek called 
by the Indians Sinkapogh, and so along said creek to the head thereof, and 
then northerly along the high hills, as the rijrer runneth, to another creek called 
Apinnapink, and from thence along the said creek to the said Hudson's river, 
"which certain tract of land and meadow our said loving subject is now actually 
seized and possessed thereof, and doth hold the same of us by virtue of sundry 
grants heretofore made unto him by Col. Thomas Dongan, late Governor of 
our said Province, and whereon our said loving subject hath made considera- 
ble improvement, having been at great cost, charge and expense in the pur- 
chasing the said tract of land and meadows from the native Indians, as well 
as in the settling a considerable i;umber of families thereon, and being willing 
to make some further improvem.ent thereon, doth by his said petition further 
request and pray that we would be graciously pleased to erect the aforesaid 
tract of land and meadows within the limits and bounds aforesaid into a lord- 
ship or manor of Cortlandt, which reasonable request for the future encouracre- 
ment of our said loving subject, we being willing to grant : Knoio ye^ that of 
our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, we have given, grant- 
ed, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents do for us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, give, grant, ratify and confirm unto our said loving subject, Stephannus 
Van Cortlandt, all the aforesaid certain parcel and tracts of land and meadow 
within their several and respective limits and bounds aforesaid, together with 
all and every of the messuages, tenements, buildings, barns, houses, out- 
houses, stables, edifices, orchards, gardens, inclosures, fences, pastures, fields, 
feedings, woods, underwoods, trees, timber, swamps, meadows, marshes, pools, 
ponds, lakes, fountains, waters, water courses, rivers, rivulets, runs, streams, 
brooks, creeks, harbors, coves, inlets, outlets, islands of meadow, necks of 
land and meadow, peninsulas of land and meadow, ferries, fishing, fowling, 
hunting and hawking, and the fishing in Hudson's river, so far as the bounds 
of the said land extends upon the same, quarries, minerals, (silver and gold 
mines only excepted,) and all other the rights, members, liberties, privileges, 
jurisdictions, pre-eminences, emoluments, to the afore recited certain parcels 
or tracts of land and meadows within their several and respective limits and 
bounds aforesaid, belonging or in any ways appertaining or accepted, reputed 
taken, known or occupied as part, parcel or member thereof, to have and to 
hold all the afore recited certain parcels and tracts of land and meadows within 
their several and respective limits and bounds aforesaid, together with aU and 
every of the messuages, tenements, buildings, barns, houses, out-houses, sta- 
bles, edifices, orchards, gardens, enclosures, fences, pastures, fields, feedino-s, 
woodS; underwoods, trees, timber, swamps, meadows, marshes, pools, ponds^ 



lakes, fountains, waters, water- courses, rivers, rivulets, runs, streams, broolcs, 

creeks, harbors, coves, inlets, outlets, island of land and naeadow, necks of 
land and meadow, peninsulas of land and meadow, ferries, fishing, fowling, 
huntin? and hawking, and the fishing on Hudson's river so far as the bounds 
of the said land extends upon the said river, quarries, mines, minerals, (silver 
and gold onl}'^ excepted,) and all other the rights, members, liberties, privileges, 
jurisdictions, pre-eminences, emolumenis, royalties, profits, benefits, advant- 
ages, hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever to the afore recited certain 
parcels or tracts of land and meadow within their several and respective lim- 
its and bounds aforesaid, belonging or in any ways appertaining or accepted, 
reputed, taken, known or occupied as part, parcel or member thereof unto the 
said Stephanus Van Cortlandt, his heirs and assignees, to the sole and only 
proper use, benefit and behoof of him the said Stephanus Van Cortlandt, his 
heirs and assigns forever ; and, moreover, knoio ye, that of our further spe- 
cial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, we have thought fit, accord- 
ing to the request of our said loving subject, to erect all the afore recited cer- 
tain parcels and tracts of land and meadows within the limits and bounds afore- 
said into a lordship and manor, and therefore by these presents we do for us, 
our heirs and our successors, erect, make and constitute all the afore recited 
certain parcel and tracts of land and meadows with the limits and bounds afore- 
said, together with all and every the above granted premises, with all and every 
of their appurtenances, into one lordship and manor to all intents and purposes ; 
and it is our royal will and pleasure that the said lordship and manor shall, 
from henceforth, be called the lordship and manor of Cortlandt ; and further, 
know ye, that we, reposing especial trust and confidence in the loyalty, wis- 
dom, justice, prudence and circumspection of our said loving subject, do for 
us, our lieirs and successors, give and grant unto our said loving subject, Ste- 
phanus Van Cortlandt, and to the heirs and assignees of him the said Stephanus 
Van Cortlandt, full power and authority at all times forever hereafter in the 
said lordsliip and manor, one court leet and one court baron, to hold and keep 
at such time and limes, and so often yearly as he or they shall see meet ; and 
all fines, issues and amercements at the said court leet and court baron, to be 
holden within the said lordship and manor, to be settled, forfeited or employed, 
or payable, or happening at any time to be payable by any of the inhabitants 
of or within the said lordship and manor of Cortlandt, or the limits and bounds 
thereof, and also all and every of the powers and authorities hereinbefore 
mentioned, for the holding and keeping the said court leet and court baron 
from time to time, and to award and issue out the accustomary writs, to be is- 
sued and awarded out of the said court leet and court baron, to be kept by the 
heirs and assigns of the said Stephanus Van Cortlandt forever, or their 
or any of their stewards, deputed and appointed with a full and ample power 
and autliority to distrain for the rents, services and other sums of money, pay- 
able by virtue of the premises and all other lawful remedies and means for the 
having, possessing, receiving, levying and enjoying the premises and every 


part and parcel of the same, and all waifs, estrays, wrecks, deodands, goods 
of felons, happening, and being forfeited, within the said lordship and manor 
of Corilandt, together, with all and every sum and sums of money, to be 
paid as a post fine, upon any fine, or fines, to be levied of- any land, tenements, 
or hereditaments within the said lordship and manor of Cortlandt, together 
with the advowson, and right of patronage, and all, and every, the church 
and churches erected or established, or hereafter to be erected, or established 
in the said manor of Cortlandt ; and we do by these presents constitute, and ap- 
point, our said loving subject Stephanus Van Cortlandt, and his heirs and as- 
signs, to be our sole and only ranger of the said lordship and manor of Cort- 
landt, and to have, hold, and enjoy, all the benefits, perquisites, fees, rights, priv- 
ileges, profits and appurtenances, that of right doth belong unto a ranger ac- 
cording to the statute, and customs of our realm of England, in as full and am- 
ple manner, as if the same were particularly expressed, in these presents, any- 
thing to the contrary hereof in any ways notwithstanding ; and we likewise do 
further give, and grant, unto the said Stephanus Van Cortlandt, and to his heirs 
and assigns, that all and ever}' the tenants of him the said Stephanus V^an 
Cortlandt, within the said lordship and manor of Cortlandt, shall and may 
at all times hereafter, meet together, and choose assessors within the manor 
aforesaid, according to such rules, ways, and methods, as are prescribed 
for cities, towns and counties within our said province by the acts of Gen- 
eral Assembly, for the defraying the public charge of each respective 
city, town, and county aforesaid, and all such sum or sums of money so as- 
sessed and levied to collect, and pay, and dispose of for such uses as the 
acts of General Assembly shall establish and appoint ; and further, of our said 
special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, we do, by these presents, 
for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto our said loving subject, 
Stephanus Van Cortlandt, and to his heirs and assignees forever, that the said 
Stephanus Van Cortlandt, his heirs and assignees, shall and may, from time to 
time, from and after the expiration of twenty years next ensuing the date of 
these presents, return and send a discreel inhabitant in and of the said manor, 
to be a representative of the said manor in every Assembly after the expira- 
tion of the twenty years, to be summoned and holden within this our said Prov- 
ince, which representative so returned and sent shall be received into the 
House of Representatives of Assembly as a member of the said house, to have 
and enjoy such privileges as the other representatives returned and sent from 
the other counties and manors of this our said Province, have had and enjoyed 
in any former Assemblies holden within this our said Province, to have and to 
hold, possess and enjoy all and singular the said lordship and manor of Cort- 
landt and premises, with all their and every of their royalties and appurte- 
nances unto the said Stephanus Van Cortlandt, his heirs and assignees, to the 
sole and only proper use, benefit and behoof of him the said Stephanus Van 
Cortlandt, his heirs and assignees forever, to be holden of us, our heirs and 
successors in free and common soccage, as of our manor of East Greenwich, 
Vol. I. 7 


in our County of- Kent, within our realm of England, yielding, rendering and 
paying therefore yearly and every year forever unto us, our heirs and success 
sors, at our city of New York, on the feast day of the Annunciation of our 
blessed Virgin Mary, the yearly rent of forty shillings current money of our 
said Province, in lieu and stead of all other rents and services, dues, duties and 
demands whatsoever for the afore recited tracts and parcels of land and mead- 
ow, lordship and manor of Cortlandt and premises. In testimony whereof, we 
have caused the great seal of our said Province to be hereunto affixed : wit- 
ness our said trusty and well-beloved Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, our said 
Captain-General and Governor-in-ehief of our Province of New York and 
the territories depending thereon in America, and Vice-Admiral of the same, 
our Lieutenant and Commander-in-chief of the militia and of all the forces by 
sea and land within our Colony of Connecticut, and of all the forts and places 
of strength within the same, in council at our fort in New York, the 17th day 
of June, in the ninth year of our reign, Anno Domini, 1697. Benjamin Fletch- 
er, by his Excellency's command. David Jamison, Secretary. a 

Tlie following receipt for manorial quit-rent is endorsed, on the 
Royal Patent : 

Received in quality, as Receiver General of this Province, this 
16th day of August, 1720, of Mrs. Gertrude van Cortlandt, exe- 
cutrix of Stephanus van Cortlandt, deceased, the sura of eight 
pounds proclamation money in full of quit-rents, for all the lands 
lying within the Manor of Cortlandt, to the 25th day of March 
last, pursuant to the within patent, as witness my hand. 

J. BYVERLY, Collector. 

Stephanus van Cortlandt, first lord of the Manor of Cortlandt, 
was the son of the Hon. Olotf Stevensen van Cortlandt, imme- 
diately descended from one of the most noble families in Holland, 
their ancestors having emigrated thither, when deprived of the 
sovereignty of Courland.^ 

The orthography of the surname is properly Corte-landt; the 
first syllable Corte or Korte, meaning in the Dutch language 
short; ^ the second, landt, (land) literally the short land, a term ex- 
pressing the peculiar form of the ancient Duchy of Courland 
in Russia. 

Courland in Russia, (says Schiutzler,) formerly constituted a 

a Book of Pat. Alb., No. VII., 165. 

b Burke's Landed Gentry of England, vol. IV., 241. 

• The use of the letter K in this word is modern, the C ancient. 


To face page 51, vol. i. 


Ducal Arms. — Arg. a lion, rampant, gu. crowned or, for Courland, charged ih^ 
mantle lined ermine, surmounted with a crown. Family Arms. — Arg. lh4'ml 

Mthin a 

Right Flon. Ptephanus, nat.=Gertrude Schuyler 
7th Mav, I64i; Mayor of 
New York, 1677 ; first 
Lord of ihe Mnnor of 
Cortlnudt, purchased 
IbK?. patented 17lh Jun. 
Ifi97; 111). 17(in. 

Johannes, nat. Oct 18, 
1648, Ob. 1667. 
ob. s. p. 



Johannes or John van^=Anna Sophia 

Cortl;indt, nat. i-lth 
Itct. 167:2; Li)rd of 
the Manor of Cort- 

van Schauk, 
mar. Id95 

Oliver, nat. 26th Philip, nat. 9th=Catharine de Step 
Oct. 1678, ob. Aug. 1683, Ob. Peyster, m 11 

s. p. 1708. 21st Aug. 1746 1710. 16 

Genrude=rhilip Verplanck, of 
Verpla' ck's Point. 
Wesichciter Co. 

Stephen van C. nat.: 
26. h Oct. 1710, an- 
cestor of the Eng- 
lish branch, now 
represented by Mr. 
'J'aylor, of Pen - 
nirigton, ob.Oct 17 

Mary Walton, 
Ricketts, mar. 
17:!8, da. of 
Wni. Ricketts, 
Jamaica, and 
Wary Walton, 
ofN. Y. 

nat. 19 
1713, o!). 
s. p aet. 

nat. 29 
ob. s. 
p. aet. 

Col. Philip, nat. 
Nov 10, 1739, 
ob. May 1st, 

Will. Rick- Catharine, 

etts, nat. nat Aug. 23, 

March 13, 1745 ; ob. an 

1742 infant 

Brig. Gen Philip van C. 
nat. Aug. 21, 1749, O. 
S ob. Nov. 21, 1831, 
The last of the heirs 
of the entail. 



Gilbert, nat. 6i 
April. 17.57, ( 
s. p. 12th Nop 

Col. Pierre van C. heir of his unc 
Philip, and first proprietor of 
the estate in fee simple. 



portion of Livonia, but was conquered by the Teutonic Knights 
in 1561. It subsequently became a fief of Poland. After the 
fall of that power it remained for a short time independent under 
its own Dukes, but in 1795 it was united to Russia. ^ 

In th<3 early part of the ITtli century, we find the Dukes of 
Courland engaged in the military service of the United Nether- 
lands. The Ducal troops are said to have rendered great assis- 
tance in the reduction of the towns of Karverden and Minden. 

The Dukes of Cour- 
land appear to have 
been represented in 
1610 by the Right 
Hon. Steven van Cort- 
landt, then residing at 
Cortlandt, in South 
Holland, father of the 
above mentioned OlofF 
Stevensen van Cort- 

Like his illustrious 
ancestors, Oloff Ste- 
-:-■ vensen van Cortland 
chose the military profession. As early as 1639, we find 
him attached to the military service of the Dutch West 
India Company. He subsequently emigrated to this country, 
and was soon after his arrival at New Amsterdam, advanced to 
the civil department as commissary of cargoes, at a salary of 30 

Of this individual, the historian of New Netherland re- 
marks, " Oloff Stevensen, or Oloff Stevens van Cortlandt, as he 
subsequently signed his name, left the Company's service in 1648. 
On becoming a freeman he embarked in trade, built a brewery in 
New Amsterdam, and became wealthy. He was Colonel of the 
Burghery, or City train bands in 1619, in which year he was also 
appointed one of the nine men. He was one of the signers to the 
Remonstrance transmitted to Holland against the administration 
of Director Kieft, and the high-handed measures of Director Stuy- 

Ducal Arms of Couriand. 

• Schiutzler, La Russia, 585. 

To face pagu 51, vol. 


Ducal Arms.— Arg. a lion, rampaut, gu. crowned or, for Courland, charged on the breast with an escutcheon, on which are placed the arms of the reigning Duke. Supporters.— Two lions crowned, or, the whn(e within a 
mantle lined ermine, surmounted with a crown. Family Arms. — Arg. the wings or arms of a wind-mill, saltierways sa. voided of the field, five estoiles gii. Crest. — An estoile gu. between two wings elevated arg. 

Motto. — Virtus sibi munus. 

Right Hon. St< 

1 Cortlandl, ob. at Uortlandt, Somh Holland — 

Uigbt Hon. Oloff StevenBen,or OloflfStevens van Kortlandt,=Annetje Loockermans, da. of Govert 
as he Bubsequentiy signed his name ; nat. at Cortlandt, j Loiicltermans and Ariantje his wife, 
in South Holland, ob. cir. 1083. mar. 1042, ob. 1009. 

Right Hon. Ptephpnus, nne— Ge 





Johannes, nat. Oct 


Jacobus=;Eva Philipse 

Jlary, nat. 30th July,— Col. Jeremiah van 

Sophia— Andrew Teller 

Catharine— 1. Col. John d« Witt, Cornelia 

7th Mav, 1641; Mayor of 

1648, ob. 1667. 

nat. 7 Ju- 

1045. Rensselaer, Pa- 

nat. 31 

nat. 25lh or Jan der Vail. nat. 21sl 

New York, lO;? j first 

ob. a. p. 

ly, 1658, 

troon of Rensse- 


Oct. 1652 2. Frederick Philipse Nov. 

Lord of the Mnnnr of 


laer Wyek. 



Coillandt, purchased 

of the 

l(iri:i. iialenled l*lh Jun. 

llin?; "h. 17110. 


Johannes or John van 
Corthndt, rat. 24th 
net. 1672; Lord of 
the Manor of Cort- 

=Anna Sophia 

I van Schank, 

mar. Ilj95 

)liver, nat. 26th 
Oct. 1078, ob. 
s. p. 1708. 

Philip, nat. 9th=Calbarine de Stephen, nat 
Aug. lOaJ, ob. I Peyslet, ui 11th Aug. 
21st Aug. 1746 1710. 1685- 

Gjsbert, nat. 1689, ob. s. p. 

=t. Samuel Bayard- 

=2. Stephen or i'eter 


' O = = O tfl 

Wcsicheuer Co. 


26. h Oct. 1710, 
cestor of the Eng- 
lish branch, now 
represented by Mr. 
Taylor, of Pen- 
nirigtou, ob.Oct 17 

C. nat.=Mary Walton, 
Ricketts, mar. 
17118, da of 
Wni. Kickctts, 
Jumaica, and 
Wary Walton, 
of N. Y. 

AbrahRm, fhilip. John, nat. Pierre, nat. 10th=Joa 

1713, olj. 
s. p Kt. 

Feb. 1718, ob. 

vernor of the 
State of New 

Col. Philip, nat. Will. Rick- Catharine, 

Nov 10, 1739, etts, nat. nat Aug. 2? 

ob. May 1st, Marcb 13, 1745 ; ob. i 

1814. 1742 infant 

Brig Gen Philip van C. 
nat. Aug. 21,1749, O. 
S, ob. Nov. 21, 1831, 
The last of the heirs 
of the entail. 

Gilbert, nat. 6ih 
Aiiril. 17.=i7,ob. 
s. p. I2th.NL.v. 

Stephen, nat. 13tU 
Feb. 1760, ob, 3. 
p. 29th Aug. 

nat. 28th 
Aug. 1722, 
ob. lOlh 
Sept. 1808. 

I I 

Catharine, nat. Margaret=Hon. General 
26lh June, Thomas Gage, the 

172.7, killed father of Henry 

1736, by the l,ord Gage 

bursting of a 

the King's 
birth day. 

Cornelia— Col. Jnhn 
nat. 3u- I Sctluyler. 
1698. I 

Gen. Philip Schuyler. 

Major Gen. Pierre=l. Catharine 
nat. 29ih Aug. 
1762, ofCort- 
landt town, 

Catharine, nat.^Theodnsius Ciirnelia, nat.z=Gerard G. 

4th July, 1751, P. van 2d Aug. 1753, Beek- 

ob. ■J9th Sept. Wyck ob. 11th man. 

1829, ait. 78, 2 March, 1817, 

nio3. 9 days. at. 91. 

ine, nat.=P. S. van Gertrude, nat. 
L June, Rens' 2iith June, 

66. selaer. 1755, ob. 9ih 

Dec. i;6e. 

Col. Pierre van C. heir of his uncle=Catha 
Philip, and first proprietor 

the estate in fee simple. 

Beck, da. of 
Theudric Romeyn Beet 
Esq.M. D. of Albany. 

Theod'c Catharine 
Romeyn T, K. 



portion of Livonia, but was conquered by the Teutonic Knights 
in 1561. It subsequently became a fief of Poland. After the 
fall of that power it remained for a short time independent under 
its own Dukes, but in 1795 it was united to Russia,^ 

In th<3 early part of the 17th century, we find the Dukes of 
Courland engaged in the military service of the United Nether- 
lands. The Ducal troops are said to have rendered great assis- 
tance in the reduction of the towns of Karverden and Minden, 

The Dukes of Cour- 
land appear to have 
been represented in 
1610 by the Right 
Hon. Steven van Cort- 
landt, then residing at 
Cortlandt, in South 
Holland, father of the 
above mentioned OlofF 
Stevensen van Cort- 

Like his illustrious 
ancestors, Oloff Ste- 
vensen van Cortland 
chose the military profession. As early as 1639, we find 
him attached to the military service of the Dutch West 
India Company. He subsequently emigrated to this country, 
and was soon after his arrival at New Amsterdam, advanced to 
the civil department as commissary of cargoes, at a salary of 30 

Of this individual, the historian of New Netherland re- 
marks, " Oloff" Stevensen, or Oloff" Stevens van Corihindt, as he 
subsequently signed his name, left the Company's service in 1648. 
On becoming a freeman he embarked in trade, built a brewery in 
New Amsterdam, and became wealthy. He was Colonel of the 
Burghery, or City train bands in 1619, in which year he was also 
appointed one of the nine men. He was one of the signers to the 
Remonstrance transmitted to Holland against the administration 
of Director Kieft, and the high-handed measures of Director Sluy- 

Ducal Arras of Couriand. 

Schiutzler, La Russia, 585. 



vesant. In 1654 he was elected Schepen of the city of New 
Amsterdam, and in 1655 appointed Burgomeester, which office he 
filled almost uninterruptedly to the close of the Dutch govern- 
ment. His place of residence was in Brouwer-straat, now Stone 
street. He had the character of being a worthy citizen, and a 
man most liberal in his charities." By his wife Ann Loocker- 
mans, " he had issue — seven children — Siephanus who married 
Gertrude Schuyler ; Maria who married Jeremias van Rensselaer, 
12th July, 1662; Catharine, who married first, John Derval, and 
secondly, Frederick Philips ; Cornelia, who married Barent 
Schuyler; Jacob, who married Eva Philips; (ancestor of the 
Van Cortlandts of Yonkers;) Sophia, who married Andrew Tel- 
ler, and John who died unmarried. 

Oloff Stevens van Cortlandt died some time subsequent to 
1683, leaving his son Stephanus, then a highly respectable mer- 
chant in New York."a- 

In 1664, the name of Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt, occurs as 
one of the six commissioners, appointed to meet the English De- 
puties at Governor Stuyvesant's house in the Bowery, to treat 
concerning the surrender of the colony. This individual subse- 
quently signed the articles of capitulation. Among the wealthy 

Autograph and Seals of Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt. 

O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. 212. 


citizens of New Amsterdam in 1653, occurs the name of Oloff 
Stevens, who contributed the sum of 150 guilders, or 60 dollars, 
towards putting the city in a state of defence. a- 

In a tax list for the city of New York, A. D., 1674. the estate 
of Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt is assessed at 45,000 guilders ; 
his son's, Stephanus, at 5000 guilders.^ 

The Hon. Stephanus, (son of Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt,) 
was born on the 7th of May, 1643. This distinguished person- 
age, upon the death of his brother-in-law, Jeremias van Rensse- 
laer, A. D., 1675, became one of the three administrators of his 
estate, during the minority of Killian'van Rensselaer, (then 12 
years old.) Stephanus van Cortlandt had charge of the books, 
for which duty he received one hundred schepels of wheat. ^ Iq 
the year 1677 he was elected Mayor of the city of New York. 
He was also a member of the Governor's Council, and a Colonel 
in the provincial militia. 

Stephanus van Cortlandt died in the year 1700, leaving by his 
wife Gertrude Schuyler, eleven children, who intermarried with 
the DePeysters, DeLanceys, Beeckmans, Skinners, Bayards, 
Johnsons, and VanRensselaers. 

On the 14th of April, in the twelth year of the reign of William 
the Third, King of England, «fcc., Stephanus van Cortlandt made 
and published his last will and testament as follows: 

" Know all men by these presents, that I, Stephanus van Cort- 
landt, of the city of New York, merchant, being distempered in 
body, but of good, sound and firm memory, praised be Almighty 
God therefor, do make, ))ublish, and declare ; this my last will and 
testament, (this 14th day of April, in the yeai* of our Lord God 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, one thousand and seven hundred, in 
the twelfth year of the reign of our sovereign lord William the 
Third, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, (fcc.,) in manner and form following, that is to say, I be- 
queath my soul into the hands of the Almighty God, my heaven- 
ly Father, from whom I received it, and by whom of his mere 

a MS. Vol. City Rec. 

b Moulton's Sketch of New Orange. 

c O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. 212. 


grace I trust to be saved and received into His eternal rest, 
through the merits of my dear Saviour and Redeemer Jesus Christ. 
My body, in hopes of a joyful resurrection, I commit to the 
earth, to be buried in such decent manner and form as my exe- 
cutrix hereafter named, shall think fit and convenient," (Sec. 

Touchinor the distribution of what real estate it hath pleased 
God to endow me withal in this world, I devise to my eldest son 
Johannes van Gortlandt : 

" All that neck and parcel of land on the east side of the Hudson River, at 
the entering of the highlands over against a certain place called Haverstraw, 
which is known to the Indians by the name of Meanagh, (Verplanck's Point,) 
separated from my other lands known to the Indians by the name of Appam- 
aghpogh, by a certain creek called Meanagh, and bounded on the other side 
by the creek that runs between my land and the land of Richard Abramse and 
others, together with the rneadows that lie on said neck : to have and to hold 
said neck of land and premises, with their appurtenances, to the said Johan- 
nes, my son, his heirs and assigns forever. Item : I do give, devise and 
bequeath all my other lands, honours, mills, tenements, pastures, meadows, 
and their appurtenances, and other real estate whatsoever and wheresoever it 
be, unto my eleven children, by name Johannes, Margaret, Ann, Oliver, Mary, 
Philip, Stephanus, Gertrude, Elizabeth, Catharine, Cornelia, and lo such other 
children as it shall please God to bless me with : to have and to hold unto 
them, their heirs and assigns, in equal proportions, according to their priority 
of birth, &c."=^ 

The above will was proved on the 2d day of June, A. D. 1700. 

The will of Gertrude, his wife, bears date October, 1718. 
Upon the tfie 23d of December, A. D. 1706, Oliver van Gortlandt, 
one of the devisees of Stephanus, published his last will and tes- 
tament, in which he devised all his right, title and interest, of and 
into his portion, to his ten surviving brothers and sisters, by 
wliich they became seized in fee of Cortlandt's Manor as tenants 
in common. 

In the year 1730, (November 13th,) the aforesaid children and 
devisees drew up articles of agreement for the division of the Ma- 
nor. Upon the 29th of May, 1733, a division was made of that 
part of the Manor situated north of the River Croton. It was not, 
however, until November the 4ih, 1734, that a final partition, and 

» Surrogate's Office, N. Y. Lib. II. 78. 


division, of the Manor took place between the surviving children 
and grandchildren of Col. Stephanos van Cortlandt, when they 
gave to each other releases in due form of law, viz. : 

Phih'p Verplanck and Gertrude, his wife. 

Mary Melin. 

Samuel Bayard and Margaret, his wife. 

Andrew Johnson, and Catharine, ditto. 

Stephen de Lancey, and Anne, ditto. 

Philip Van Cortlandt. 

John Schuyler, and Cornelia, his wife.^- 

William Skinner, and Elizabeth, ditto. 

The original partition deed is in the possession of Philip 
G. van Wyck, Esq. of Sing Sing. The share of each heir 
amounted nearly to 8000 acres. 

By this partition of the Manor, the following lots were laid out 
to the devisees in Cortlandt town, viz. : 

River lot No. 1, to Philip van Cortlandt ; No. 2, Philip Ver- 
planck, who married Gertrude, only daughter and sole heiress of 
Johannes van Cortlandt, one of the original devisees. 

No. 3, William Skinner, who married Elizabeth van Cortlandt, 
This individual " was the first rector of St. Peter's Church, Perth 
Amboy ; his real name was MacGregor, and he was among those 
of that clan, proscribed after the rebellion of 1715; he had re- 
ceived a superior education, and was endued with a strong mind ; 
having received holy orders, he was appointed missionary to 
Amboy, in New .Jersey, 1721, and died rector, A. D. 1757."^ 

No. 4, Stephen van Cortlandt ; No. 5, Mr. Melin ; No. 6, Ste- 
phen de Lancey ; No. 7, Margaret Bayard, widow of Samuel Bay- 
ard ; No. 8, Mr. John Schuyler : this lot had been sold prior to 
partition. North lot No. 1, Andrew Johnson. We have previ- 
ously shown that Verplanck's Point, (by the will of Stephanus 
van Cortlandt,) passed t© his son Johannes or John, whose daugh- 
ter married Philip Verplanck. 

In the year 1734, we find Philip Verplanck, of Cortlandt's Ma- 
nor, and Gertrude, his wife, only daughter and heiress of Johan- 

» The father and mother of Gen. Philip Schuyler. 
b Whitehead's East Jersey, under the Proprietors. 


nes van Cortland t, tlie eldest son and heir of Colonel Stephanus, 
late of the city of New York, deceased, and John Lent, of the 
said manor, on the other part, bargaining, selling, devising, and 
leasing unto the said Joiui Lent — 

" All that certain neck or tract of land and meadow, situate, ]3dng and being 
in the manor of Cortlandt, being bounded on the east by the land commonly 
called Appamaghpogh, and a certain creek, called Meanagh, on the north by 
the land now belonging to Hercules Lent, and on the south and west by Hud- 
son's River, containing 1000 acres, the lessee yielding and paying therefor 
the yearly rent of one pepper-corn on the feast day of Saint Michael, the 

Above Verplanck's Point extended the patent of Hercules Lent, 
bounded on tlie north by Magregaries' creek. 

Lot No. 9 was the property of Andrew Johnson, Esq. ; No. 10, 
the portion of Gertrude Beeckman : this lady possessed the high- 
lands north of the Peekskill creek. 

The division of the Manor, east of the river lots in this town, 
consisted of lot No. 1, distinguished by the name of the south 
lot, the properly of Philip van Cortlandt, Esq. ; also, north 
lot ISo. 1, ihe property of Andrew Johnson, Esq. No. 1, 
south of the Croton, belonged to Philip van Cortlandt, from 
whom it passed to the Hon. Pierre van Cortlandt. The follow- 
ing advertisement, dated March the 18th, 1762, relates to the sale 
of the above lot. " Conditions of sale of south lot No. 1 : 978 
acres of land situated in the south-west corner of Cortlandi's ma- 
nor, and corner of north lot No. 6, belonging to the estate of 
Philip van Cortlandt, Esq., deceased, above mentioned, sometime 
posted in the New York Gazette, and now to be sold at public 
vendue, pursuant to an act of General Assembly, passed for that 
purpose and agreeable to a map hereunto annexed. Pierre Van 
Cortlandt, surviving executor of Philip, deceased, will give a 
title agreeable to the act of Assembly, &c. The lands are to be 
sold to the highest bidder, and the purchase money to be imme- 
diately paid as soon as the deeds are given. Dated Manor of 
Cortlandt, at the ferry house, near the mouth of Croton River."b 

»Co. Rec. lib. G. 681. 

b From the original document in possession of Philip G. van Wyck, Esq. 


"Upon the SOtii of March, 1762, John de Milt and Susannah 
his wife, conveyed to Pierre van Corllandt two tracts of land, the 
first being a part of lot No. 6, and the second lot i\o. 1 south of 
theCroton. The heirsof the above grantee still hold lot No. 1. Lot 
No. 2 belonged to Oliver de Lancey, and lot No. 3 to John Watts. 

Philip van Corllandt, the eldest survivin"^ son of Stephanus, 
was born on ti]e 9th of August, 1683. He married Catharine de 
Peyster, and on the failure of heirs male to his elder brother, John, 
continued the line of the family Upon the death of Philip, 
(which took place 21st August, 1746,) his property became di- 
vided among his six children, viz., Stephen, Abraham, Philip, 
John, Pierre and Catharine. Stephen, the eldest, married Mary 
Walion Ricketts. Their descendants at present reside in Enghmd, 
and have intermarried with many members of the British nobility.^- 

The fifth son, Pierre van Cortlandt, ultimately became the 
oldest surviving representative of the Van Cortlandt family in 
America, and the heir at law of the entail. 

Upon the breaking out of the revolutionary w^ar, Pierre van 
Cortlandt was appointed president of the committee of public 
safety, and v/as subsequently elected lieutenant governor of this 
state. Throughout the trying period of the revolution, he appears 
to have been the principal administrator of the state govermnent, 
(George Clinton being necessarily engaged in military duties.) 
His patriotic zeal rendered him so obnoxious to the enemy, that 
the British governor set a bounty on his head. 

The following obituary notice of this illustrious individual oc- 
curs in the Gazette office of May 17, 1814 : ' 

"Pierre Yan Cortlandt, early took an active part against every 
oppression of the British government upon the colonies. He was 
chosen into the first Provincial Congress, was a member of the 
committee which formed the constitution of this state, and was 
honored by the suffrages of his country at the first election un- 
der the new government with the station of lieutenant governor, 
and continued to be elected to that office for eighteen years suc- 
cessively. He was the friend and confident of that great patriot, 

^ The will of Philip Van Cortlandt was proved 17th November, 1748. Surro- 
gate's Office, N. Y., No. XVI., 375. 

YoL. I. - - -.8 


George Clin(on. In ibe revolution he shared the fate of the 
friends of their country ; his family were obliged to abandon their 
homes in the manor of Cortlandt, and take refuge in the interior. 
Firm and nndismayed in adversity; the ill success of our arms 
was a stnmikis to greater exertions. He was on^ of those who, 
relying on the justice of their cause, put their trust in God and 
stood firm at the post of danger. In prosperity he was not too 
much elated, but held a temperate and uniform course, having in 
view only the independence of the United States and the safety 
of his country. 

In the senate of this state he presided with dignity and pro- 
priety, nor ever suffered his opinion to be known until called 
upon constitutionally to decide ; and his vote was then given 
with promptness, uninfluenced by parly feelings, a»jd evidencing 
the convictions of a sound and honest mind. Jn the year 1795 
he declined a re-election as lieutenant governor, and retired into 
private life." 

The Hon. Pierre van Cortlandt died on the morning of the 
first day of ]\Iay instant, at his seat at Croton Kiver in this town, 
in the 94th year of his age, leaving issue by his wife Joanna Liv- 
ingston, Philip, Gilbert, Stephen, Pierre, Catharine, Cornelia, 
Anne and Gertrude. 

Philip, the eldest son, was born in the city of New York on 
the first day of September, 1749. This individual was brought 
up at the manor house on the Croton, and subsequently received 
a liberal education in the vicinity of Coldingham. N. Y. 

At the early age of nineteen he commenced business as a land 
surveyor; he had also the management of an extensive flouring 
mill and country store. Soon after the destruction of Lexington 
and Concord (by the British troops) he threw up business, and 
agreeing with his patriotic father in sentiment, determined by an 
appeal to arms, to obtain either liberty or death. In this inten- 
tion he was strongly opposed by his tory relations, who used 
every effort to induce him to join their standard. Governor Tryon 
at the same time forwarded him a major's conmiission in the Cort- 
landt militia. This document he subsequently destroyed, and re- 
ceived in lieu thereof a lieutenant colonel's commission in the Con- 
tinental service, bearing dale June, 1775, signed John Hancock, 


President of Congress. He continued to hold the above com- 
mand in the 4th New York recrinient until November the 28th, 
1776, when lie received from General Washington a colonel's 
commission in the 2d New York regiment. In this capacity he 
served at the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga. In both of these 
actions the New York regiment suffered severely. In the winter 
of 1778 he was ordered to protect the frontiers against the depre- 
dations of Brant, the Indian chief, who had destroyed much va- 
luable property and murdered several of the defenceless inhabi- 
tants. In pursuance of these orders Col. van Corllandt marched 
to Laghawack, where he posted his command. Soon afterwards 
havinof received fresh orders from the commander-in-chief, he 
was on the eve of marchino; when Brant, supposing he had left 
the neighborhood, prematurely set fire to an adjoining village. 
The colonel immediately started his whole command in hot pur- 
suit. Upon the first tidings, however, of their approach, Brant 
fled to the neighboring hills. In his diary Gen. Philip van Cort- 
landt remarks, "As I approached him (Brant) he being on the 
hills, and seeing me leaning against a pine tree waiting for the 
closing up of my men, ordered a rifle Indian to kill me, but for- 
tunately he over-shot me, tlte. ball passing three inches over my 
head. I then porsned him, but could not overtake him, as he 
ran through a large swamp.'' 

In the year 1779-80, Col. van Cortlandt was a member of the 
court that tried Gen. B. Arnold for improper conduct. His own 
views of the matter are thus recorded in his diary : '• Gen. Arnold 
being under arrest for improper conduct in Philadelphia, while 
he commanded there, I was chosen one of the court-mr.rtial, Maj. 
Gen. Howe, President. There were also in that court four offi- 
cers who had been at Ticonderoga when Col. Hazen was called 
on for trial, &c. ; we were for cashiering Arnold, but the majority 
overruled, and he was finally sentenced to be reprimanded by 
the commander-in chief. Had all the court known Arnold's for- 
mer conduct as well as myself he would have been dismissed the 
service," &c. 

In the year 17S0 Col. van Cortlandt was selected as one of 
the colonels to command a regiment of infantry under Major 
General La Fayette. A letter is still preserved in the family 


from tlie Marquis de la Fayette to the colonel, dated Light Camp, 
16th September, ITSO, and the following from the commander-in- 
chief to Col. van Corilandt : 

Str : — Vou will take charge of the clothing, the boats, entrenching tools, 
and such other stores as shall be committed to your care by the quarter master- 
general ; with these you are to proceed (Sir in the order they are mentioned) 
to Springfield by the way of Sufferan, Pompton, theTwo Bridges, and Chat- 
ham.. When you arrive at Springfield you will put yourself u^der the order 
of Major Gen. Lincoln, or any other your superior officers commanding at 
that place. You will also, if occasion should require it, alter the above route 
agreeably to orders from either Major General Lincoln or the quarter- master- 

You will be particularly careful to collect all your men that are in proper 
condition to march, and will use your best endeavors to prevent desertion. 

Given at King's Bridge this 25lh day of August, 178L 

Geo. Washington. 

At the battle of Yorktown, in Virginia, Col. van Cortland t ap- 
pears to have served on piquet guard ; for his conduct on this 
occasion he was advanced to the rank of brigadier general. To 
his care the commander-in-chief entrusted 700 British and Hes- 
sian prisoners of war, which he conducted in safety to Freder- 
icksburg. During the spring of 1782 his cainp on the Flat 
Fields was visited by General and Lady Washington. ^ 

Upon the suspension of hostilities Gen. van Cortlandt retired 
to the manor house at Croton ; he was afterv/ards chosen one of 
the commissioners of forfeitures, and represented for sixteen years 
this district in Congress, declining re-election in 1811. Gen. 
van Cortlandt accompanied the Marquis de la Fayette in his tour 
of the United States in 1824. The general died at his house on 
the Croton November 21st, 1S31, and with him expired the en- 
tail. By his will he bequeathed to his brother, Gen. Pierre van 
Cortlandt, fiOO acres ; to his three sisters, Anne van Kensselaer, 
Cornelia Beeckman, and Catharine van Wyck. 200 acres each; 
and his western lands to his nephew, the present Philip G. van 
"Wyck of Sing Sing. The latter gentleman has since inherited 

» Extracts from Gen. Philip van Cortlandt's diary in the possession of his nephew, 
Philip G. van Wyck, Sing Sing. 



his mother's portion consisting of 200 acres on north lot No. 1, 
south of tfie Croton, together with 112 acres north of that river. 
The first independent election for officers of the town of 
Cortlandt took place April 1st, 17S8, when the following indi- 
viduals were chosen officers for the year ensuing : — 

Philip van Cortlandt, Supervisor. 

Joseph Travis, Town Clerk. 

Daniel Birdsall. 1 

Nathaniel Brown, )>• Poor Masters. 

Pierre van Cortlandt, J 

David Ferris, Constable. 

John Paulding, Collector. 

John Jones, "1 

Nathaniel Brown, ) 

John Paulding, )► Fence Viewers. 

Bariah Richardson, J /■ 

Abraham Merritt, J 

Hercules Lent, "] 

Jonathan Ferris, ^Commissioners of Highways. 

Pierre van Cortlandt, J 

Abraham Merritt, 
Henry Lent, son of 

Jarvis Dusenberry, 
Caleb Barton, 
John Haight, 

John Jones, 
Henry Griffen, 
Abraham Merritt, 
John Paulding, 

Gerritt Storms, 
Philip van Cortlandt, 
Elisha Hammon, 
Joshua Bishop, 
Thomas Conkling, 
John Garrison, 
Joseph Mandeville, 
Richard Curry, jun., 
John Ferris, 
John Lee, 
Daniel Hall, 
Ludlow Haight, 
Sam'l. Field, 
Benj. McCord, 

Peeksldll, the principal village in Cortlandt town, is situated 
on the east shore of the Bay of the same name. This place corn- 



)► Pound Masters. 


> High way Masters. 


mands every advantage of river navigation, besides an extensive 
inland trade, of which it forms the depot. 

By the Mohegan Indians the place was called Sachoes, a term 
derived from the adjoining lands. The small stream intersecting 
the village was called by them Magrigaries. 

The Dutch first denominated the village Peckskill from Jan 
Peck, one of their early navigators, who, mistaking the present 
Annsville creek for the proper passage through the race, ran his 
yacht ashore on the former. Here he subsequently erected a ha- 
bitation and spent the winter. 

The earliest settlement ui this neighborhood commenced one 
mile north-east of Poekskill, on the property of Capt. John McCoy. 
The landing place was then at Pemart's dock, near the head of 
the tide waters of the creek. 

On the Sth day of x\ugust, 1745, occurs a sale of land from 
Andrew Johnson and Isabella his wife, daughter ofStephanus 
van Cortlaudt, to Caleb Hall and Palatiah Haws, consisting of a 
part of lot No. 2, situated in great front lot No. 9, beginning on 
south side of Peck's creek, containing 351 acres, excepting 16 acres 
of land conveyed by said Johnson to Mrs. Gertrude Beeck nan.* 

Fifteen years subsequent to the above sale, Andrew Johnson 
conveys to Caleb Hall, Joseph Travis and Palatiah Haws, "lands 
situated at a place called Peekskill.''^ 

In the year 1764, Daniel Birdsall, Nathaniel Brown, Joseph 
Travis, and Capt. Isaac Conklin, commenced the settlement of 
the present village. At that early period there was little or no 
business transacted here. The first store was erected by Daniel 
Birdsall in the vicinity of middle dock, near the mill of Andrew 
Johnson, Esq. C. plain Swim is said to have sailed the first 
sloop from Pemart's dock, A. D. 1773. 

Peekskill now contains about 3,000 inhabitants, 250 dwelling 
houses, 1 bank, 10 churches of different denominations, 6 hotels 
and public houses, 3J stores, 2 tanneries, 2 soap manufactories, 1 
hat, 2 cabinet, and 3 carriage manufactories. Also several iron 
foundries, some of which are very extensive and manufacture 

» Co. Rec. Lib. G., p. 403. b Co. Rec. Lib. H., p. 344. 


large quantities of stoves and plongli castings, belonging to the 
Messrs. Thos. Southard, Taylor, Flacrjer <fc Co. ; Minor, Horlon 
& Co. ; Reuben R. Finch 6c Co. ; C. A. Depew & Co. ; Whiiney 
(fe Montanya; Rikeman & Seymour, and Judson H. C^Jilbert & 
Son ; besides the salamander fire brick manufactory of Abraham 
M. Lord, and C. C. Queen's manufactory of portable blacksmith's 
forges. There are now owned in this village 1 steamboat engaged 
in transporting passengers and produce, G sloops besides a steam- 
boat which runs daily to and from the city of New York, land- 
ing at Sing Sing, Tarrytown, Yonkers, (fcc. The Hudson river 
steamboats also land passengers several times daily at Caldwell's 
Landing, opposite Peekskill, affording almost hourly communi- 
cation with the city of New York, by the aid of a steam ferry boat. 
The village of Peekskill was incorporated A. D., 1839, under 
the style and title of the '' Corporation of the Village of Peekskill." 
Its officers consist of a president and four trustees. The Peeks- 
kill Academy is a flourishing chartered institution, delightfully 
situated on Oak Hill. Near it is still standing the tree on 
which was hung, during the revolutionary war, Daniel Strang, 
the British spy.a- " One Daniel Strang, (says Thatcher,) was 
found lurking about our army at Peekskill, and on examination 
enlisting orders were found sewed in his clothes. He was im- 
mediately tried as a spy from the enemy, sentenced to suffer 
death, and was executed accordingly."^ 

The most interesting evidence, (remarks a recent traveller,) 
that there is a spark of public spirit existing in this ancient set- 
tlement which will sooner or later burst into a flame, is to be 
found in the establishment of a high school, and the erection of 
a very neat, spacious and appropriate edifice for that purpose on 
a most delightful eminence, where the healthful and invigorating 
breeze from the towering mountains in the vicinity pours forth 
its medicinal influence, and where the soul alive to the senti- 
ments of beauty, variety and sublimity, can view wiih rapture 
the variegated and picturesque scenery, the beautiful and expan- 
sive bay, the towering and gigantic Dunderberg, the " race," and 

» N. Y. Gazeteer. b Thatcher's Journal. 


the opening of the majestic Highlands. But my pen affords an 
altogether inadequate description of the scene. 

Peekskill is certainlj^ well situated for purposes of education, 
furnishing as it does facilities for communicating daily, nay, al- 
most hourly, with the great city; and from my own personal in- 
ference, as well as the testimony of others, I doubt whether there 
is a place in the whole range of the Hudson, where health can be 
more conveniently soi^oht, or more surely gained. 

The academy was built with a capital stock of $7000, divided 
into shares of five dollars each, and taken up principally by the 
inhabitants of the village. The principal, Mr. Albert Wells, is a 
very worthy, intelligent teacher. The present number of pupils 
is about sixty. Board is furnished in the same building to 
scholars whose parents do not reside in the vilhige.a 

Near the entrance of the village stands the Westchester Bank. 
This institution was first established in Peekskill in 1833, with a 
capital of $200,000, and General Pierre van Cortlandt elected 
President. It is at present in a flourishing condition, and like 
the hills of Westchester, has so far stood firm and unmoved amid 
troublesome times. The stock has sold at almost as orreat an 
advance as ever the United States Bank stock did. The 
Westchester Bank declared its first dividend six months after its 
establishment. The bills contain a beautiful vignette represent- 
ing the capture of Andre by the three farmers of Westchester 
County ; besides a neat engraving of the Hon. Pierre van Cort- 
landt. There is also a bust of this individual in the bank, presented 
by his son, Gen. Pierre van Cortlandt. 

The present board of directors consist of : 

Pierre van Cortlandt, Joseph H. Anderson, 

James B. Travis, Ebenezer Foster, 

Philip Clapp, Isaac Seymour, 

Frederick W. Requa, Jasper S. Odell, 

Samuel Brewster, Charles A. G. Depew, 

Aaron Vark, John Williams, 

James Bailey. 

» Letters about the Hudson, p. 21, 22. 


Isaac Seymour, Esq. has held the office of cashier with distin- 
guished abihty since the first organization of the institution. 

The Episcopal Church of St. Peter's is a handsome gothic 
structure of wood, situated on the north side of the village. The 
interior contains a neat chancel, gallery, and organ. Against the 
north wall of the church is placed a marble tablet, inscribed as 
follows : - • 

M. S. 
Ann Stevenson, 
The affectionate and beloved wife of 
Gen. Pierre van Cortlandt, 
of this township and county, 
who departed this life at Albany, March 20th, 1821, '; , . 
translated by God to a kingdom of happiness and glory, _ '' -. 
aged 46 years, 6 months and 16 days. - ' " 

Early instructed by her pious mother in the doctrines and principles of the 
gospel, this excellent woman became exemplary as a communicant of the 
church when only thirteen years old, and continuing to be a sincere and hum- 
ble follower of her Saviour, even unto her life's end, was endeared to all who 
knew her by her Christian virtues, and for a pure and devoted attachment to 
Christ's holy apostolic church, to the members of this congregation, who, as a 
memorial of her worth and mark of respect for her venerable consort and her 
only son, benefactors of this parish, have erected this tablet. 

-, Requiescat in pace. - - • " "• 

There is a fine bell in the tower bearing the following inscrip- 
tion : '' Cast by G. H. Holbrook, East Medway, Mass. 1811. 
Presented to Saint Peter's Church, Peekskill, Westchester Coun- 
ty, New York, by Gen. Pierre van Cortlandt, August 29th, 1841." 
The marble font was the gift of his son, Colonel Pierre van Cort- 

The site of this church was formerly occupied by a military 
magazine, destroyed by the British army in 1777. Large quan- 
tities of grape shot have been found in the immediate vicinity. 
Adjoining the building on the south is situated the family vanlt 
of Ward B. Howard, Esq. (now president of the village corpora- 
ation,) in which repose the mortal remains of his late wife, Lucia 

YoL. L 9 


Howard, daughter of the late Hon. Robert Johnston. * Also 
the remains of his nephew, Wilham J. Mitchell, (son of the 
late Chauncey Mitchell, Esq.) who was unfortunately killed by 
the explosion of the steamer Gen. Jackson, off Yerplanck's Point, 
June 7th, 1S31. 

This church was first incorporated 19th*July, 1838, under the 
title of the " AVardens and Vestrymen of St. Peter's Chapel, in the 
village of Peekskill," on which occasion Pierre Van Cortlandt 
and Samuel Marks, were elected wardens, and Daniel D. Smith, 
Samuel T. Wood, John CoUett, Elihu E. Baker, Alex. Fairly, 
Wm. B. Birdsall, Nicholas Cruger, and Isaac Seymour, vestry- 
men. ^ 

A third incorporation occurs under the title of " St. Peter's 
Church of Cortlandt," 28th August, lS40.c 

This church is annexed to a much older one of the same name, 
situated two miles north of the village, where occasional services 
are still performed. 

The Dutch Reformed Church is a neat wooden edifice, sur- 
mounted with a spire of the same material, standing nearly 
south of the Episcopal Church. Above the entrance is a tablet 
inscribed — 

The Van Nest 

Reformed Dutch Church, 

Founded A. D. 1839. 

Abraham A^an Nest and George Douglass, Esquires, appear to 
have been liberal benefactors towards the erection of this church. 
A silver communion service was also presented by the former in- 
dividual. The first Reformed Dutch Church located in this vil- 
lage, stood on the hill west of the Episcopal Church, adjoining 
the Diviu property. Nothing remains at present to mark its site, 
save a small enclosure containing a (ew interments. In this ce- 
metery is a plain marble monument to the memory of Lieut. 
George McChain, which bears the following truly classical in- 
scription, composed by the Hon. R. R. Pray, Chancellor of the 
State of Mississippi : 

*■ Mrs. Howard died on the 8th of March, 1834. 
b See Religious Soc lib. B. p. 56. 
e Lib. B. p. 60. 



Near this stone lie the remains of 

George McChain, 

Lieutenant in the sixth regiment of the 

United States Infantry, and distinguished 

for his valour in the battles of Chippeway and 

Bridgewater. In him were united the energy 

of the soldier, with the easy politeness of the 

gentleman. Impressed with the great truths 

of religion, he was hospitably, gentle, sober, just, 

and contemplative. From the ardour of his 

love of country, he early devoted himself to her 

service, where he was brave without vanity, and 

magnanimous without ostentation. To 

perpetuate the memory of so beloved a character, 

his mourning friends have erected this humble stone, 

a frail memorial of their veneration for his virtues, 

and a faint testimony of their grief for a misfortune, 

alas : indelibly engraven on their hearts. 

He died on the 19th day of October, 1818, 

Aged 32 years. 

Also monuments to the memory of his father John McChain, 
one of the Westchester guides in the revolutionary war, and the 
Rev. Allen Blair, who departed this life June 14, aged 72 years; 
also Jane, wil''e of St. John Constant, who died April 2, 1817. 

The Van Nest Reformed Dutch Church in Peekskill, was in- 
corporated on the 3d of January, 1843, and called by the above 
name, " in consideration of the private virtues and public liberality 
of Abraham Van Nest of New York." The consistory also resolved 
to confide the manaofement to a board of nine trustees. The follow- 
ing gentlemen were elected to this office, on the 16th of January, 
1843: James Goetchius, William Leavins, John P. Cruger, 
Washington S. Whitney, J. Henry Ferris, Thomas Nelson, Her- 
cules Lent, Charles A. G. Depew and N. S. Jacobs. a 

The Presbyterian Church is situated on the south side of Ma- 
grigaries brook, upon land the gift of Nathaniel -Brown, Esq. 

The first edifice was erected A. D. 1799 ; the principal bene- 
factors towards which, were Stephen Brown, Esq., and his mother- 
in-law, Mrs. Hannah Brewer. In possession of the present Dr. 

a Relig. Soc. Lib. B. 80, 82. 


Brewer of this place is preserved an account of monies expended 

by Messrs Samuel Haight and Stephen Brown, in building the 

meeting house in Peekskill. Total expenditure £371 8s. Id. dated 

Peekskiil, 13 Sept. 1799. 

Samuel Haiorht, ) rr< 
Stephen Brown, \ Trustees. 

During the ministry of the Rev. Silas Constant, a division took 
place in the congregation. The seceding party erected a new 
church, but subsequently became merged in the Reformed Dutch 
Church in 1826. The present building which was erected in 
1845, is a handsome wooden structure, surmounted with a neat 
tower and spire ; the former contains a large bell and clock. In 
the cemetery adjoining the church are monuments to Capt. Isaac 
Conklin, who departed this life, January, 13th, 1815, aged 68 
years, Zebulon Philips, and Samuel Strang, M. D., and others. 
There are also inclos ure belonging to the Brown, Bedle and 
Rundle families, in which numerous interments have been made. 
This church is in conection with the 2d New York Presbytery. 

The following is a list of the pastors and supplies of this 
church from the year 1800. The Rev. Silas Constant, A. D. 
ISOO ; Rev. John Manly, Rev. Abraham Purdy, Rev. Andrew 
Thompson, Rev. Abner Brundage, Rev. John H. Leggett, A. D. 
lS2'3-7; Rev. Peter Lockwood, Rev. William Marshall, Rev. 
D. M. HalliJay, present minister. 

The Independent Presbyterian congregation in the village of 
Peekskill was incorporated 29th September, 1813 ; John Lent, 
John Constant, and Samuel Strang first trustees. a 

The new school Presbyterian church of this place was first 
organized November 17, 1841, by a committee from the North 
River Presbyter}^ 

The present church edifice was erected A. D. 1845, and dedi- 
cated to the service of God 9th of April, 1845 ; the society was 
incorporated by its present name July 29th, 1846. The first pas- 
tor was the Rev. Daniel Brown. This individual was installed 
May 4th, 1842. Mr. Brown died on the 8th of November, 1846, 

^ Religious Soc. Lib. A. 102, 188. 


and was succeeded by the Rev. Livingston Willard (present pas- 
tor) April 15th, 1847' 

The Baptist society must have been established here at an 
early date; this appears from the following document, entitled 
an agreement made the 17th day of December, A. D. 1772, by 
and between tfie subscribers, as follows, to wit : 

Whereas the society of people called Baptists, by way of voluntary sub- 
scription, have lately erected and built a house for public worship at or near a 
place called Peekskill, in the manor of Cortlandt, and as there is not as yet a 
sufficient sum of money raised to pay for the building said house, we the sub- 
scribers do agree upon and appoint Caleb Hall, of said manor of Cortlandt, to 
hire a sum of money sufficient to pay the deficiency ; and we jointly and seve- 
rally promise, and oblige ourselves, our heirs, executors and administrators, to 
• pay to the said Caleb Hall, his executors or administrators, one equal part of 
the sum that he shall so hire, according to the proportion of our first subscrip- 
tion: Provided that if there shall be money raised by way of subscription suf- 
ficient to pay the cost laid out in building said house, that the money so hired 
shall be paid out of the same. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our 

Caleb Hall, Sen. John Poun, 

Isaac Horton, Sen. Joshua Horton, 

Daniel Hall, • . Caleb Hall, Jr. 

Richard Williams, , ' ', Nathan Brown, 

Nathan Eliot, ' Oliver Yeomans. 

The first Baptist church stood near General Pierre van Cort- 
landt's, directly on the spot now occupied by the district school- 

The present society was organized in 1843, under the style 
and title of the First Baptist Church in Peekskill. The meeting 
house, which is valued at $3,400, was erected August, 1847, and 
dedicated the 8th of April, 1847, to the service of Almighty God. 
On this occasion the Rev. W. R. Williams, D. D., delivered the 
dedicatory sermon. This church belongs to the senior Baptist 
, ^ association. Upon the 31st October, 1843, the Rev. Edward 
Conover was duly elected pastor ; this individual was succeeded, 
November 25, 1844, by the Rev. C. C. Williams. The present 
pastor is the Rev. P. Buel, who commenced his ministrations 23d 
August, 1846. The communicants belonging to this church 
^ average forty. 


The Methodist Episcopal church in Peekskill was first incor- 
porated 2d August, ISOS ; Bethune Washburn, Gilbert Weeks 
and John Spock, trustees.^ The Methodist society must have 
been in existence, however, some time previous to the above in- 
corporation, for on the 26th February, 1795, we find John Drake 
and Catharine his wife conveying three-quarters* of an acre of 
land in this place to William Hallock, Thomas Clark, William 
Weeks, Abraham Travis and Stephen Newby, managers of the 
Methodist society. The present church edifice, erected A. D. 
1837, occupies the site of a still older building erected in 1811 : 
to it is attached a small grave yard. The communicants of this 
church number two hundred. 

The Protestant Methodist society was first established here in 
1827, and incorporated 23d November, 1836 ; John Spock, Wil- 
liam R. Steel and Thomas Blackney trustees. b 

The Wesleyan or Primitive Methodists originally belonged to 
the old Methodist society, from which body they seceded in 1839* 
Their first pastor was the Rev. John Miles. The church edifice 
was erected in 1839. and incorporated A. D. 1842. 

The society of Friends was first organized here in 1804, and 
the oldest house erected in 1811, upon land given for that purpose 
by Nathaniel Brown, Esq. 

One of the most interesting objects in the village of Peekskill 
is the old Birdsall residence, situated directly opposite the Bank. 
This house during the American Revolution was occupied occa- 
sionally by General Washington as head-quarters when the army 
happened to be stationed here. In this time honored mansion 
the visitor is still shown the sleeping apartments of Washington 
and his noble companion in arms La Fayette. The furniture 
occupies nearly the same position as at that day, and the old 
clock still marks the passing liour as it did seventy-seven years 
ago. The colored woman who waited upon the illustrious visi- 
tors died in 1841. The Rev. George Whitfield also preached in 
one of the parlors. 

The village landing is pleasantly situated at the foot of a high 
bank, commanding a fine view of the Peekskill Bay, the Dun- 

» Religious Soc. Lib. A. p. 102. h Religious Soc Lib. B. p. 47. 


derbarrach, Rahway Hook, and the entrance to the Highlands ; 
directly opposite is Caldwell's Landing in Rockland county, with 
which the \V^estchester shore is connected by a ferry. Across 
this ferry the American troops were frequently transported during 
the Revolution. In the vicinity of the landing there was formerly 
a silver mine in operation ; the following register of its discovery 
occurs in the Secretary of State's office. 

No. 8 name of Discoverer. In ivhich County. Recorded. Book. Page. 

Gilbert Weeks. W. C. Co., town of March 16, 26. 190. 

Cortlandt, within a 1796. 
quarter of a mile of 
Peekskill landing, 
on the north side of 
McGregory's brook 
silver ore. 

Numerous minerals are also found in this neighborhood, such 
as Epidote, Garnet, &c. Sphene is said to have been discovered 
near Peekskill in an aggregate of quartz. Sulphate of barytes 
exists in the region of Anthony's Nose. 

Gregory's brook (sometimes called Magrigarie's creek,) rises in 
Magrigarie's pond, a few miles east of the village. This rapid 
stream, after flowing through a deep and wooded glen, empties 
into the Hudson near the landing place. 

The romantic hills which abound in the immediate vicinity of 
Peekskill are many of them connected with stirring events dur- 
ing the revolutionary war. Among the most prominent is Gal- 
lows hill, famous as the spot where the spy Palmer was executed 
by order of General Putnam, whose laconic reply to Sir Henry 
Clinton, the British commander, deserves an enduring record. It 
appears that Clinton had sent up a flag of truce from New York, 
demanding the release of Edmund Palmer, his lieutenant, who 
had been detected as a spy in the American camp. The brief 
and emphatic answer of Putnam runs thus: 

'' Head Quarters, 7th August, 1777. 
" Sir : Edmund Palmer, an officer in the enemy's service, was 
taken as a spy lurking within the American lines. He has been 


tried as a spy, condemned as a spy, and shall be executed as a 
spy ; and the flag is ordered to depart immediately. 

Israel Putnam." 

" P. S. — He has been accordingly executed." 

From this circumstance the hill derived its present appellation. 
The story of Palmer's sad fate is thus graphically described in 
the republican paper of Peekskill : — 

" In the summer of the year 1780, and for some time preceding and follow- 
ing, on the southern and eastern sides of the hill, and along the rich valley 
\vhich lies at its base, was quartered a division of the American army under 
the command of Gen. Putnam. Disaffection and treachery prevailed on every 
side ; men there were who from fear or from other base causes refused to take 
part on the side of virtue and patriotism, and remained as neutrals, wavering 
between each party, and acting as their personal safety seemed most to re- 
quire. Many, calling themselves Whigs, were constantly endeavoring by cov- 
ert means to blast the hopes and discourage the gallant few who were strug- 
gling at the side of liberty, by giving to their enemies that information of their 
situation and prospects which they had obtained by the most abject treachery. 
To destroy these evils required the greatest vigilance and severity on the part 
of the American commander. Early one morning, in the month of August, a 
party of the militia, three in number, brought a young man by the name of 
Palmer, whom they had taken on suspicion of his being a spy and having en- 
listing orders from Try on, the British general then com.manding in New York. 
The enormity of his offence was such, that if proved, it demanded the most 
vigorous punishment. A court martial was therefore immediately convened, 
and from the circumstances given to the court by those who arrested him, and 
the evidence of many of the country people, who gave an unfavorable account 
of his conduct, he was convicted and sentenced to be executed as a spy. 

" The prisoner was a young man of athletic form, and possessed elegant at- 
tainments, had a wife and children then residing in Yorktown, the place of his 
nativity, and was connected with some of the most respectable families of 
West Chester. The most urgent intercessions were immediately made to ob- 
tain his release, but in vain ; the stern justice of Putnam was not to be overcome 
bv any feelings of pity. The British general wrote a letter to the American com- 
mander, demanding his prisoner, and threatening him with vengeance if a com- 
pliance with his demand was not immediately acceded to ; but he received for 
answer that the prisoner was " taken as a spy, tried as a spy, convicted as a 
spy, and that be should be hung as a spy." Here the matter rested until the 
morning previous to his execution, when the wife of Palmer presented herself 
before the commanding officer in his tent. She had come there with her child 
in her arms, to throw herself with humble submission at the foot of the man 
who by a word, she thought, could relieve her aching heart of its load of mis- 


ery. , In the artless and winning eloquence of a bursting heart, she represent- 
ed to him the awful situation in which she would be placed should the fearful 
sentence that had been passed upon her husband be carried into effect. She 
implored him, by every tie of affection that bound two young hearts together 
— for the sake of the infant she pressed to her bosom, who, if left fatherless, 
would wander through the world disgraced and an orphan — by his own feel- 
ings as a father and a husband, to have mercy on him v»'ho was all to her this 
world could bestow. Her tears, her deep distress and her passionate excla- 
mations fell deep into the heart of the war-worn soldier ; but they did not alter 
his stern resolve. With a dignity of purpose and a countenance that told how 
intense were the feelings then glowing within him, he told her he must die. 
Insensible she was carried from his presence and conveyed back to her friends. 
The following morning, at the hour appointed for his execution, on an enclosed 
spot of ground near the summit, on the eastern side of the hill, was seen a 
gallows rudely constructed of logs, with a rope appended thereto. The trees 
and fences were filled with men, women and children who had come far and 
near to witness the awful scene, and the prisoner was led out to the appointed 
spot where his last view of the world was taken, and prepare his mind for its 
sudden transit into eternity. It is but just to say, that whether hung guilty or 
innocent, he met his fate with the fortitude of a man. The body, after being- 
suspended a suitable time, was taken down and given to his friends for inter- 

Such is the story of Gallows Hill. The sad fabric of Jogs 
which had been raised for his execution remained standing for 
several years after the war, an object of dread and superstition to 
the more ignorant of the country people whose daily avocations 
compelled them to pass it.^ 

The summit of Gallows Hill embraces a fine view of the river, 
the scenery of the race and surrounding country. The remains 
of Fort Look Out are situated on the adjoining hill. During the 
revolutionary contest, the village of Peekskill appears to have suf- 
fered severely from the enemy's incursions. "Before the British 
army took the field, for the third campaign of 1777, (says Mr. 
Smith) two enterprizes for the destruction of American stores were 
undertaken. Col. Bird landed with about 500 men at Peekskill, 
March 23, fifty miles from New York. The few Americans 
who were stationed as a guard at this place, on the approach of 
the British, fired the principal store-houses and retired. The loss 

a Westchester and Putnam Republican, May 14, 1833, 

Vol. 1. 10 


of the provisions was considerable.''^ '' September, 1777, the en- 
emy came out on both sides of the Hudson simultaneously in 
considerable force, consisting of from two to three thousand men, 
on which occasion the American barracks and store-houses, and the 
whole village of Peekskill was sacked and burnt dA^di the country 
pillaged."b The Weekly Mercury of Feb. 16th, 1778, (published 
by Hugh Gaines,) contains a letter from Commodore Hotham to 
Vice Admiral Lord Viscount Howe, which by his lordship was 
transmitted to all ships in service, <fcc., dated on board his Ma- 
jesty's ship the Preston, lying oiF Peekskill creek. Major Burr 
was stationed at Peekskill on the 21st July, 1777, when he re- 
ceived a lieutenant colonel's commission in the continental army, 
and from this place the traitor Arnold likewise received his ap- 
pointment to West Point, dated August the 3d, 1780. 

In the vilbge of Peekskill was born John Paulding, one of the 
American farmers who intercepted Andre the British spy, at Tar- 
rytown, some fifteen miles below this place. For his services on 
'this occasion the state presented him with a farm situated within 
the town of Cortland t. The property now belongs to Jacob 

The following abstract is taken from a deed given by Samuel 
Dodge, Daniel Graham, and John Hotham, commissioners of for- 
feitures for the middle district of New York, to John Paulding, 
of Cortlandt Manor : 

For and in consideration of the services John Paulding, of Cortlandt 
IManor, in the County of Westchester, hath rendered his country, in appre- 
hending and securing the British deputy adjutant Gen. Major Andre, who was 
returning to New York after having in the character of a spy concerted mea- 
sures with the infamous Benedict Arnold, then commanding at the posts in 
the Highlands, for betraying the said posts into the hands of the enemy, and 
for his virtue in refusing a large sum of money offered by the said Major 
Andre as a bribe to permit him to escape ; and for and in consideration of the 
sum of five shillings lawful money of the State of New York, and for the fur- 
ther sum of twenty-five pounds ten shillings like lawful money of the said 
stale, by the said John Paulding paid into the treasury of the said state, 
the said commissioners by virtue of the powers and authorities in and 

<» Military Repository, by Charles Smith. 
\> Burr's Mem. Vol. 1, 180. 


by the several acts to them given, hath by their deed bearing date on the 16th 
day of June, 1783, granted and sold unto the said John Paulding all that cer- 
tain tract or parcel of land, situated in the manor of Corllandt, in said county 
of Westchester, and state aforesaid, now in possession of said John Paulding, 
and is commonly known by lot No. 14 in great lot No. 1, containing 100 acres. 
Also, another tract, part of farm No. 13, in great north lot No. 1, contain- 
taining 21 acres. Also, another part of farm No. 13, in great lot No. 1, and 
is part of the land which Palatiah Haws purchased for Thomas Lee in Ma- 
gragaria swamp, 10 acres. Also, another part of farm No. 15, a part of 
great north lot No. 1, 37 acres. ^ 

168 acres, 16 rods of land, appraised for . . JC529 10 
Gratuity allowed by law . . . . . . 500 

Excess from him received . . ; £2d 10 

John Paulding died on the 18th of February, 1.8 IS. A few- 
minutes before the patriot expired, he called Dr. Fountain, (his 
medical attendant,) to the bed side, and thus addressed him : 
" Doctor, please tell all those who ask after me, that I die a true 
republican." Paulding's remains repose beneath a handsome 
monument in the Episcopal grave-yard, two miles north of the 

Upon the north side of Gallows Hill, by the road side leading 
from Peekskill to Albany, is situated the *' Soldier's Spring," 
which derived its name from the foHowing tragical incident : 

" The British, who were in possession of Stony Point, and whose shipping 
lay in the bay of Haverstraw, resolved upon landing a portion of their men on 
Yerplanck's Point, and from thence make a descent upon Peekskill. Their 
object in this expedition was to procure fresh provisions and to wake the en- 
ergies of the Americans who were encamped in the village and in various 
places among the hills in its vicinity. In accordance with this resolve they 
effected a landing and proceeded without opposition to Drum Hill, an eminence 
which overlooks the village near its southern boundary. Here they com- 
menced cannonading with two small field pieces which they had brought 
■with them, while their light troops entered the village by another road higher 
up the river. The Americans unprepared, and withal too weak to resist so 
formidable a foe, were obliged after a short resistance to fly to the interior. 
Their enemies from the commanding points which they occupied, kept up a 
constant firing upon them as they sought the various avenues of retreat. It 

a County Clerk's Office, Abstract of Sales, p. 137. 


was at this period when a soldier in his flight stopped for a moment to refresh 
himself at the spring. ^Yhile on his hands and knees in the act of drinking, a 
ball which struck on the eminence above him, glanced obliquely, and descend- 
ing the road with rapid bounds, finished its course by shattering the thigh of 
the exhausted soldier, and burying itself in the ground beyond. Unable to 
move, he lay bleeding and in agony, until a wagon filled with provisions hasti- 
ly collected by a bold and resolute man ere they left the scene of commotion 
passing by, he was perceived by those who followed after, who immediately 
picked him up and placed him thereon. They conveyed him as far as Fish- 
kill village, 19 miles distant ; but loss of blood and the fatigue of his journey, 
prostrated the powers of nature ; and though he received surgical aid, survived 
but a few hours. "^ 

Two miles north of Peekskill is located the property and re- 
sidence of General Pierre van Cortlandt, who derived his title to 
this portion of the ancient manor from his brother Gilbert, heir 
of his grand-aunt, Mrs. Gertrude Beeckman, 

The situation of the Van Cortlandt estate is very fine, cover- 
ing, as it does, some of the most graceful undulations of a hilly 
district, diversified with the richest scenery. 

The old brick mansion erected A. D. 1773, occupies a very se- 
questered and romantic spot on the north side of the post road, 
immediately above the vale of Annsville. At one period of the 
revolution it was occupied by the American] commander-in-chief 
^ as head quarters. Here also the Van Cortlandt family for some 
time found a safe asylum amid surrounding desolation. The in- 
terior contains a valuable collection of family portraits, consisting 
of Catharine, first wife of Gen. Pierre van Cortlandt, eldest daugh- 
ter of George Clinton, Vice-President of the United States, by 
Aimes ; General Pierre van Cortlandt, by Collins ; Ann Steven- 
son, second wife of General Pierre van Cortlandt, by Aimes ; 
Mrs. Magdalen Stevenson, mother of the above lady, by ditto j 
Nicholas Giiman, &c. 

The bed rooms contain three curious pictures, of full length 
figures, representing John van Cortlandt as a boy. dressed in a 
long blue coat reaching to the knees, with large cuffs turned 
up to the elijows, knee breeches, scarlet stockings, high shoes 
and silver buckles ; his right hand rests on a stag. Pierre, (af- 

a Weetchefcter and Putnam Republican, Aug. 1838. 


ter wards Lieutenant Governor,) in a scarlet coat, with white silk 
stockings ; a greyhound by his side, Abraham is depicted in a 
russet coat and red stockings, with high heeled shoes and buckles. 
These paintings are said to be over 115 years old. Besides the 
above, are portraits of George Clinton and lady, in crayons, by 
St. Menon Valdevieux. 

Among the family silver, are two magnificent pitchers, inscrib- 
ed as follows : — 

To General Pierre van Cortlandt, 
By the Directors of the Westchester County Bank, 
June, 1836. 
In this house General McDougal posted his advanced guard, 
when the British took possession of Peekskill, March, 1777. 
The following account of the subsequent engagement with the 
enerny, is extracted from the Connecticut Journal of April 2d, 

" Fishkill, March 27. — Our post at Peek's-kill, since the removal of the mi- 
litia of the eastern states has been, in a manner, in a defenceless situation, 
there being only part of two regiments stationed there, under the care of Gen. 
McDougal, amounting to about 250 men. The enemy having received intel- 
ligence of this, formed an expedition thither, with a view to take or destroy 
the stores belonging to the continentals, that were deposited there. Accord- 
ingly, on Sunday last they appeared with a frigate, four transports and several 
other small vessels in the bay, and landed about 1000 men, with several pieces 
of cannon. 

" General McDougal not thinking it prudent to hazard a battle with such an 
unequal force, and not having reasonable advice of the enemy's movement, 
was under the necessity of destroying their stores in order to prevent their 
falling into their hands, and retired about two miles into the pass in the high- 
lands, carrying with him his baggage and military stores, his advanced guard 
being stationed at Cortlandt's house in the valley. The enemy, the same day, 
took possession of the village, and remained close in their quarters until the 
next day in the afternoon, when a party of them, consisting of about 200 men, 
possessed themselves of a height a little south of Cortlandt's. The general 
having received a reinforcement from Col. Gansevoort's regiment, of about 80 
men, under the command of Lieut. Col. Willet, permitted them to attempt to 
dispossess the enemy from that eminence. Col. Willet having accordingly 
made the necessary disposition, advanced with his small party with the great- 
est firmness and resolution, and made the attack. The enemy instantly f!ed 
with the greatest precipitation, leaving three men dead on the field, and the 



whole body, panic struck, betook themselves to their shipping, embarking un- 
der cover of the night ; and by the last accounts, they had sailed down the 
river. Before they embarked, they gave out they intended to stop at Tarry- 
town on their way down, and attempt to destroy our magazine of forage at 
Wright's mills. Upon their evacuating the place, Gen. McDougal took pos- 
session of his former quarters, and detached a party of men to watch their mo- 
tions. The enemy on tliis occasion have been exceedingly disappointed, as 
they have not been able to carry off any stores left behind by our men, and no 
other flock than about forty sheep and eight or ten head of cattle, M'ith which 
they were supplied by our good friends the tories. Never did troops exhibit 
more firmness and resolution than did our army on this occasion. Notwith- 
standing the disparity of numbers was great, and the measure absolutely ne- 
cessary, it was with the utmost reluctance they retired to the pass. As usual, 
these heroes of Britain have burnt some houses, plundered the inhabitants of 
what they could conveniently take with them, frightened the w^omen and chil- 
dren, and raised the spirits of their tory brethren in that quarter, but which, 
alas, as is always the case when unnaturally elevated, are now again propor- 
tionably depressed." 

The old oak tree east of the Van Cortland t residence, served 
the purpose of a military whipping post. 

Upon the summit of a high knoll, south east ot the Yan Cort- 
landt residence, stands the Episcopal Church of St. Peter's. This 
humble structure was erected A. D. 1767. The site and the ad- 
joining grave-yard were the gift of the Johnson family. 

St Pelcr'ri Church and ihe Tomb of I'aulding. 


In the possession of Mr. James Brown, of Peekskill, is the fol- 
lowing indenture, bearing date 23d of March, 1750, between An- 
drew Johnson, of Perth Amboy, East Jersey, of the first part, and 
Caleb Hall, Joseph Travis and Palatiah Haws, of the second : 

Wherein the former party for the value of £5, conveys to the latter a par- 
cel of land lying at a place called Peekskill, being a part of lot No, 8, begin- 
ning at the north east corner of the second parcel of land lately purchased of 
Joseph Taylor, by north side ofCrumpond road, containing six acres, &c. : to 
have and to hold in trust for a school and burying place, and also for their ex- 
ecutors and successors in trust, to the only proper use, benefit and behoof, and 
exercise of the public worship of God, and that it be for that purpose in the 
erecting and building of a meeting house or houses for the religious, (under 
the protection of our most gracious majesty,) either the Church of England, 
Presbyterian, Independents Baptists, or Congregational, &c. to erect and build 
a house for the religious exercise of the public worship of God, with a conveni- 
ent yard thereto, for each or either of the above written denominations to them, 
the said Caleb Hall, &c., their heirs and successors, in trust for the neighbor- 
hood and inhabitants round about, from generation to generation for ever, 
and for no other use, purpose or intent whatsoever. a- 

Colonel Beverly Robinson endowed the united parishes of St. 
Peter's, on Cortlandt's manor, and St. Phillips' on the High- 
lands, with a farm of two Inmdred acres. This property was 
subsequently sold under an order of the Court of Chancery, and 
equally divided between the two churches. Out of these funds 
(aided by a liberal grant from Trinity Church, New York, 
amounting to $1000) the present church was erected in Peeks- 

The following entry occurs in the bible belonging to this 
church, in possession of Isaac Seymour, Esq. : — 

"The gift of Mrs. Susannah Robinson^ to St. Peter's Church at Peekskill, 
which church was, by the desire of Beverly Robinson, Esq., Messrs. Jere- 
miah Drake, Caleb Ward, Isaac Hatfield and Charles Moore, trustees, ap- 
pointed by the subscribers to said church for directing and carrying on said 
building, and for securing it to the inhabitants as a place of public worship 
according to the establishment of the Church of England, on Sunday the 9tli 
of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty- 
seven, being the eighth Sunday after Trinity ; consecrated by the Rev. Doc- 

a Co. Rec. lib. H. 339. 

b This lady was the daughter of the Hon. Frederick Philips. 


tor John Ogilvie, of New York, for the service of the Holy Trinity, accord- 
ing to the rites and cerenaonies of the Church of England, as by law estab- 
lished, by the name of St. Peter's Church." 

Upon the ISlh of August, 1770, the church received the fol- 
lowing charter from His Excellency, Cadwallader Golden, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the Province. 

" George the Third, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c, to all to whom these presents shall 
come, greeting : Whereas, our loving subjects, Beverly Robinson, Charles 
Moore, Jeremiah Drake, Caleb Ward, John Johnson, Joshua Nelson, Thomas 
Davenport and Henry Purdy, on behalf of themselves and sundry inhabitants 
on the upper part of the manor of Cortlandt, and the lower part of Philips' 
Patent, in communion of the Church of England as by law established, by their 
humble petition, presented on the 21st day of March now last past, to our trusty 
and well beloved Cadwallader Colden, Esq., our Lieutenant-Governor and 
Commander-in-chief of our Province of New York and the territories de- 
pending thereon in America, in council did set forth that the petitioners have 
at a great expense and trouble erected a convenient house for a place of divine 
worship near Peekskill, to be according to the Church of England as by law 
established, and being very desirous of promoting the same, and settling a minis- 
ter among them, did humbly conceive that if our said Lieutenant-Governor and 
Commander-in-chief would be pleased to take the matter into consideration, 
and to grant them a charter with such privileges, immunities and conditions as 
our said Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-chief should see fit, and that 
the said Beverly Robinson and Charles Moure may be appointed church ward- 
ens, and the said Jeremiah Drake, Caleb Ward, John Johnson, Joshua Nel- 
son, Thomas Davenport and Henry Purdy, vestrymen, in the charter by the 
name of the church wardens and vestrymen of St. Peter's Church, on the 
manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill. Now, we being willing to encourage the 
pious intentions of our said loving subjects, and to grant this their reasonable 
request, know ye, that of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere mo- 
tion, we have ordained, given, granted and declared, and by these presents for 
us, our heirs and successors, do ordain, give, grant and declare that the said 
petitioners and such other person and persons and their successors for ever as 
now are or shall hereafter from time to time be, as well of the Church of En- 
gland as by law established, as members of the congregation of the said church 
in the herein above recited petition called St. Peter's Church, on the manor of 
Cortlandt, near Peekskill, and also contributors to the support and maintenance 
of a minister of the Church of England as by law established, to officiate in the 
said church for the time being, shall, with the rector of the said Church of St. 
Peter's for the time being forever hereafter be one body corporate and politic 
in deed, fact and name, by the name, style and title of the rector and members 


of St. Peter's Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, and them 
and their successors by the same name. We do by these presents, for us. our 
heirs and successors, really and fully make, erect, create and constitute one 
body politic and corporate in deed, fact and name for ever, and will give, grant 
and ordain that they and their successors, the rector and members of St. Peter's 
Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, by the same name shall and 
may have perpetual succession, and shall and may be capable in law to sue and be 
sued, implead and be impleaded, answer and be answered unto, defend and be 
defended in all courts and elsewhere in all manner of actions, suits, complaints, 
pleas, causes, matters and demands whatsoever, as fully and amply as any our 
liege subjects of our said province of New York may or can sue or be sued, 
implead or be impleaded, defend or be defended, by any lawful ways or means 
whatsoever ; and that they and their successors by the same name shall be for- 
ever hereafter capable and able in the law to purchase, take, hold, receive and 
enjoy any messuages, tenements, houses and real estate whatsoever in fee 
simple for term of life or lives, or in any other manner howsoever for the use 
of the said church ; and also any goods, chattels or personal estate whatso- 
ever, provided always that the clear yearly value of the said real estate (ex- 
clusive of the said church and the ground whereon the same is built, and the 
cemetery belonging to the same) doth not at any time exceed the sum of one 
thousand pounds current money of our said province ; and that they and their 
successors by the same name shall have full power and authority to give, 
grant, sell, lease and dispose of the same real estate for life or lives, or years 
or forever, under certain yearly rents, and all goods, chattels and personal es- 
tate whatsoever at their will and pleasure, and that it shall and may be lawful 
for them and their successors to have and use a common seal ; and our will 
and pleasure further is, and we do hereby for us, our heirs and successors or- 
dain and appoint that there shall be forever hereafter belonging to the said 
church, one rector of the Church of England as by law established, duly qual- 
ified for the cure of souls, two church wardens and six vestrymen, who shall 
conduct and manage the affairs and business of the said church and corpora- 
tion in manner as hereafter is declared and appointed ; and for the more imme- 
diate carrying into execution our royal will and pleasure herein, we do hereby 
assign, constitute and appoint Beverly Robinson and Charles Moore to be the 
present church wardens, and Jeremiah Drake, Caleb Ward, John Johnson, 
Joshua Nelson, Thomas Davenport and Henry Purdy to be the present ves- 
trymen of the said church, who shall hold, possess and enjoy their said re- 
spective offices until Tuesday in Easter week now next ensuing ; and for the 
keeping up the succession in the said offices, our royal will and pleasure is, and 
we do hereby establish, direct and require that on the said Tuesday in Easter 
week now next ensuing, and yearly and every year thereafter forever on Tues- 
day in Easter week in every year, the rector and members of St. Peter's 
Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, shall meet at the said 
church, and there, by the majority of voices of such of them as shall so meetj 

Vol. I. 11 


elect and choose two of their members to be church wardens, and six others of 
their members to be vestrymen of the said church for the ensuing year, which 
said church wardens and vestrymen so elected and chosen shall immediately 
enter upon their respective offices, and hold, exercise and enjoy the same re- 
spectively from the time of such elections for and during the space of 
one year, and until other fit persons shall be elected and chosen in their 
respective places ; and in case the church wardens or vestrymen, or 
either of them by these presents named and appointed, or who shall be here- 
after elected and chosen by virtue of these presents, shall die before the 
time of their respective appointed services shall be expired, or refuse or 
neglect to act in the office for which he or they is or are herein nomi- 
nated and appointed, or whereunto he or they shall or may be so elected 
and chosen, then our royal will and pleasure is, and we do hereby direct, or- 
dain and require the rector and members of St. Peter's Church, on the manor 
of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, for the time being to meet at the said church, 
and choose other or others of their members in the place and stead of him or 
them so dying, or neglecting or refusing to act within thirty days next after 
such contingency, and in this case for the more due and orderly conducting 
the said elections, and to prevent any undue proceedings therein, we do here- 
by give full power and authority to and ordain and require that the rector and 
the said church wardens of the said church for the time being, or any two of 
them, shall appoint the time for such election and elections, and that the rector 
of the said church, or in his absence, one of the said church wardens for the 
time being, shall give public notice thereof by publishing the same at the said 
church immediately after divine service on the Sunday next preceding the day 
appointed for such elections, hereby giving and granting that such person or 
persons as shall be so chosen from time to time by the rector and members of 
St. Peter's Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, or the majority 
of such of them as shall in such case meet in manner hereby directed, shal^ 
have, hold, exercise and enjoy such the office or offices to which he or they 
shall be elected and chosen, from the time of such elections until the Tuesday 
in Easter week thereon next ensuing, and until other or others be lawfully 
chosen in his or their place and stead as fully and amply as the person or per- 
sons in whose place he or they shall be chosen, might or could have done by 
virtue of these presents. And we do hereby will and direct that this method 
shall for ever hereafter be used for the filling up all vacancies that shall hap- 
pen in either the said offices between the annual elections above directed, 
and our royal will and pleasure further is, and we do hereby, for us, our heirs 
and successors, give and grant that as well the church wardens and vestrymen 
in these presents nominated and appointed as such, as shall from time to time 
be hereafter elected and chosen, as is herein directed shall have and they are 
hereby invested with full power and authority to execute their several and 
respective offices in as full and ample manner as any church wardens or ves- 
trymen in that part of our kingdom of Great Britain called England, or in this 


our province of New York can or lawfully may execute their said respective 
ofnces ; and further our royal will and pleasure is, and we do, by these pre- 
sents, for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant, ordain and appoint that 
the rector and the said church wardens of the said church for the time being, 
or any two of them, shall and may from time to time, as occasion shall require, 
summon and call together at such day and place as they shall think proper, 
the said rector, church wardens and vestrymen for the time being, to meet in 
vestry, giving them at the least one day's notice thereof, and we do hereby 
require them to meet accordingly. And we do hereby give, grant, and ordain 
that the said rector and one of the said church wardens for the time being at 
least, together with the majority of the said vestrymen of the said church for 
the time being, being met in vestry as above directed, shall forever hereafter 
have, and they are hereby invested with full power and authority by the ma- 
jority of their voices, to do and execute in the name of the rector and members 
of St. Peter's Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, all and sin- 
gular the powers and authorities herein before given and granted to the said 
rector and members of St. Peter's Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near 
Peekskill, any wise touching or relating to such lands, messuages and tene- 
ments, real and personal estate whatsoever, as they the said rector and mem- 
bers of said church on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, shall or may 
acquire, for the use of the said church, and also in like manner to order, di- 
rect, manage and transact the general interest, business, and affairs of our said 
corporation, and also shall have full power and authority in like manner to 
make and ordain such rules, orders, and ordinances as they shall judge con- 
venient for the good government and discipline of the members of the said 
church ; provided such rules, orders and ordinances be not repugnant to the 
laws of that part of our kingdom of Great Britain called England, or of this 
our province of New York, but as or may be agreeable thereto, and that the 
same be fairly entered in a book or books to be kept for that purpose, and also 
in like manner to appoint the form of the common seal herein before granted, 
and the same to alter, break, and re-make at their discretion, -and also in like 
manner to appoint such officer or officers as they shall stand in need of, always 
provided that the rector of the said church for the time being shall have the 
sole power of nominating and appointing the clerk to assist him in performing 
divine service, as also the sexton, anything herein before contained to the con- 
trary in any wise notwithstanding, which clerk and sexton shall hold and en- 
joy iheir respective offices during the will and pleasure of the rector of the 
said church for the time being. And whereas there hath not yet been any 
minister presented or inducted to the said church, our royal will and pleasure 
therefore is, that until the said church shall be supplied with a minister of the 
church of England, as by law established, as is herein after mentioned, and 
also in case of every avoidance of the said church thereafter, either by the 
death of the rector thereof or otherwise, that the powers and authorities vested 
in the rector, church wardens and vestrymen in veslrv, met as above men- 


tioned, shall, until the said church be legally supplied with another incumbent, 
vest in and be executed bj- the church wardens of the said church for the time 
beinc^ together with the vestrymen of the said church for the time being, by 
the name of the church wardens and vestrymen of St. Peter's Church, on the 
manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill ; provided always, the concurrence and con- 
sent of the major number of the whole vestrymen of the said church for the 
time being be had in every thing that shall in such cases be done by virtue 
hereof, and we do by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, give 
and grant that the patronage and advowson of the said church, and the right 
of presentation thereto, shall forever hereafter belong to and appertain, and is 
hereby vested in the church wardens and vestrymen of the said church for 
the time being, or the majority of them, forever, whereof one church warden 
shall always be one. And further we do by these presents, for us, our heirs 
and successors, give and grant unto the rector and members of St. Peter's 
Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, and their successors forever, 
that this our present grant shall be deemed, adjudged and construed in all 
cases most favorably, and for the best benefit and advantage of the said rector 
and members of St. Peter's Church, on the manor of Cortlandt, near Peekskill, 
and that this our present grant being entered on record, as is herein after 
particularly expressed, shall be good and effectual in the law to all intents, 
constructions and purposes whatsoever, against us, our heirs and successors, 
according to the true intent and meaning herein before declared, notwithstand- 
ing the not reciting, or mis-recital, not naming, or mis-naming of any the afore- 
said franchises, privileges, immunities, offices, or other the premises or any of 
them, and although no writ of ad quod damnum or other writs inquisitors or 
penalties hath or have been, upon this account, had, made, issued, or prose- 
cuted, to have and to hold, all and singular, the privileges, liberties, advantages, 
and immunities hereby granted or meant, mentioned or intended so to be, unto 
them the said rector and members of St. Peter's Church, on the manor of 
Cortlandt, near Peekskill, and to their successors forever. In testimony 
whereof we ha^e caused these our letters to be made patent, and the great 
seal of our said province to be hereunto affixed, and the same to be entered on 
record in our secretary's office in our city of New York, in one of the books 
of patents there remaining. Witness our said trusty and well beloved Cad- 
wallader Colden, Esq., our said lieutenant governor, and commander-in-chief 
of our said province of New York, and the territories depending thereon, in 
America, at our fort in our city of New York, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of our council for our said province, the 18th day of August, in the year 
of our Lord, 1770, and of our reign the 10th. "^ 

The following year Governor Tryon granted a special charter, 
in virtue whereof, the trustees held a certain glebe of 200 acres of 

* Albany Book of Patents. 


land, given by Col. Beverly Robinson, for the use of the rector, 
officiating one half his time at St. Philip's in the Highlands. 

The first incor})oration of this church subsequent to the revo- 
lution took place 26th of April, 1791, under the style and title of 
the corporation of St. Peter's Church, Peekskill, and St Philip's 
Chapel in the Highlands. Joshua Nelson, Richard Arunde]l,Silva- 
nus Haight, James Spock, Jarvis Dusenberry, vestry of St. Peter's 
Church, Peekskill. First trustees, William Ward, Caleb Ward, 
James Spock, Silvanus Haight, Caleb Morgan, Joshua Nelson, 
Richard Arundell, Jarvis Dusenberry. Signed 16th December, 


In 1793, William Denning and Pierre van Cortlandt were elec- 
ted wardens. . . - , ... . , •■ - •, ' 

William Denning and Jarvis Dusenberry were the first dele- 
gates from this parish to the Diocesan Convention in 1791. 

List of Ministers and Rectors. .' ■ . 

Instituted or Ministers and Rectors. ' ' Patrons. vacated by 

elected. - '" 

A. D. 1771, Rev. John Doty, Clericus, warder 

1792, Rev. Andrew Fowler, A. B. Presb. 

1796, Rev. Samuel Haskell, Presb. 

1807, Rev, Joseph Warren, Presb. 

1815, Rev. Adam Empie, Presb. 

1816, Rev. Peter Ten Broeck, Presb. 
1818, Rev. John Urquehart, Presb. 
1830, Rev. Edward J. Ives, 
1834, Rev. James Sunderland, Presb. 
1838, Rev. Wjlliam C. Cooley, Presb. 
1840, Rev. Moses Marcus, A. M. Presb. 

June, 1843, Rev. William Barlow, Presb. 

Notitia Parochialis. . . 

1807, baptisms 19, communicants 10, marriages 5. 

1847, ditto 40, 

If the members of St. Peter's Parish value this church as an in- 

■.. a Religious fSoc. I-ib. A. 26. 

id vestr] 

J pel 

r resig, 

do - 


do .' 






do . 



do ;• 


da-; ' 


do * - 




do . 





terestino- relic of the past, some speedy means should be taken to 
preserve it ; otherwise it will soon perish. 

The church yard which is extensive, contains several me- 
morials to the Penoyers, Wards, Drakes. Ferris's, &c., <fec. The 
oldest interment appears to have been Mary, wife of John Ward, 
who died on the 15th of September, 1765, in the 69th year of her 


One of the tomb stones is inscribed with the following expres- 
sive sentence : 

" Eternity hoio long /" 

There is also a small enclosure belonging to the Birdsall 


On the west side of the grave yard is situated the monument 
of John Paulding. 

The following is the report of the select committee, appointed 
in pursuance of a resolution of the board, ^ passed the 4th day of 
December, 18:^6, during the mayoralty of the Honorable Philip 
Hone directing a monument to be erected to the memory of John 
Paulding, one of the captors of the British spy, Andre. 

Your committee engaged Messrs. Francis and James Kain, to 
erect a monument of white marble, the materials of which were 
procured from their quarry, in the county of Westchester. It is of 
the most simple form, consisting of a pedestal, surmounted by a 
cone, showing an elevation of thirteen feet ; the whole composed 
of the most massive materials, and fastened with iron cramps 
in such a manner as to resist the severity of the climate for ages 
to come. 

The base of the monument covers a square of seven feet, sur- 
rounded by an iron railing, four feet in height, and two feet seven 
inches distant, inserted in a marble coping fourteen inches broad, 
comprehending a square of twelve feet two inches. 

One side of the monument exhibits a fac-simile of the face of 
the medal, voted by the Congress of the United States to each of 
the captors of Andre, on the third day of November, seventeen 
hundred and eighty ; the other of its reverse, both carved in bas- 

a Board of common council. ■- 


Oil the front of the pedestal is the following inscription : 

Here repose the mortal remains of 

John Paulding, 

who died on the 18th day of February, 1818, 

in the 60th year of his age. 

On the morning of the 23d of September, 1780, 

Accompanied by two young Farmers of the Co. of Westchester, 

(Whose names will one day be recorded 

On their own deserved monuments,) 
He intercepted the British spy, Andre: 
- , ,' Poor Himself 

■ ■ . He disdained to acquire wealth by the sacrifice of . 

> • . HIS COUNTRY. __- -' 

^- ■' ' Rejecting the temptation of great rewards 

He conveyed his prisoner to the American camp; ^ . ; 
. ■ -. - • And - , / . .< . ■ 

. ;. By this act of noble self denial, ■ - • • -■ - 

The treason of Arnold was detected, . ' 

The designs of the enemy baffled ; _ ■ \ 

West Point and the American Army saved ; 
'": . '- And these United States, 
Now by the Grace of God Free and Independent, 
Rescued from most imminent peril. 

The fourth side of the pedestal bears the following inscription 


Of the City of New York, 
Erected this Tomb, 
As a memorial Sacred to 


The whole beiug completed with the exception of placing the 
cone on the pedestal, on the morning of the twenty-second of 
November, eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, the corporation 
proceeded in the steamboat Sandusky, to Peekskill, where they 
arrived at one o'clock, and were met by the Committee of Ar- 
rangements,^ and a large concourse of the inhabitants of West- 
chester County, who had come to assist in the last honors, to 
the memory of their fellow citizen. Amon^ them were many 
aged and venerable men, who passed through the perils of the 
revolution and shared its dangers with the deceased. 

A procession was formed to the church yard, where the monu- 
ment stands, about two and a half miles from the village of 
Peekskill, and the column being lowered to its place on the pe- 
destal, William Paulding, mayor of the city of New York, ad- 
dressed the assembled citizens as follows : 

My Friends : — History bears testimony to the importance of the act we 
are here assembled to commemorate. The capture of Andre, while it pre- 
vented the most fatal disasters, and led to the most signal results, afforded at 
the same time a memorable example of the fidelity and patriotism of the yeo- 
manry of these United States. As such it has always been viewed, and will 
appear in the eyes of posterity one of the most honorable achievements of our 
great revolutionary struggle. 

It was in the year seventeen hundred and eighty. 

There is not an aged man here present, but must remember that gloomy 
and disastrous period, when, if ever, the freedom of our country was almost a 
desperate hope. The money, the credit, the men, the means, and I may al- 
most say, the sentiment necessary for continuing the great contest, were 
either quite exhausted, or fast melting away. 

Hardship, ill success, and a miserable scarcity of every necessary of life, 
had checked present exertion, and produced almost a hopelessness of the fu- 
ture. Our little army, the last reliance of the country, was cooped up at West 
Point, almost the last refuge of liberty remaining. Had that army, with its 
illustrious commander, been treacherously surrendered, and that strong-hold 
given up to the enemy, the communication between Canada and New York, 
then in his possession, would have been open — the North and the South could 
no longer have co-operated with each other — the spirit of our people had been 
broken — the last stay of freedom destroyed, and the last ray of hope perhaps 

a Generals Pierre van Cortlandt and Philip van Cortlandt, Daniel W. Birdsall, St. 
John Constant, Ward B. Howard, Benjamin Dyckman, Doctor Peter Goetchius, 
James Mandeville, and Doctor Samuel Strang. 


extinguished. What the final issue might have been, God only knows ; but 
we all know, the consequences would have shaken our good cause to its 
foundation. A plan for this purpose was agitated — matured — almost consum- 
mated by the treason of Arnold. To you it is not necessary to detail the par- 
ticulars of this infamous and dangerous project, so familiar to the memory and 
hearts of our people. I see among you many venerable and aged men who 
bore a part in the struggle, and shared in the hardships, anxieties, dan- 
gers and sufferings of those dismal times. I see at the head of these, a faith- 
ful and gallant officer, still happily and honorably surviving to enjoy that in- 
valuable freedom which his own efforts contributed to secure. =^ I see too, 
among them, one who was him.self a companion and sharer in the virtuous act 
by which these imminent dangers were averted. b 

If you wish for the story of this high achievement of honest, unpretending 
patriotism, ask it of him. He will tell it in such a way, as shall neither 
wrong the living or the dead. He will tell you of the capture of Andre, who 
from a spy, was elevated by a false estimate and a mistaken sympathy, into a 
hero and a martyr — of the temptations which had corrupted the second man 
in the nation's estimation, being rejected by the sons of the farmers of West- 
chester — of the delivery of the spy into the hands of the great good man of 
the ags — of modern times — of all times whatever, and of their receiving his 
glorious approbation — of the applauses of the nation — and the thanks of that 
most illustrious body, the old Congress of the United States — the noblest re- 
ward which was ever bestowed on a private citizen. Lastly, my friends, he 
will tell you what a source of honest pride — of heart-felt pleasure — of unut- 
terable happiness has it been to him, and will be to the last hour of his life, the 
reflection that he did his duty to his country in her hour of peril. 

My Friends : — The man to whose mouldering remains and imperishable 
memory we are now paying the last honours, was born and brought up among 
us. Like many now present, he was the son of a plain country farmer, who 
cultivated his own fields with his own hands ; and he received such an educa- 
tion only, as is now within the reach of every honest man's son in these 
United States. He had nothing to boast of but a vigorous, active, well-pro- 
portioned frame, a daring spirit, and an honest heart. His means and oppor- 
tunities were only such as you all enjoy ; and his example furnishes a lesson 
to you all, of what every one of you is capable of becoming, when the hour of 
danger arrives, and our country requires the aid of a virtuous patriotism. He 
is most peculiarly an example to you and yours. He belongs forever to the 
yeomanry of the United States, a class of men always honest and patriotic — 
always ready to defend that soil in whose products they share so liberally, and 
those rights in which they so amply participate. 
Bear then in mind, my friends, and impress it on the hearts of your chil- 

^ General Philip van Cortlandt. i> Isaac van Wart. 

Vol. I. 12 


dren, and upon all that shall nestle in old age under your withered branches, 
that as all are equally called upon to protect and defend their country, so there 
is not one of them all but may one day be placed in a situation like John Paul- 
dinfT, to confer a lasting benefit on his country, and like him, to merit and re- 
ceive the highest and noblest of all earthly recompenses — the thanks and gra- 
titude of his countrymen. 

The assembly then separated, deeply impressed with the ceremony and ths 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

Abrm. M. Valentine, 
John Agnew, 
John Lozier, 
Gideon Ostrander, 
Jameson Cox. 

The Baptist burying gronnd is situated north of the Episcopal 
yard. Here is a memorial to Caleb Hall, who died October 1st, 
1791, aged 91 years, beside other monuments. 

The village of Annsville, in this town, is delightfully situated 
near the niouth of the Peekskill creek, one mile north of the vil- 
lage of Peekskill. 

This place formed a part of the Indian territory of Wishqua. 
Here also was an Indian settlement. Upon the survey of the 
manor of Corllandt, Annsville and lands adjoining constituted a 
portion of lot INo. 10, the river portion of Mrs. Gertrude Beeck- 
man, daughter and devisee of Stephanus van Cortlandt. 

Here are situated an extensive snuff factory, and a wire factory, 
both propelled by water power ; also about 20 dwellings. 

The scenery of the Peekskill creek is remarkably rich and di- 

1'his stream rises 14 miles north of Annsville, in the town of 
Kent, Putnam County ; south-west of Annsville, it receives the 
waters of the Canopus, (Sprout creek,) a current of water which 
derives its source from Horton's lake, called by the Indians the 
" Fire-fly lake," a name derived from that beautiful insect whose 
bright phosphorescence illumines the dark woods of a summer's 
evening. The Indian children of the West have the following ex^ 
quisite chant to this flitting, white fire insect, as they denominate it : 

" Fire- fly, fire-fly ! bright little thing; 
Bright little fairy-bug, night's little king." 

Schoolcraft'' s Oneota. 


Near the banks of the Canopus, or Peekskill hollow, is situated 
the site of the old Continental village, which once contained bar- 
racks for 2,000 men. The following account of its destruction is 
given in the dispatches of Gen. Sir William Howe to Sir Henry 
Clinton, dated Fort Montgomery, October 9, 1777: 

" The little army consisting of about 3.000 men arrived off 
Verplanck's Point, preceded by the gallies under the command of 
^Sir .Tames Wallace. On our appearance the enemy retired with- 
out firing a shot, leaving a 12 pounder behind them: and Sir 
James moved up to Peekskill creek to mark the only communi- 
cation they had across the river on this side the Highlands. 

" P.S. — Major Gen. Tryon was detached this morning with 
Emmerick's chasseurs, 50 yagers, the royal fusiliers and regi- 
ment of Trumback, with a three-pounder to destroy the rebel set- 
tlement called the Continental village^ has just returned and re- 
ported to me, that he has burned the barrack for 1500 men, 
several store houses and loaded wagons. I need not point out to 
your excellency the consequence of destroying this post, as it 
was the only establishment of the rebels on that part of the High- 
lands, and the place from whence any body of troops drew their 

The Cortlandt bridge crosses the mouth of the Peekskill creek 
near Annsville, on the road leading to Roa or Rahway Hook. 
The total length of this bridge, which is built of wood, is four- 
teen hundred and ninety-six feet. Upon the highest ground of 
Rahway Hook stands " Fort Independence Hotel," lately erected 
by Col, Pierre van Cortlandt. From its elevated position this 
spot commands a most extensive prospect of the Hudson River 
and adjacent country. To the north rise the mnjestic Highlands, 
on the west the race and towering Dunderbarrack. To the south 
the waters of the Peekskill bay resemble a vast lake bounded by 
the mountains of Rockland and Stony and Verplanck's Points, 
while on the east appears the village of Peekskill and the Cort- 
landt hills. The proximity of this place to the city, and the un- 
equalled facilities of communication by steamboat, renders this 

"^ Supplement to H. Gaines' Military Gazette, Feb. 9, 1778, No. 1372, 


hotel one of the most desirable residences in summer for families 
or individuals to be found on the banks of the Hudson. In the 
rear of the hotel are situated the remains of Fort Independence, 
whose history is so inseparably interwoven with the stirring 
events of the Revolution. A small portion of its embankments 
and trenches are yet to be discerned. The whole is shaded by a 
luxuriant grove of native pines. The solitude of this delightful 
spot is occasionally disturbed by the moaning of the wind amid 
the trees, 

And hark ! as it comes sighing through the grove, 
The exhausted gale a spirit there awakes, 
That wild and melancholy music makes. 

Circuitous paths lead to the landing, while the table land to the 
east is heavily bordered with the ash, maple, cedar and tower- 
ing oak. 

The hotel is under the management of Mr. Y. Truesdale. 

Hudson, the discoverer of the North River, appears to have 
been much struck with the first sight of this high and mountain- 
ous region. 

"It appears from his journal," says Moulton, "that he was not inatten- 
tive to the rapid and astonishing elevation of a district of country which, in 
the course of less than sixty miles, increases from a few feet above the water 
level* to the lofty height of fifteen hundred feet.'' Sailing leisurely, he had 
full opportunity to contrast the appearances of the opposite shores. On the 
left he had the sublime prospect of the pallisado rocks, whose dark columnar 
front, like a towering battlement, witli here and there a projection like the sal- 
ient angle of a bastion, presented perpendicular elevations from three to five 
hundred feet, and, ranging more than thirty miles uninterrupted, (except by 
the valley of the Nyack,) it at last exhibited an altitude of nearly seven hun- 
dred feet,<= and then vanished from his sight on the remote, but still more ele- 
vated range of the High Tourn and Tourn Mountains. On the right he be- 
held a comparatively low but undulating border, which, in the luxuriance of 
autumnal foliage, afforded a striking contrast and a pleasing relief as he turned 
from the sublimity and barrenness of the opposite cliffs. Onward he per- 
ceived the river in its first course of thirty miles, very gradually widening un- 
til it suddenly presented the broad expanse of a bay (' Tappaanse Zee.') Then 

» At Bergen Point. 

b At the head of the Highlands. 

e South peak of Vredidcka Hook. 


as he passed into another, (Haverstraw,) and viewed the insuperable barriers 
of mountains that lay before him, he considered his discovery terminated, un- 
til, in searching for a passage, he found one which proved to be the continua- 
tion of a river, now serpentining in its course, deepening and narrowing, until 
it brought him to ' where the land grew very high and mountainous.' Here 
he anchored for the ensuing night. a This was directly opposite West Point." 

Diirino^ the revolutionary war two British vessels were sunk 
in the race directly opposite Fort. Independence. Abont thirty 
years since, several cannon were raised from these vessels by the 
aid of the diving bell. 

f In the northwest corner of Cortlandtown is situated '' Antonie's 
Neus," or St. Anthony's Nose, a well known peak of the High- 

General Van Cortlandt, the present proprietor of the Nose, 
gives the following origin of that name : — 

" Before the Revolution a vessel was passing up the river un- 
der the command of a Capt. Hogans. When immediately oppo- 
site this mountain, the mate looked rather quizzically, first at the 
mountain and then at the captain's nose. The captain, by the 
way, had an enormous nose, which was not unfrequently the 
subject of good natured remark ; and he at once understood the 
mate's allusion. ' What,' says the captain, 'does that look like 
my nose? — call it then, if you please, Antony's Nose.' The 
story was repeated on shore, and the mountain thenceforward 
assumed the name, and has thus become an everlasting monu- 
ment to the memory of the redoubtable Capt. Antony Hogans and 
his nose.'"iJ 

The elevation of Antony's Nose is one thousand two hundred 
and twenty eight feet from the level of the river, and directly op- 
posite Fort Montgomery Creek. From here to Fort Montgom- 
ery, which is now in ruins on the opposite side, a large boom and 
chain was extended during the revolutionary war, which cost 
about seventy thousand pounds sterling. It was partly de- 
stroyed by Gen. Sir Henry Clinton in October, 1777." 

a Moulton's Hist. N. Y., 2.38-39. 

b See Washington Irving's story of the Dutch governor's voyage up the Hudson, 

■= Letters about the Hudson. 


"In the year 1672 (says Dnnlap) orders arrived to Governor 
Lovelace to put the Province in a state of defence. Upon this 
occasion a small fort was to be erected at Antony's Nose, or near 
it, on the north river."a 

A tribe of Indians named the Wabingi occupied the highlands 
called by them Kettatenny Mountains. Their principal settle- 
ment, (designated Wickapy,) was situated in the vicinity of An- 
tony's Nose.'' 

Four miles south of Peekskill lies Yerplanck's Point. This 
place, called by the Indians Meahagh, was bounded on the east 
by the lands of Appamagpogh and the creek Meanagh, on the 
south by the same creek, on the west by the Hudson, and on the 
north by the creek Tammoesis. 

Prior to 16S3 the territory of Meahagh belonged to Siecham, 
sachem of Sachus and other Indians, who sold the same to Ste- 
phanus van Cortlandt, At the death of Stephanus it passed by 
will to his eldest son Johannes, and afterwards descended by mar- 
riage to Philip Terplanck, from whom the neck acquired its pres- 
ent appellation. This individual married Gertrude, only daugh- 
ter and heiress of the above Johannes. 

In 1734 Yerplanck's Point (consisting of one thousand acres) 
was held by John Lent, who paid therefor the yearly rent of one 
pepper-corn on the feast day of St. Michael, the archangel. The 
Yerplanck's subsequently sold the Point to the present proprietors, 
John Henry and others, for the sum of nearly $300,000. 

The Yerplanck family descend from Abraham Jacobsen Yer- 
planck; of New Amsterdam, whose son Gulian was a wealthy 
merchant of the same place in 16S3. The son of Gulian was 
Philip Yerplanck, of Yerplanck's Point. 

This branch of the flmiily is now represented by Philip Yer- 
planck, Esq., of New Windsor, grandson of the last mentioned 


The principal proprietors of the Point are John Henry, Esq., 
who holds five hundred acres, upon which is situated the old 
Yerplanck residence ; Mr. William Blakely, jr., Mr. John Stenson, 

• Dunlap's Hist. N. Y , vol. i., 127. 

b iVIoullon's Hist. N. Y., 271. Seo note. 


also William Lj-ell, Esq., whose mansion is delightfully situated 
in the midst of the most beautiful woodland scenery. This gen- 
tleman married the widow of the late Beeckman Yerplanck, Esq. 

Yerplanck's Point has ever been admired for the variety and 
exquisite beauty of its scenery: in some places it is thickly cov- 
ered with luxuriant woods. The line of the Hudson River Rail 
Road passes through the "deep gut," a sii!gular phenomena, 
which traverses the neck for some distance. 

On the south side of the neck is situated a convenient steam- 
Doat landing, post-office, two taverns, two stores, some fifteen or 
twenty dwelling houses, beside several extensive brick yards and 
lime kilns ; also one Methodist and one Roman Catholic Church. 

Near the western extremity of the Point is the site of Fort 
Fayette, which, July 22, 1779, was garrisoned by one thousand 
British troops, under the command of Gen. Yaughan. " Twenty- 
third of June, 1779," remarks Gen. Heath, "the British were 
now in possession of both the points at King's Ferry, and a num- 
ber of transports had lain in the river for some time. The ad- 
vanced posts of the Americans at this time, on this side, did 
not extend lower than Peekskill," &c.a "On the 27ih," con- 
tinues the same authority, "a deserter came in from Yerplanck's 
Point, who reported that the British army, except five or six 
regiments, were to leave the Points, and were then embark- 
ing. Soon after, upwards of thirty sail of transports were seen, 
standing down the river. The British had a sloop at anchor off 
Peekskill Landing and a ship off the Dunderberg. Lest the en- 
emy meant a deception, the Americans were ordered to lie on 
their arms, and a regiment extra was ordered to advance on the 

" On the 2Sth, three deserters, one a Hessian musician with his 
horn, came in from the enemy. They confirmed the testimony 
of the former deserter, that the body of the British army had left 
the Points.''^ 

"On the 2d of July, Col. Rufus Putnam reconnoitered the en- 
emy's positions at Yerplanck's and Stoney Points.*'^ 

Subsequent to the brilliant attack and capture of Stoney Point 

=- Heath's Mem. 205. b Heath's Mem. 206. = Heath's Mem. 


under General Wayne, 13th of July, 1779, it was resolved to at- 
tack this post. 

"Sioney Point, (says Gen. Heath.) having been taken with so 
nmcli eclat to the American arms, Gen. Washington determined 
an attempt on Yerplanck's Point, on the east side of the Hudson, 
and opposite to Stoney Point. For this purpose Major General 
Howe with two brigades and some 12-pounders on travelling 
was ordered to proceed by the way of Peekskill, throw a bridge 
over the creek, move on the Point, and open batteries against the 
enemy's works, while a cannonading and bombardment was kept 
up across the river from Stoney Point." 

July J 7, 1779, at about 10 o'clock, A. M., General Heath while 
out reconnoitering, received by an express from Gen. Washing- 
ton, orders to move as expeditiously as possible to Peekskill, 
where he would find Gen. Howe with two brigades. Gen. Heath 
w^as to take command of the whole, and carry into effect the or- 
ders which had been given to Gen. Howe. Gen. Heath returned 
immediately to the troops, and at 12 o'clock began his march 
towards Peekskill — marched until dusk 15 miles, when the troops 
halted and laid down to rest on the side of the road, the dragoons 
not unsaddling their horses. 

At 3 o'clock the next morning, the troops resumed their march, 
and in the afternoon Gen. Heath received information from Gen. 
Howe by express that Gen. Clinton was in full march with his 
whole army towards Verplanck's Point. An answer was return- 
ed, at what point the troops then were, and that they were march- 
ing as fast as the men could endure, and would continue so until 
they reached him. When the troops had advanced a little to the 
westward of Drake's farm, Col. Mayland came up from Gen. 
Howe with information that a part of Clinton's army were then 
above the new bridge on Croton River pushing for the Point ; 
and that he was retreating from the Point as fast as possible. 
On this Gen. Heath ordered Gen. Huntington with his brigade 
and two field pieces to push forward as fast as the troops could 
march and keep in breath, and take a position on thehigli ground 
to the south of Peekskill which commands the road to the Point, 
and also that to the new bridge on Croton River; and ordered a 
regiment to file off to the right and secure the pass over the hillp 


between Drake's and Peekskill, and also ordered the flank guard 
on the left to be reinforced, and to send out small flank guards 
still further from its flank. The troops moving on with the utmost 
expedition to the ground which General Huntington had been 
ordered forward to secure. Every moment that passed, was ex- 
pected to announce the commencement of an action between the 
advanced or flanking parties of the two armies; but it did not 
take place. At this moment Gen. Washington, having learnt how 
matters stood, and that possibly Gen. Clinton might attempt to 
push into the Highlands, sent an express to Gen. Heath, to move 
into the Highlands immediately, which was done, just after 
dark, the troops passing the night on Bald Hill. It was general- 
ly the opinion that if General Heath had not been at hand to ad- 
vance in the manner he did, that Gen. Clinton by a forced march 
of his light troops, backed by his army, would have got in the 
rear of Gen. Howe, before he could have possibly gained the road 
at Peekskill, and between his army and a sally from the garrison 
of Verplanck's Point inevitably cut ofl" the whole. Our troops at 
Stoney Point cannonaded and bombarded the enemy's works at 
Verplanck's during the whole day, and until near midnight. The 
post was then evacuated, and the Washington galley was 
blown up. a 

On the 2d of October, 1779, the enemy, at Verplanck's Point, 
opened a number of pits about five feel deep, and from four feet 
over, with a sharp stake in the middle, around the outside of the 
abbatis.^ , --. 

October 21st, 1779, three deserters came in from Verplanck's 
Point, and reported, that the enemy were on the point of evacu- 
ating their works. The oflicer commanding the advanced picket, 
soon after sent information that the works appeared to be on fire, 
and the shipping standing down the river. Major Waldbridge, 
who commanded the advanced picket, immediately sent a detach- 
ment to take possession of the works. Several loaded shells, left 
by the enemy in places where the fire would come at them, burst, 

"i Heath's Mem. 211. b Heath's Mem. 218. 

Vol. I. 13 


but did 110 harm. The enemy left one horse, a few old entrench- 
ing tools, and some other trifles at the Point. f^ 

Colonel Livingston held command of this post in 1780, when 
Arnold came there for the purpose of carrying on his treasonable 
correspondence with Andre. 

Upon the south- west side of Verplanck's Point was situated 
King's Ferry, the ancient pass to Rockland. The old sign post 
placed at the head of the lane, leading to this ferry, bore the fol- 
lowing direction : — 


Upon the 30th of August, 1779, fifteen sail of the enemy lay at 
anchor near the King's Ferry. ^' 

On the evening of September 22d, 17S0, Major John Andre, 
the British spy. crossed the King's Ferry in company with Smith 
and the negro boy. V.'illiam van Wert, the ferry-master on this 
occasion, afterwards testified at Andre's trial, " that Mr. Smith 
crossed King's ferry from Stoney Point to Yerplanck's Point on 
the evening of a day in the week before last, in company with 
another man, and a negro boy was with him ; — each of them had 
a horse. The day of the month I do not recollect. 1 have not 
seen the person since to know him. He had a black, blue or 
brown great coat on, a round hat, and a pair of hoots. I did not 
hear any conversation pass between Mr. Smith and the person 
in the boat, neither did I hear Mr. Smith say which way he was 
going. Mr. Smith seemed to hurry us a good deal. Cornelius 
Lambert, Henry Lambert and Lambert Lambert, were boat-men 
along with me." 

Four or five miles below Verplanck's Point can be distinctly 
seen Smith's house, where the interview took place between 
Andre and Arnold, and where the latter gave the spy the fatal 
papers that proved his ruin. 

In describing the scenery of this beautiful spot, Mr. N. P. Wil- 
lis remarks : *' It is not easy to pass and repass the now peaceful 
and beautiful waters of this part of the Hudson, without recalling 
to mind the scenes and actors in the great drama of the Revolu- 
tion, which they not long ago bore on their bosom. The busy 

Heath's Mem. 221. b Heath's Mem. 216. 


mind fancies the armed gun boats slowly pulling along the 
shore, and the light pinnace of the Vulture flying to and fro on 
its errands of conspiracy, and not the least vivid picture to the 
imagination is the boat containing the accomplished, the gallant 
Andre and his guard, on iiis way to death. It is probable that 
he first admitted to his own mind the possibility of a fatal result 
while passing this very spot. A late biographer of Arnold gives 
the particulars of a conversation between Andre and Major Tall- 
madge, the officer who had him in custody, and who brought 
him from West Point down the river to Tappan, the place of 
his subsequent execution : ' Before we reached tlie Clove, (a 
landing just below Yerplanck's Point,) Major Andre became very 
inquisitive to know my opinion as to the result of his capture. 
When I could no longer evade his importunity, I remarked to 
him as follows : I had a much loved class mate in Yale Col- 
lege by the name of Hale, who entered the army in 1775. Im- 
mediately after the battle of Long Island, Washington wanted 
information respecting the strength of the army; he v/ent over to 
Brooklyn, and was taken just as he was passing the out-posts of 
the enemy, on his return. Said I, with emphasis, do you remem- 
ber the sequel of his story ? Yes, said Andre, he was hanged as 
a spy, but you surely do not consider iiis case and mine alike? 
I replied yes, precisely similar, and similar will be your fate. 
He endeavored to answer my remarks, but it was manifest he 
was more troubled in spirit than I had ever seen him before.'"^ 

What a contrast does this scene present to the passage of the 
traitor himself, who, as soon as his villainy was ascertained, 
" mounted a horse belonging to one of his aids that stood saddled 
at the door, and rode alone, with all speed, to the bank of the 
river. He there entered a boat, and directed the oarsmen to push 
out to the middle of the stream. The boat was rowed by six 
men, who, having no knowledge of Arnold's intentions, promptly 
obeyed his orders. He quickened their activity by saying, that 
he was going down the river and on board the Vnlture with a 
flag, and that he was in great haste, as he expected Gen. Wash- 
ington at his house, and wished to return as expeditiously as pos- 

» American Scenery, by Bartlett anci Willis. 


sible to meet him there. He also added another stimulating mo- 
tive, by promising them two gallons of rum, if they would exert 
themselves with all their strength. As they approached King's 
Ferry, Arnold exposed to view a white handkerchief, and ordered 
the men to row directly to the Vulture, which was now in sight 
a little below the place it had occupied when Andre left it. The 
signal held out by Arnold, while the boat was passing Verplanck's 
Point, caused Col. Livingston to regard it as a flag-boat, and pre- 
vented him from ordering it to be stopped and examined. The boat 
reached the Vulture unobstructed in its passage ; and after Arnold 
liad gone on board and introduced himself to Capt. Sutherland, he 
called the leader of the boatmen into the cabin, and informed him 
that he and his companions were prisoners. The boatmen, who 
liad capacity and spirit, said they were not prisoners; that they came 
on board wiih a flag of truce, and under the same sanction they 
would return. lie then appealed to the captain, demanding jus- 
lice and a proper respect for the rules of honor. Arnold replied, 
that all this was nothing to the purpose ; that they were prison- 
ers and must remain on board. Capt. Sutherland, disdaining so 
pitiful an action, though he did not interfere with the positive 
command of Arnold, told the man that he would take his parole 
and he might go on shore and procure clothes and whatever else 
was wanted for himself and his companions. This was accord- 
ingly done the same day. When these men arrived in New York, 
Sir Henry Clinton, holding in just contempt such a wanton act 
of meanness, set them all at liberty.''^- 

As soon as Washington had solved the mystery, "and the 
whole extent of the plot was made manifest, Hamilton was im- 
mediately ordered to mount a horse and ride to Verplanck's Point, 
that preparations might be made for stopping Arnold, should he 
not already have passed that post." " But Col. Hamilton's mis- 
sion proved too late. It could hardly have been otherwise, 
for Arnold had got the start by six hours. He left his house 
about tun o'clock in the morning, and his treachery was not 
known to Washington till nearly four o'clock in the afternoon. 
When Hamilton arrived at Verplanck's Point, a flag of truce was 

" Sparks' Life of Arnold, 241, 2, 3. 


coming, or had come from the Yulture to that post with a letter 
from Arnold to Washington. "^ 

"The case of Col. Livingston is worthy of notice. He com- 
manded at Yerplanck's Point, and from the proximity of his post 
to the enemy, and several concurring circumstances, mig'U he 
very fairly presumed to have been either directly or indirectly 
concerned in Arnold's manoeuvres. By a very laconic letter^ 
Washington ordered that ofScer to come to him immediately. 
Livingston expected, at least, a severe scrutiny into his conduct, 
being fully aware, though conscious of his innocence, that circum- 
stances were unfavorable. But Washington made no inr^uiries 
into the past, nor uttered a syllable that implied distrust. He 
told Col. Livingston that he had sent for him to give him very 
special orders, to impress upon him the danger of his post and 
the necessity of vigilance, and to communicate other particulars, 
which could only be done in a personal interview. In conclu- 
sion he said it was a source of gratification to him, that the post 
was in the hands of an officer, whose courage and devotedness to 
the cause of his country afforded a pledge of a faithful and hon- 
orable discharge of duty. Let the reader imagine the grateful 
emotions of Col. Livingston, his increased esteem for his com- 
mander, and the alacrity with which, under such an impulse, he 
went back to his station of high trust and danger.''^ 

One of the most interesting associations connected with this 
spot, is the recollection, that here were located the head-quarters of 
General Washington. 

" On my return from the southward in 1782," says the translator 
of Chastellux, (who has thought proper to withhold his name,) 
" T spent a day or two at the American camp at Verplanck's Point, 
where I had the honor of dining with General Washington. I 
had suffered severely from an ague which I could not get quit of, 
though I had taken the exercise of a hard trotting horse, and got 
thus far to the northward in the month of October. The General 
observing it, told me he was sure 1 had not met with a good glass of 
wine for some time— an article then very rare — but that my dis- 

a Sparks' Life of Arnold, p. 249. 
b Sparks' Life of Arnold, p. 253. 


order must be frightened away. He made me drink three or four 
of his silver camp cups of excellent Madeira at noon, and recom- 
mended to me to take a generous glass of claret after dinner ; a 
prescription by no means repugnant to my feelings, and which I 
most religiously followed. I mounted my horse the next morn- 
ing, and continued my journey to Massachusetts, without ever 
experiencing the slightest return of my disorder. 

'' The American camp here presented the most beautiful and 
picturesque appearance. It extended along the plain, on the neck 
of land formed by the winding of the Hudson, and had a view 
of this river to the south. Behind it the lofty mountains, covered 
with woods, formed the most sublime back-ground that painting 
could express. In the front of the tents was a regular continued 
portico, formed by the boughs of the trees in full verdure, deco- 
rated with much taste and fancy. Opposite the camp, and on dis- 
tinct eminences, stood the tents of some of the general officers 
over which towered predominant that of AVashington. I had 
seen all the camps in England, from many of which drawings 
and engravings have been taken ; but this was truly a subject 
worthy the pencil of the first artist. The French camp, during 
their stay in Baltimore, was decorated in the same manner. At 
the camp at Yerplanck's Point we distinctly heard the morning 
and evening gun of the British at Kingsbridge." 

The curiosity seizes with avidity upon any incidental irtforma- 
tion which fills up the bare outline of history. The personal 
history of Washington more particularly, wherever it has been 
traced by those who were in contact with him, is full of interest. 
Some of the sketches given by the Marquis of Chastellux, who 
passed this point of the Hudson on his way to Washington's 
head-quarters below, are very graphic. 

" The weather being fair on the 26th," he says, '' I got on 
horseback, after breakfast, with the General. He was so atten- 
tive as to give me the horse I rode on the day of my arrival. 
I found him as good as he is handsome ; but, above all, perfectly 
well broke and well trained, having a good mouth, easy in hand, 
and stopping short in a gallop without bearing the bit. I men- 
tion these minute particulars, because it is the General himself 
who breaks all his own horses. He is an excellent and bold 


horseman, leaping the highest fences, and going extremely quick, 
without standing upon his stirrups, bearing on the bridle, or let- 
ting his horse run wild ; circumstances which our young men 
look upon as so essential a part of English horsemanship, that 
they would rather break a leg or an arm than renounce them. 

It was off Yerplanck's Point that Hudson's vessel, the Half- 
Moon, came to an anchor on the 1st of October, 1609. a- 

" Here he was visited by the native HighlanderSjb who came 
flocking to the ship, expressing their wonder and astonishment 
to behold a vessel so superior to their canoes, and weapons so 
much more terrible than their own. Anxious to carry away to 
their friends some part of this floating world of wonders, and not 
satisfied with the trifles they received in return for skins, one of 
the canoes with one man in it lurked about the stern with a 
thievish tardiness, notwithstanding he was warned ofl". Watch- 
ing an opportunity, he at length crawled up the rudder into the 
cabin window, and stole a pillow and a few articles of wearing 
apparel. The mate, little anticipating that justice, though slow, 
is sure, and would follow him even to the arctic circle, shot at 
the poor pilferer, and killed him. The rest fled, panic struck, 
and in their precipitance some leaped into the water. The ship's 
boat was manned and sent to recover the articles : one of those 
who had leaped into the water got hold of the boat for the pur- 
pose of overturning it, as was thought, but the cook stood ready 
with his sword, and with one blow cut off one of his hands, and 
he was drowned. This was the first Indian blood shed during 
the voyage. With this mighty revenge for a trifling injury, 
they returned to the ship, and weighed anchor near Teller's 
Point, off the mouth of Croton River, near the entrance into Tap- 
pan Sea." 

Parsonage or Montrose's Point, is separated from Yerplanck's 
Point on the north by the creek Meanagh. This Point was 
originally granted by the Van Cortlandts to the Dutch Reformed 
Church of Cortlandt manor. Some time subsequent to the revo- 

a Monlton & Yates Hist. N. Y., page 271. 

b The Wickapy Indians, whose principal settlements were in the vicinity of An- 
tony Nose. 


lutioiiary war, the title of the church becoming involved, the pro- 
perty was sold to satisfy quit-rent. The Point, however, again 
reverted to the Dutch Church, who disposed of it to various 
individuals, from whom it descended by purchase to the pre- 
sent proprietors, James Talbot, Esq., and Col. John King.^ 

The first Dutch Church in this town, stood on the Brotherson 
farm at Yerplanck's Point, now owned by Mr. John Henry. This 
edifice was standing in 1793. Prior to its erection the mem- 
bers of the Reformed Dutch Society appear to have attended ser- 
vices at the Sleepy Hollow Church, for the following list of com- 
municants occurs in the records of that church, dated April 21st, 
A. D., 1717, entitled a continuation of the persons, members liv- 
ing in the manor of Cortlandt, and Patent of Capt. Dekay and 
Ryck Abrahamsen. First, Sybout Herricksen Krankheyt and 
Geertje his wife, Jan Corne van Texel and Annetje his wife, 
Francoy de Paw, Mathys Brouwer and Marrietje his wife, Nathan 
Beesly and Esther his wife, Catharine van Texel, wife of Hend- 
rick Lent, Geertje Brouwer, wife of Samuel Brouwer, Hendrick 
Lent and Cornelia, his wife, William van Texel and Trynje his 
wife, Annetje Sybout, wife of Jan Beesly, Maria de Paw, wife of 
Abram Lent, Aeltje Brouwer, wife of Jeurisen Wall ; Theunis 
Kranckhyt, and Sophye his wife ; William Teller, and Mar- 
rietje his wife; Jeremy Gennoyss, and Annetje his wife; Mar- 
rietje Blauvelt, wife of Ryck Lent ; and Elizabeth, the wife of 
Cornelis Michgrelzen." 

Belonging to the Reformed Dutch Church of Cortlandtown is 
a manuscript volume entitled " Kerkelyk Aanteken boek voor De 
Mannour van Cortlandt," (that is, A Church Register for the 
Manor of Cortlandt,) containing a list of baptized infants, to 
which is appended the names of the parents and witnesses, &c. 
The first entry occurs June 3d, 1729 ; baptized Teunis, the son 
of Hendrick Brower and Jannetje Crankheit. 

The 28ih day of June, 1760, ordained as consistory Hermanns 
Gardinier, Abraham van Tessel, as elders, and Abraham Lent as 
deacon, 6cc. From this it is evident, that a distinct society was 
organized on Corllandi's Manor as early as 1729. The old church 
must have been erected soon after. 

• This gentleman is the well known author of " Travels in South America." 


The present church of Cortlandtown is situated southeast of 
Verplauck's Point, near the edge of the Albany and New York 
Post road. It is a neat building of wood, with a tower and cupola, 
but its interior contains nothing worthy of particular notice. In 
the cemetery surrounding the church are several monuments to 
the Lents, Montross's, Brinckerhoffs, (fee. &c. Also a plain head- 
stone inscribed as follows : — 

" Sacred 

to the memory of 

Dr. Peter Goetchius, 

who died the 21st of Sept., A.D. 1S2S, 

aged 70 years, 5 months, 

and 20 days, 

having been for 35 years an elder 

of the Reformed Dutch Church in 

Cortlandtown, and died, as he lived, 

a Christian. 

" ' The silent tomb and rising hillocks show' 
The way, the end of mortals here below ; 
But silent tombs nor hillocks can affright 
The soul of him whose ways are just and right. 
How calm the righteous man with God his friend ; 
Peace crowns his life, and happiness his end.' " 

The following minutes are extracted from the records of the 
New York Classis : 

Flatbush, April 24, 1792, the Rev. Classis "appointed the 
Rev. Mr. Jackson ^ to visit the congregation at the Cortlandi's 
manor between this and the next session, and to report to Classis 
the state of that congregation."^ 

September 4, 1792, Mr. Jackson reports to Classis that he has 
fulfilled his commission, and finds the congregation have lost 
their church, diminished in number, and greatly dispersed. 

Resolved, that Mr. Jackson shall again visit them as soon as 
convenient between this and next spring to organize the con- 

a To this individual, (under God,) the Reformed Dutch Church in Cortlandtown 
is indebted for her re-establishment and present success. 
b Rec. of N. Y. Classis, Vol. I., 110. 

YoL. I. .14 


sistoiy, and do any thing in his power to collect the congre- 
gation. » 

April oO, 1793, Rev. G. A. Kuypers and Rev. Peter Stryker, 
each with an elder, appointed by Classis to visit tlie vacant con- 
gregations at Cortlandi's manor as soon as possible, in order to 
organize a consistory, &,c. <fcc. Rev. Mr. Brush and Brouwer 
ordered to preach in their absence in their pnlpits, and after they 
have accomphshed their mission to repair to the same place, and 
preach there at least each one Sabbath. ^ 

September 2. 1794. ordered that Mr. Jackson visit the congre- 
gation of Cortlanf^t's manor the second Lord's day September 
instant; also, that Mr. Schoommaker visit said congregation once 
in the meantime between this and next meeting.^ 

Also ordered, that the Rev. Mr. Sickels in the course of 
this fall visit Peekskill, and apply to the Classis of Albany for re- 
commendations to visit their vacancies. 

1797, Rev. Mr. Lowe reports that he has fulfilled his mission 
to Cortlandt. 

Mr. Abeel appointed^ 1798. Mr. Abeel reports that he has 
fulfilled his appointment. 

Ordered, that the candidates now under the care of this Classis 
supply each one Sabbath at Cortlandt town, and that Mr. Jackson 
preach and administer the Lord's Supper once during said time. 

May 8, 1800, a call made out by the church at Cortlandt town 
upon the Rev. William Manly, was laid before the Classis for 
approbation. Upon reading the same, it was found to be in due 
form, and subscribed by three elders and four deacons, but not 
authorized by any minister as the moderator of the call. Dr. 
Peter Goetchius, one of the subscribing elders, appearing before 
the Classis, attested to his own signature and that of each of the 
other subscribers, and gave sufficient reasons why a neighboring 
minister could not assist in completing this document. It was 
approved and endorsed. ^ 

' Rec. of N. Y. Classis, vol. i., 113. 
b Rec. of N. Y. Classis, vol. i., 123. 

• Rec. of N. Y. Classis, vol. i., 143. 
A Rec. of N. Y. Classis, vol. i., 187. 

• Rec. of N. Y. Classis, vol. i., 221. 



The Dutch Reformed Church of Cortlandt town was incorpo- 
rated 3Uth December, 1794 ; first trustees, William Lent, Peter 
Goetchius, Hercules Lent ; elders Abraham Lent, Benjamin 
Dyckman, Jacobus Kronkhite, deacons.^- 

To this church is annexed the Van Nest Reformed Dutch 
Chapel at Peekskill. 

Prior to the year ISOl, supplies were obtained weekly from 
New York. 

Date of instalment. Ministers. Vacated by. 

April, 1800, - - - Rev. William Manly. b Death. 

March 27, 1810, - - " Abraham Hoffman. 

October 21, 1831, - - " R. Kirkwood. 

July, 1836, - - " Cornelius de Pew Westbrook, present 

■ minister. 

At a short distance below Terplanck's Point is situated Bosco- 
bel House, the late residence of Staats Morris Dyckman, Esq., at 
present occupied by his grand-daughter Elizabeth, wife of Col. 
John P. Crnger. The house is built in the French style, and 
occupies a very pleasant spot on the brow of a high hill, overlook- 
ing the river and adjacent country. The grounds surrounding 
the mansion are greatly enriched with luxuriant woods and plan- 
tations. The beautiful island of Oscawana forms a portion of the 
Cruofer estate. 

Staats Morris Dyckman, the former proprietor, was the fifth 
son of Jacob Dyckman of Philipsburgh, and the protetje of Gen. 
Staats Morris; he was also, for many years, the private secretary 
of Sir William Erskine, in which capacity he attended the latter to 
Europe. Sir William died in 1795, leaving a large and valuable 
property to his secretary. Soon after the death of his friend, Mr. 
Dyckman returned to his native country, purchased the Bos- 
cobel estate, and erected the present mansion. The library 
formerly contained a valuable collection of books, (amounting 
to 6,000" volumes,) which were accidentally destroyed by fire. 

» Religious Soc. Lib. A., 78. 
b Brother of General Manly 


In the vicinity of Boscobel house is situated the small hamlet 
and landing of Cru^ers, a name derived frotn the Crnger fnmilj^, 
who have long possessed estates in the immediate neighborhood. 
A small mountain stream enters the Hudson at this place, called 
the Mill brook, upon which stood the manorial mills, long 
since superseded by Ramsay's mill. Above Crugers, crown- 
ing the bold brinks of the mountain torrent, is situated the Cort- 
landt furnace, which has given name to an extensive tract of 
forest, (consisting of loiJO acres) called the furnace woods. 

In the year 1760 a mining company was established in Eng- 
land, and Germnn miners employed for the purpose of obtaining 
and smelting iron ore in this viciiiity. It would appear, however, 
that the ore was not found here in sufficient abundance, for, at a 
vast expense, we find it subsequently transported from the 
Q,ueensbury mine, in the forest of Dean, Rockland county, (by 
the route of King's ferry.) and smelted in this furnace. 

But even in Rocklruid County the ore was not found in suffi- 
cient quantities to render it of any importance, so that prior to 
the Revolution, tlie enterprise was wholly abandoned, and the pro- 
perty sold to iMr. John Ramsay whose daughter married JohnCru- 
ger, father of Nicholas, the present proprietor of the furnace woods. 
Mr. Benjamin Odell occupies the Ramsay residence and mill. 
The Cruger mansion is delightfully situated near the landing 
commanding from its elevated position, most extensive views of 
the river. The present occupant is the Hon. Nicholas Cruger, 
who, for several years represented this County in assembly. 

The Cruger family emigrated to this country at a very early 
period of its settlement, and descend from the Hon. Henry 
Cruger, Mayor of Bristol, (England) father of Nicholas Cruger. 
The latter individual is the grandfather of the Hon. Nicholas 
Cruger, Col. John P. Cruger, and Henry Cruger, Esq. Croton 
village in this town, is situated on the north side of the Croton 
river, near its confluence wiih the Hudson : it contains one 
Methodist Church, one tavern, two stores and fifteen dwellings. 
Here is a convenient landing known as CoUabergh landing, from 
whence steamboats and sloops ply to the city of N w York, and 
other places on the Hudson river. Here is also situated the Cort- 


landtown post office.a To the east of Croton village, the CoUa- 
bergh mountain, a liig'i ridge encompassed by woods, towers 
far above the surrounding hills, at tlie foot of wFiich is situated 
the Codahergh pond. Near the mouth of Croton river stands the 
Corilandt manor house, late the residence of Gen. Philip van Cort- 
landt, but now in possession of Col. Pierre van Corilandt, his ne- 
phew. This venerable mansion was built soon after the erection of 
the manor by .Tohnnnes van Cortlandt, oldest son of Stephanus 
van Cortlandt, first lord ofthe manor of Corilandt. The basement 
story still retains the old embrasures for fire arms, and the steep 
flight of steps in fro:it, powerfully reminds the visitor of 
those sanguinary times, when its noble owners never knew 
when they were secure from the inroads of the savages, but 
in proportion to the strength and security of iheir habitations. 
The front commands the most extensive and beautiful views 
of the Croton bay and Hudson river, with the additional in- 
terest of a lawn and neat garden, laid out at the foot of the 
building. It is sheltered on the north by a high hill covered 
with luxuriant forest trees. The approach to the house is by a 
road formed on the banks of the Croton river. 

The entrance hall is adorned with several stag's heads, the only 
remains of that wild race which anciently spread from the Hud- 
son to Connecticut. 

The library contains together with a valuable collection of 
books, several interesting autographs, viz : a poetical effusion of 
Mrs. Madison, wife of his excelleiicv, President Madison, ad- 
dressed, for Mr. Pierre van Cortlandt, jun : 

Happy iho man, and he alone, 

Who, master of himself, can saj', 
To day at least haih been my own, 

For 1 have clearly lived to-day. 

[D. P. Madison. 

Next occurs a letter from Gen. Lafayette to Charles King, 

a New York Gazetteer. 


La Grange J September 28, 1832. 
This letter, my dear sir, will be delivered by Mr. Fiorelli, a 
young Italian sculptor, a refugee patriot, nephew to the gentle- 
man whom I introduced to you in 1824. I recommend him to 
your good advice and beg you to accept the best wishes and re- 
gards of your obliged and affectionate friend. 


There is also an original letter from Gen. Washington, dated 
Mount Yernon, x\pri! 3d, 1797, to Mrs. Clinton, near which, is the 
following, "Mrs. Washington presents her compliments to Mrs. 
Clinton, and findiuir that Congress will, contrary to their usual 
practice on Saturdays, assemble to-morrow, proposes to Mrs. 
Chnton to visit the Federal building, at six o'clock to-morrow af- 
ternoon if it should be convenient to her. Friday afternoon." 

Ill the same apartment, is a fine bust of the Hon. Pierre van 
Cortlandt, from the original painting by Jarvis ; and a portrait 
of General Pierre van Cortlandt, executed in crayons, by Yalde- 
muf, 1797. Also the silver mouated pistols of the Lieut. Gov- 

The entire suite of apartments on the principal floor are paint- 
ed to imitate oak wainscoating. In the dining room are several 
family portraits, viz: Dr. Beck of Albany, Pierre van Cortlandt 
and Catlierine van Cortlandt. 

What a variety of illustrious visitors may fancy summon up 
and set down in this ancient mansion. At one time the il- 
lustrious Franklin, seated in the parlour, upon seeing Gen. 
Pierre van Cortlandt, (then a boy,) walk in with a handfull of 
prickly pears, requested a iew of the pins as he was shortly go- 
ing to France and would like to exhibit in that country pins of 
domestic manufacture. 

At another, we have the neighboring toi^antry assembled on the 
lav/n, while the eloquent Whitfield addresses ir.em from the 

The year preceding the commencement of hostilities betwa;*^ 
the mother country and her colonies. His Excellency, William 
Tryon, and suite, paid an unlocked for visit here, of which Gen. 


Philip van Cortland t thus speaks : " I remember Governor Try on 
came in a vessel bringing his wife and a young lady, who was a 
danghter of the Hon. John Watts, a relation of my father, and 
Col. Edmund Fanning, his friend and secretary; and after re- 
maining a night, he proposed a walk, and after proceeding to the 
highest point of land on the fiirm, being a height which affords a 
most delightful prospect, when the governor commenced with 
observing what great favors could be obtained if my father would 
relinquish his opposition to the views of the king and parliament of 
Great Britain, what grants of land could and would be the conse- 
quence, in addition to other favors of eminence, consequence, cfcc. 
My father then observed that he was chosen a representative by 
the unanimous approbation of a people who placed confidence in 
his integrity to use all his ability for their benefit and the good of 
his country as a true patriot, which line of conduce he was de- 
termined to pursue. The governor then turned to Col. Fanning 
and said, '*' I find our business here must terminate, for nothing 
can be effected in this place, so we will return ;" which they did 
by taking a short and hasty farewell, and embarked on board the 
sloop and returned to New York. This was in the year 1774."* 

Much valuable property was destroyed in this vicinity by the 
great Croton flood of 1840, caused by the giving way of the dam, 
on which occasion the river (directly opposite the mansion) rose 
suddenly to the height of eight feet above the ordinary tide level. 
At the wire mills, lialf a mile distant, it exceeded fifty feet. 

A long walk leads through the old garden or pleasaunce to the 
ancient ferry house. This building was occupied by a conti 
nental guard during the Revolution, and occasionally favored with 
the presence of Washington and other distinguished military offi- 

The following orders from the Baron de Kalb bear date, 

'' Camp near Croton Bridge, 19th July, 1778. 
" Colonel Malcolm's regiment is ordered to march at 2 o'clock 
to-morrow morning to the fort at West Point, on Hudson's River, 
with the regiment commanded by Lieut. Col. Parker, which is to 

a Gen. Phillip van Cortlandt's Diary. 


join on the road near Croton Bridge. The commander of the 
two reo^imeiits (Col. Burr) will make all convenient dispatch, 
marching ten miles a day, as water and ground will admit. * 

The Baron de Kalb." 

During the winter of 1782, Captain Daniel Williams, of the 
New York levies, (stationed on the lines.) having just returned 
from an excursion to IMorrisania, was surprised by a party of the 
enemy's horse, in a barn near the ferry house. George McChain, 
who behaved with the utmost gallantry on this occasion, was 
killed ; the rest of the party effected their escape on the ice. 

A beautiful lane leads from the ferry-house east to the Croton 
bridge, which crosses the river a short distance from Joseph Bay- 
ley's wire manufactory. Below the bridge the river is seen ex- 
panding into a wide bay, ornamented with picturesque islands, 
points of land, and lofty banks, covered with clusters of rich fo- 
liage. On the evening of October the 1st, 1609, Henry Hudson 
anchored the Half-Moon at the mouth of the Croton. The bay 
was once famous throughout the country as the favorite resort of 
vast flocks of canvass back ducks, and shoals of shad fish. 

The Van Corilandt Cemetery is situated on the summit of a hill 
west of the mansion. Here is a marble tomb erected to the 

Memory of the Honorable 

Pierre van Cortlandt, 

late Lieutenant-Governor of the 

State of New York, 

and President of the Convention that 

framed itie Constitution thereof during 

the Revolutionary war with Great Britain. 

He departed this life on the first day of 

May, in the year of our Lord 1814, in the 

ninety-fourth year of his age. 

He was a patriot of the first order, zealous to 

the last for the liberties of his country ; 

A man of exemplary virtues ; kind as a neighbor, 

fond and indulgent as a parent ; an honest man — 

ever the friend of the poor ; 

■^ Burr's Mem., vol. i., 131. 


respected and beloved. 
The simplicity of his private life was that 

of an ancient Patriarch. 

He died a bright witness of that perfect 

love which casts out the fear of death, 

putting his trust in the living God, and 

with full assurance of salvation in the 

redeeming love of Jesus Christ, retaining 

his recollection to the last, and calling upon 

his Saviour to take him to himself. 

Near the Lieutenant-Governor are interred the remains of his 
illustrious son, Gen. Philip van Cortlandt. who died November 
21st, 1831, aged 82; and Johanna van Cortlandt, wife of the 
Hon. Pierre van Cortlandt, daughter of Gilbert and Cornelia Liv- 
ingston, born at Kingston, ifi the county of Ulster, the 28th day 
of August, 1722, died at her residence at Croton, on the IGth of 
September, 1808, aged 87 years, &c. Also a tomb bearing the 
following inscription : — - \ x. 


_ „ ' ■ Sacred ' ' 

To the memory 

~ ■■ :Gf .:/.■'-'"'; .'^ '• 
Gerard G. Beekman, 

born . .; -?,.•:' .j 

. September 19,1746, •.-;'■ . - \':- > ' 
In the city of New York ; -, . 

June 22d, A.D. 1822, "' / 

at his seat "^ _, _ * 

In the town of Mount Pleasant, ' .• '■•'■' 

County of West Chester, '• ' ^ 

aged ' '^ . -''-', i . ::•' 
73 years, 9 months, and 3 days, ri • '. ' - " 

Beside the above tombs, there is a small pedestal surmounted 
with a chaste urn, inscribed as follows: — 

To the memory of 


wife of Col. Pierre 

VAN Cortlandt, Junr., 

and .eldest daughter of ~ 

Vol. L ':■ . \ i^ - ~ - 


George Clinton, Esqr., 

Vice-President of the 

United States. 

*' The memory of the just is blessed ;" 

Prov. 10 : 7. 

May death's best slumbers occupy thy urn — 
The heap that hides thee nature's livery wear ; 
O be ihou sacred in the silent bourne, 
Till time rolls round the great Sabbatic year. 

born at New London 

the 5th November, 1770, 

she deceased at her 

residence, Peekskill, 

on the 10th January, 1811, 

aged 40 years, 2 
months and 5 days,^c. &c. 

Likewise a marble obelisk to the memory of Anne van Cort- 
landt, wife of Gen. Pierre van Cortlandt ; — 

" She is not dead, but sleepeth." 

Also monuments to Stephen, Gilbert and Gertrude van Cort- 

To the west of the cemetery, at the entrance of the neck proper, 
stood the Indian castle or fort of Kitchawan, one of the most an- 
cient fortresses south of the Highlands. The narrow pass which 
it occupied was well protected on the north by Indian Swamp, and 
on the south by the salt meadows. It is said to have been erected 
at a very early date by the sachem Croton, as a convenient ren- 
dezvous for the assembling of his war and hunting parties, and 
also for the object of commanding the rich treasuries of the Hud- 
son and the wide estuary of the Croton. We have previously 
shown that Matsewakes was chief sachem of Kitchawan as early 
as 1641. 

At a short distance east of the fort, on the south edge of Haunt- 
ed Hollow, is situated the Indian burying-ground of Kitchawan. 
Nothing can be more romantic and beautiful than its locality, *'a 
clear proof of the good taste of those who selected and consecra- 
ed it for that object." There was formerly a current belief in the 


neighborhood that the forms of the ancient warriors still haunted 
the surrounding glens and woods. The apparitions have been 
named, in consequence, "The Walking Sachems of Teller's 
Point." The road from the Manor House to Croton Landing 
passes along the edge of Haunted Hollow. 

In connection wUh the above, another tradition deserves to be 
recorded, which asserts that several of the river tribes had a se- 
vere and sanguinary conflict with the Indians inhabiting the 
Point, which resulted in the defeat of the former ; and, fur- 
ther, that the large mound or barrow near the entrance of the 
Point was erected over the dead who fell upon that memorable 
occasion. Be this as it may, indubitable evidence exists that a 
struggle must have taken place here at some time, from the fact, 
that vast quantities of warlike weapons have been found in the 
immediate vicinity of the fort. 

A rural lane, bordered with luxuriant forest trees, leads from 
the main, called Enoch's Neck, to the Point proper, originally 
called by the Indians Senasqua, and by the English Sarah's 
or Sarak's Point, a name derived from Sarah Teller, wife of Wil- 
liam Teller, former proprietor. This lane passes immediately 
below the site of the Indian castle. 

The Italian villa of R. T. Underhill, M.D., stands upon an 
elevated position near the extremity of the latter, commanding a 
very extensive view of the Hudson River (nearly twenty-seven 
miles in length) and adjacent country, in which Vredideka Hook 
forms a noble feature to the southwest. The basement of the 
building is constructed of Ashlar marble, cut in Sing Sing ; the 
upper portion consists of stuccoed brick. The whole edifice is in 
admirable keeping with the adjoining vineyards and surrounding 
scenery. -.---.- 

R. T. and William A. Underhill, the present proprietors of the 
Point proper, are the sons of Robert Underhill, Esq., fifth in de- 
scent from the famous Lord John Underhill, High Constable of 
the North Riding of Yorkshire, upon Long Island. 

The woods of Teller's Point aftbrd a safe retreat for thousands 
of crows, (corvus corone Liim.) which here, "unmolested and 
un watched by the cruel farmer and gunner, have from time im=- 


memorial enjoyed an extensive "roost." Daily, towards sunset, 
may be seen approaching this sylvan abode, 

" The blackening trains of crows to their repose." 


When the Croton dam gave way in the fixll of 1840, the wild, 
hurryins: torrent, as it approached nearer and nearer, is said to 
have sent a savage roar through these woods, causing the very 
watch-dogs to howl for fear. 

A large fish pond lying east of Dr. Underbill's residence is con- 
jectured to have originally formed the bed of the Croton River, 
from the fact that trunks of trees have been discovered four or 
five feet beneath its muddy sediment. 

The southern declivities of the Point towards the Croton Bay 
are covered with extensive vineyards of Catawba and Isabella. 
The fable land also embraces luxuriant orchards and vineyards. 
The whole of the latter cover nearly an area of forty acres. 

Two thousand one hundred and fifty-four shad, and seven 
thousand herring, have been taken at single lifts in the adjoining 
waters. During the winter season vast flocks of coot and black 
duck frequent the shores of the Croton and Haverstraw Bays. 

There are numerous Revolutionary incidents connected with 
Croton or Teller's Point deserving of notice. It was off the west- 
ern extremity that tlie Vulture sloop of war came to anchor on 
the morning of the 21st of September, 1780, having brought up 
Andre for the purpose of holding an interview with Arnold ]^ and 
here she expected to have awaited his return — but soon after 
the spy had embarked for the opposite shore, a barge filled with 
armed men from the Vulture was seen approaching Teller's 
Point ; whereupon, George Sherwood and .Tohn Petterson, who 
were in the vicinity, seized their arms and hastened to the shore, 
resolved in their own minds that the enemy should not land 
without opposition. For this purpose they concealed themselves 
behind the large rocks which still lie on the beach ; and as the 
barge catne sweeping along towards the shore, Petterson fired. 

^ See Greenburnfh. 


His aim had been well directed, for an oar was seen to fall from 
the hands of one of the men on board, and much confusion was 
observed among them. A second shot, from Sherwood, compelled 
them to return, which they did under a cover of canister and 
grape shot from the Vulture, directed to that part of the beach 
where Sherwood and Petterson were concealed. The cannonade 
from the Vulture drew the attention of the people of Cortlandt- 
town to the scene of action. The Vulture lying in a position to 
be distinctly seen from Verplanck's Point, and the distance of 
country between it and the point on the Westchester shore, and 
likewise from Stony Point ; the town of Haverstraw, and the 
point where Andre and Arnold held their conference in Rockland 
County; the grounds upon both sides of the river for many 
miles in extent sloping gradually towards the river — gave the 
inhabitants a full view of the scene of action. 

The inhabitants on the Westchester side had been upon the 
lookout; for they apprehended an attack under cover of the night. 
There were more, however, who entertained the opinion that it 
would be brought on before sunset, until Petterson and Sherwood 
commenced their fire. Many of theni now hastened to the scene 
of action with a field piece, which they had obtained of Col. 
Livingston, who was in command at Verplanck's Point ; and 
after erecting their little battery on the Point, ihey opened a well- 
directed fire against the Vulture. They soon compelled her to 
slip her cable and hoist sail. This circumstance prevented An- 
dre from returning to New York by water. 

" No sooner (says Sparks) had Andre and Arnold arrived at 
Smith's house, than a cannonade was heard down the river. It 
was discovered to be against the Vulture, which, although dis- 
tant several miles, was in full view, and for a time seemed to be 
on fire. It had been reported to Colonel Livingston by messen- 
gers from Teller's Point, that the vessel was so near the shore as 
to be within reach of cannon-shot, and that the inhabitants were 
likewise apprehensive boats would land and commit depredations. 
Col. Livingston accordingly sent from A^erplank's Point a party 
with cannon, who fired upon the Vulture and compelled her to 
remove from the position she had held during the night, and 
drop farther down the river till she was beyond reach of the shot. 


Aijdr6 beheld the scene from the windows of Smith's house 
with anxious emotion ; at length the firing ceased, and he resumed 
his wonted spirits and composure.''^ 

Upon another occasion, *' while Enoch Crosby the Westchester 
spy was on duty in the vicinity of Teller's Point, a British sloop of 
war came up the river, and anchored in the stream opposite the Point. 
With an unconquerable predilection for stratagem, our hero im- 
mediately concerted a plot, for the sole purpose, as he says, of 
affording " a little sport for his soldiers." He accordingly pro- 
ceeded down to the Point, accompanied by six men, five of 
whom, besides himself, concealed themselves in the woods, 
which grew a short distance from the shore, while the other para- 
ded the beach so as to display La Fayette's uniform in so con- 
spicuous a manner, as to attract the notice of the officers on 
board the vessel. 

The enemy swallowed the bait ; and a boat soon put off from 
the sloop of war, manned with eleven men, under the command 
of a lieutenant, to make a prisoner of this one yankee, who pre- 
cipitately fled into the woods as the barge approached the shore. 
The Englishmen followed, threatening to shoot the fugitive un- 
less he stopped and surrendered. 

As soon as the pursuers had passed his own little party, 
which were scattered in various directions, Crosby exclaimed, 

'•' Come on my boys ! now we have them !" 

At this signal, every man sprang up in his place, with a shout 
that made the welkin ring ; making at the same time such a 
rustling in the bushes, that the British, thinking themselves sur- 
rounded by a superior force, surrendered without resistance. On 
the next day they were marched to Fishkill, and confined in 
the old Dutch church.''^ 

16th of October, 1799, (remarks Gen. Heath,) fourteen sea- 
men were taken prisoners by Capt. Hallet's company of New 
York militia, two days before on the North River, near Teller's 
Point. c 

• sparks life »f Arnold, 20G. « Heath's Mem. 22. 

b Barnum's spy unrnaskr-d, p. 149, 150, 


The surface of this town is hilly, and on the north west moun- 
tainous. The soil consists principally of sand" and gravelly- 
loam ; it is abundantly supplied with rivulets and springs of 
water. The general growth of wood, is oak of all kinds, ches- 
nut, hickory, elm, black and while ash, birch and pine. 



This township is situated ten miles south of White Plains, 
twenty miles north of New York, one hundred and forty from 
the city of Albany, and four east of the Hudson ; bounded, north 
by Scarsdale, east by Pelham and New Rochelle, south by West 
Chester, and west by Yonkers. It is about seven miles long, 
nor thand south, and near two and a half miles wide. On the 
west it is washed by the Bronx river, (Aguehung) and on the east 
by Hutchinson's (Aqueanounck,) or East Chester creek, which 
enters a large bay of the same name, in the south east angle of 
this town> 

East Chester, was at first called Hutchinsons, and subse- 
quently, " The Ten Farms,^^ an appellation derived from its 
ancient division among ten proprietors. The present name was 
conferred as early as 1666. 

The lands of East Chester, were formerly included in the In- 
dian grant of 1640, whereby the Indians conveyed to the Dutch, 
all the territory situated between the town of Greenwich and the 
North River. 

Upon the 14th of November, 1654. Thomas Pell obtained a 
second grant from the aboriginal proprietors, which also em- 
braced the present township. Twelve years later we find the 
inhabitants of East Chester confirmed in all their rights by the 
Mohegan Sacherns, Gramatan, Woariatapus, Annhooke, (alias 
Wampage,) and Porrige. 

The undivided lands, which were a long time in controversy 
between the two towns of East and West Chester, appear to have 
been held by the Indians up to a late period of our colonial his- 
tory. Tlie aboriginal names of Coranases and Conoval, fre- 
quently occur in the early deeds of this town. 

» This name, Chester, says Camden, " comes plainly from the Roman Castrura." 
Camden's Brittauia. 
b See N. Y. Gazeteer. 


Indian wigwams formerly occupied the site of Daniel Morgan's 
residence, bordering the Aqueanouncke (Hutchinson's) river, and 
the mill of Stephen Anderson upon the same stream. 

Vast quantities of arrow and spear heads are found in every 

portion of this district, showing that it was once a great hunting 

.country. The Indians were extravagantly fond of the chase, 

" their first hunting season always commencing as soon as the 

wild herbage began to grow up in the woods.''^^ 

Deer must have heen incredibly numerous in the ancient 
forests of East Chester, as we invariably find the wolf infesting 
the same section of country. . 

Upon the 10th day of February, 1672, it was agreed (by the 
inhabitants of East Chester,) " that the town wolfpits which Mr. 
Pincldni and John Hoyt hath made, shall be, and is also illegal in 
the glan (glen,) where they are situated, and that the inhabitants, 
do see to fill them up." Seven years later it was decided by- 
vote, that the inhabitants pay ten shillings for every wolf that is 
killed within the limits of East Chester, for the year ensuing. 
These orders show conclusively that ihis ferocious animal was 
then very troublesome. 

So common and mischievous were wolves (at this early period,) 
throughout the county, that we find the provincial assembly com- 
pelled to issue the following order for their destruction, entitled, 
an act for destroying of wolves within this colony : 

"Forasmuch as divers inhabitants of this colony have sufiered 
many grievous losses. in their stock, both of sheep and neat cattle, 
for the prevention of which, and encouragement of those who 
shall destroy wolves in the said colony, and that the breed of 
wolves within this colony may be wholly rooted out and extin- 
guished, be it enacted, &c., that in the County of West Ches- 
ter, twenty shillings for a grown wolf killed by a Christian, and 
ten shillings for such a wolf killed by an Indian, and half that 
sum respectively for a whelp."^ 

The remains of a large wolf-pit are still to be seen in the Win- 

a Vanderdoncks N. N., N. Y. His. Soc. 207. 
b Acts of Col. Assembly N. Y. p. 47. 

YoL. I. 16 


ter Hill burying-gronnd, situated upon the property of Mr. Robert 
Purdy. Tradition asserts, tliat over one hundred years ago the 
oria^inal settlers used to hunt bears and deer in the Long Reach 
patent, (situated on the northwest side of this town,) and they 
were accustomed to provide themselves with thirty days pro- 

The following grant, under the hand and seal of Thomas Pell, 
occurs in 1G64, to James Euestis, Philip Pinckney, and others. 

Know all men by these presents, that I, Thomas Pell, have granted to James 
Euestis and Philip Pinckney, for themselves and their associates, to the num- 
ber of ten families, to settle down at Hutchinsons, that is where the house 
stood at the meadows and uplands, to Hutchinson's River, they paying accord- 
ing to ye proportion of the charges which was disburst for the purchase, and 
other necessary charges, only liberty to have the disposing of two lotts upon the 
same terms with them, because that I might provide them some tradesmen for 
their comfort, as a smith, or weaver, or what else with their approbation. Wit- 
ness my hand, this 24ih of June, 1664. ^ 

Thomas Pell. 

The above grantees appear to have emigrated from Fairfield, 
Connecticut, to this place, for, in the year 1649, we find the fol- 
lowing names recorded in the town books of Fairfield, viz. : 
James Euestis, Philip Pinckney, John Tompkins, Moses Hoit, 
Samuel Drake, Andrew Ward. Walter Lancaster, Nathaniel 
Tompkins, Samuel Ward, &c. These individuals subsequently 
took an active part in the affiiirs of East Chester. 

The following covenant was drawn up in 1665, for the' future 
government of the proprietors, entitled: 

Articles of agreement betwixt us whose names are underwritten, 
A. D. 1665. 

Imprimis, that we, by the grace of God, sett down on the tract 
of land lying betwixt Hutchinson's brook, where the house was, 
imtil it comes unto that river, that runneth in at the head of the 

2. That we endeavour to keep and maintain christian love and 
sivill lionesty. 

"^ Alb. Rec. 


3. That we faithfully couiisell what may be of infirmity in 
any one of us. 

4. Plainly to deal one with another in christian love. 

5. If any trespass be done, the trespassed and the trespasser 
shall chase two of this company, and they a third man if need 
be required, to end the matter, without any fiu'ther trnbell. 

6. That all and every one of us, or that shall be of us, do pay 
unto the minister, according to his meade. 

7. That none exceed the quantity of fifteen acres, until all 
have that quantity. 

8. That every man hath that meadow that is most convenient 
for him. 

9. That every man build and inhabit on his home lot before 
the next winter. 

10. That no man maks sale oC his lot before he hath built 
and inhabited one year, and then to render it lo the company, or 
to a man whom they approve. 

11. That any man may sell part of his alotment to his neigh- 

12. That no man shall engrosse to himself by buying his 
neigh hour's lot for his particular interest, but with respect to sell 
it if an approved man come, and that without much advantage, to 
be judged by the company. 

13. That all public affairs, all bridges, highways, or mill, be 
carried on jointly, according to meadow and estates. 

14. That provision be endeavoured for education of children, 
and then encouragement be given unto any that shall take pains 
according to our former way of rating. 

15. That no man shall give entertainment to a foreigner who 
shall carry himself obnoxious to the company except amendment 
be after warnino- sriven. 

16. That all shall join in guarding of cattel when the company 
see it convenient. 

17. That every man make and maintain a good fence about all 
his arable land, and in due time a man chosen to view if the 
company's be good. 

18. That every man sow his land when most of the company 
sow or plant in their fields. 


19. That we give new encouragement to Mr. Brewster each 
olhor week, to give us a word of exhortation, and that when we 
are seitled we meet together every other weeke, one hour, to talk 
of the hest things. 

20. That one man, either of himself, or by consent, may give 
entertainment to strangers for money. 

21. That one day, every spring, be improved for the destroy- 
ing of rattle snakes. 

23. That some, every Lord's day, stay at home, for safety of 
our wives and children. 

24. That every man get and keep a good lock to his door as 
soon as he can. 

25. That a convenient place be appointed for oxen if need 

26. If any man's meadow or npland be worse in quality, that 
be considered in quantity. 

27. That every man that hath taken up lots shall pay to all 
public charges equal with those that got none. 

That all that hath or shall take up lots within this tract of 
land mentioned in the premises shall subscribe to these articles. 
Thomas Shute The mark of 

The mark of X 

O Nathaniel White, 

Nathaniel Tompkins, William Haidon's mark, H 

Philip Pinkney, The mark of John Gay, I G 

The mark of X Joseph Joans, John A. Pinkney, 
John Hoitt, The mark of John Tompkins, O 

James Enstis, Richard Shute, 

The mark of X Daniel Godwin, The mark of John HoUind, 1 H 
Tlie mark of X William Squire, Moses Hoitte, 
David Osburn, Richard Hoadley, 

John Goding, The mark of Henry X Ffowlir, 

Samuel Drake, John Emory, 

John Jackson, Moses Jackson, 

The ni.-irk of John Drake, I D John Clarke, 

This is a true copy according unto ihe originall, transcribed by 
me. Richard Shute, this 23d day of Nov. '68. 

In 166P, the inhabitants of Eastchester obtained a further 


grant from the native Indians, Ann-hooke and ot'iers. This 
sale was confirmed by royal patent the same year : 

*' Richard Nioholls, Esq., Governor General under his Royal Highness, 
James, Duke of York and Albany, &c. &c., of all his territories in America, 
to all whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : whereas there is a 
certain plantation upon ye maine, lying within ye limits and bounds of West- 
chester, belonging to ye north riding of Yorkshire, upon Long Island, situate 
and being in ye north part of ye limits of ye said town, which said plantation 
is commonly called and known by ye name of ten farms, or Eastchester, and 
is now in the tenure and occupation of several freeholders and inhabitants, 
who having heretofore made lawful purchase thereof, have likewise manured 
and improved a considerable part of ye lands thereunto belonging, and settled 
several families thereupon ; now for a confirmation unto ye said freeholders, 
and inhabitants in their enjoyment and possession of ye premises. Now know 
YE, by virtue of ye commission, and authority, unto me given by his royal 
highness, 1 have ratified, confirmed, and granted, and by these presents, do 
ratifie, confirm, and grant, unto Philip Pinckney, James Euestis, and William 
Hoyden, as patentees for and in ye behalf of themselves, and their associates, 
iheir heirs, executors, and assignees, all ye said plantation, with ye lands 
thereunto belonging, lying within ye bounds and limits hereafter exprest, viz., 
that is to say, bounded to the east and ye north, east, by a certain river com- 
monly called Hutchinson's River, which runs in at ye head of ye meadow, and 
is ye west bounds of Mr. Pell's patent, to ye south by a certain creek, the mouth 
whereof openeth to ye south-east, including ye meadows heretofore called 
Hutchinson's Meadows, and ye upland, to ye now known and common path 
coming up from Westchester, to take in also of ye upland between Hutchin- 
son's and Rattlesnake Brook, from the said path to ye extent of half a mile 
north-west from ye path, to plant, or otherwise to manure, as they shall see 
cause ; ye remainder to lye in common between you and ye inhabitants of 
Westchester, at ye end of which half-mile to be bounded by Rattlesnake 
Brook, till you come to ye head thereof ; from thence striking a north-east 
line to Hutchinson's River aforementioned, ye certain bounds of this planta- 
tion aforesaid are described, and so hereafter are to be reputed and taken, any 
former order, conclusions, or agreement, to the contrary in any wise notwith- 
standing, together with all woodlands, where is meadows, pastures, messuages, 
waters, creeks, lakes, brooks, fishing, hawking, hunting, fowling, and other pro- 
fits, commodities, emoluments, and hereditaments, to the said land and premises, 
within ye limits and bounds aforementioned, described, belonging, or any other- 
wise appertaining ; and ye said patentees and their associates, their heirs, ex- 
ecutors, and assignees, shall likewise have the commonage, and liberty for 
range or food for cattle, from ye head of Hutchinson's Brook aforesaid, for 
about eight English miles ; to run north-west on the woods as far as Brunck- 
er's River, or so far as they shall not encroach or entrench upon any other 


patent by me given or granted : To have and to hold all 3'e singular ye said 
lands and hereditaments and premises, with their and every of their appurte- 
nances, and every part and parcel thereof, to ye said patentees and their asso- 
ciates, their heirs, executors and assignees, to ye proper use and behoof of ye 
said patentees and their associates, their heirs and executors and assignees, 
forever ; moreover, I do hereby grant and confirm unto ye said patentees and 
their associates, their heirs, executors and assignees, that their plantation 
shall continue and retain ye name of Eastchester, by which name and stile 
it shall be distinguished and known in all bargains, deeds, records and writ- 
ings ; likewise, they shall nave ye privileges of electing out of their own num- 
bers some discreet person yearly to bear the office of a deputy constable, to 
keep his majesties peace, and to compose, if possible, all private business by 
arbitration amongst themselves, but that in all other matters they have rela- 
tion to ye town and court of Westchester, they the said patentees and their 
associates, their heirs, executors and assignees, rendering and paying such 
duties and acknowledgments as now are or hereafter shall be constituted and 
established by ye laws of this government, under ye obedience of his royal 
highness, his heirs and successors. Given under my hand and seal at Fort 
James, New York, on ye Isle of Manhattans, ye ninth day of March, in ye 
nineteenth year of ye reign of our Sovereign Lord Charles ye Second, by ye 
grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, defender of ye 
faith, and in ye year of our Lord God, 1666.* 

" Richard Nicolls. 
" Recorded by order of ye Governor, 
the day and year above written. 

" Matthias Nicolls, Secretary." 

Siibsequenlly the three patentees made the following declara- 
tion of trust in behalf of their associates: — 

" These may certify that we, viz. Philip Pinkney, James Eustis and Wil- 
liam Hoyden, having a certain tract of land granted and confirmed unto us by 
patent, being granted and confirmed by Colonel Richard Nicholls, then Gover- 
nor in New York, beiu^r granted to us, viz. Philip Pinkney, James Eustis and 
William Hoyden, and our associates — the above mentioned Philip Pinkney, 
James Eustis and William Hoyden do, by these, resign up our particular 
interest that we have by patent, or which was granted and confirmed unto 
our associates, who have owned and subscribed unto the observation of a cov- 
enant, with this provisal, that they observe all conditions of our grant ; 2ndly, 
that they with us, and we with them, perpetuate, our and each of our interests 
of land, and maintain our and their enjoyments ; 3rdly, that we, with the ma- 
jor part of the inhabitants that are associated, have the disposing of land, but 

» Book of Pat. Alb. 


not they without us — we that are associated accordingly as our names are 

herein inserted : — 

Philip Pinkney, David Osborne, 

William Haiden, Samuel Drake, 

John Hoitte, John Embury, 

James Eustis, John Jackson, 

Richard Shute, Moses Jackson, 
Moses Hoitte." 

Upon the 9th of March, 1666, Robert Doughty purchased sev- 
eral parcels of land belonging to William Haiden, situated within 
the limits of Eastchester Patent. In 1667 the inhabitants of 
this town united with those of Long Island in protesting against 
the Duke's laws.''- The province of New York was retaken by 
the Dutch on the 30ih of July, 1673. Upon this occasion we 
find the deputies of Oostdorp, alias Westchester, and the adjacent 
hamlet of Eastchester, offering to submit themselves to the gov- 
ernment of the States General and the Prince of Orange ; in re- 
turn for which they were commanded "to nominate, by their 
inhabitants, a double number as magistrates for the aforesaid vil- 
lages."b Subsequently the following order was issued by the 
Lords, Commanders, and Honorable Council of War of the New 
Netherlands, residing in Fort William Hendricke. 

" Whereas, by a former order it was thought fit that the two towns of West 
and Eastchester should be brought under one court of judicature, consisting of 
three schepens, or magistrates — that is to say, out of the town of Westchester 
two, and one out of the town of Eastchester ; and that the inhabitants of the 
said respective towns should make choice each of a double number — the which, 
by them, hath been accordingly executed, and returned, and made unto us, — we 
have made choice of magistrates of the said towns, to continue for the space 
of one whole year next ensuing the date hereof, viz.. 

For ye town of Westchester, | EXard^Wat^A 
do do Eastchester, John Hoitte, 

And the said persons are hereby required with all possible expedition to ap- 
pear before us, and to take the oath, &c. &c. Dated at Fort William Hend- 
ricke, 27th of August, 1673. c Cornelius Euerstend, 

T. Youngs, 
Jacob Banckers. 

a Thompson's History of Long Island. b Eastchester Rec. 

c Alb. Rec, vol. xxiii., 273. 


In 1676 Nathaniel Tompkins, of (his town, was directed by 
Governor Andross '• to seize al! stray horses within the jurisdic- 
tion of West and Kastcliester that are without marks, and bring 
them to the constable or justice of the peace. "a- 

At this period the standard prices of grain and other market- 
able produce were as follows : — 

Merchantable winter wheat, 5^. Od. 

Summer wheat, 4^. 6d. 

Merchantable barley. 4^. Od. 

Rye, 3^. 6o?. 

Peas, 3^?. Od. 

Indian corn, 2s. Qd. 

Certain difficulties having arisen with regard to the boimdaries 
of Eastchester Patent, Mr. PhiHp Plnckney was appointed on 
the 30ili of October, 1677, " to go to our governor to meet Mr. 
Justice Pell, Esq., where it is intended that our governor is to 
decide any ditferefice that may arise betwixt us concerning the 
bounds of our Patent.''^ 

In the year 1681 Capt. Phillip Pinckney, Samuel Drake, senior, 
and Moses Hoit, were chosen to treat with the Indians about their 
lands. " And so if they can agree, in behalf of the rest of the 
inhabitants, with the said Indians, concerning the purchase and 
pay of the said land, &c., these tiiree men above mentioned to be 
together in the design.'' 

"Also it is further agreed that the said Indian purchase shall 
be paid, answerable unto every man's proportion of land in the 
east division already laid out, &c."c 

The following land list occurs in 1682, containing the names 
and rates of the resident freeholders : — 

Samuel Drake, 


Walter Lancaster, 


rs'athaniel Tompkyns, 


Richard Shnte, 


Capt. Will. Haiden, 


Henry Fowler, 


William Pinckney, 


John Tompkyns, 


Richard Iloadley, 


John Wharford, 


William Gray, 


Samuel Godin, 


• Eastchester Rec. 

b Ibid. 

= Ibid. 


John Piiickiiey, 25^ John Vaille, 6i 

John Drake, 24J- Samuel Godin, 5J- 

Moses Hoir, 45 Walter Webelly, 8 

John Clarke, 13 

At a meeting of the inhabitants of Eastchester, held Decem- 
ber 1st, 1683, it was resolved, that Nathaniel Tompkyns, John 
Drake, and Richard Shute, should go into the woods with the 
Indians, "and mark out certain lands within the patent of East- 
chester, and go and know what the said Indians do ask for the 
said lands, and bring report to the rest of the inhabitants." 

On the 1st of March, 1686, Captain William Haiden and Mo- 
ses Hoit, sen., were chosen by the inhabitants of Eastchester to 
go to treat with the Westchester townsmen in defence of our land, 
granted to us by patent." 

On the 16th of January, 1698, occurs the following entry in the 
town records : — " There being several inhabitants of Westchester 
come to invade us (the inhabitants of Eastchester) in the prop- 
erty, of our lands, by way of molestation, the town did inform 
the above said persons that they should not proceed to lay out 
any land, or mark any trees, or to set any marks, as by sufficient 
testimony will appear." 

In the Secretary of State's office, at Albany, there is a map of 
the disputed territory, entitled " A draft of the lands in contro- 
versy between the inhabitants of Westchester and the inhabitants 
of Eastchester, joyn'd with William Peartree, &c., surveyed and 
laid downe per Augustine Graham, surveyor, &c." 

The vacant lands were situated on the west side of Rattlesnake 
Brook, in the northwest corner of the present town, and amount- 
ed to 3,308 acres. From their peculiar shape they obtained the 
name of the " Long Reachy 

In 1696, "at a meeting of the freeholders, and commonalty of 
the borough town of West Chester, they did give and grant unto 
Col. Caleb Heathcote, the liberty of the stream of Hutchinson's 
river, or creek, lying by the " Ten Farms" within the limits 
and bounds of the patent of the borough town of Westchester 

Vol. I. 17 


aforesaid, known by ihe name of Eastchester, for to erect a mill 
or mills thereon. » 

Upon the 23d day of'December, A. D. 1700, we find the 
Indians confirming tlie inhabitants of Eastchester in their pos- 

Be it known unto all to whom these presents may come, or concern { 
whereas the inhabitants of Eastchester did formerly purchase a certain tract 
of land of the natives, in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred 
sixty and six, and part of the same being not as yei satisfied, the said tract of 
land being bulled and bounded as is hereafter expressed, viz. east, and south- 
east by a certaine river commonly called Hutchinson's river, which runs in 
at the head of the meadows, on the west bounds of Mr. Pell's patent, and 
soulherly to Hutchinson's brook, and from the head thereof, northwest to 
Brunckses his river, and so from the head of Hutchinson's river, northwest to 
Brunckses river, and so all the land betwixt Hutchinson's and Brunckses 
river, according as aforementioned, now know ye, that we, Woariatapus, 
Annhook, and Porrige. do owne, that we have received full satisfaction of 
Richard Shute, John Drake, and Henry Fowler, in ihe behalf of the rest of 
the inhabitants of Eastchester aforesaid, for the said tract of land, and we the 
abovesaid Woariatapus, Annhook, and Porrige, do by these presents, confirm 
unto the said Richard Shute, John Drake, and Henry Fowler, in the behalf of 
the rest of the inhabitants of Eastchester aforesaid, their heirs and assigns 
for ever, and we the above said Woariatapus, Annhook, and Porrige, will 
warrant and defend the same from all incumbrances whatsoever, of any per- 
son or persons laying claime, right, title, or demand, unto any part or parcel 
of the abovesaid tract of land, above mentioned, in witness whereof, we ihe 
said Woariatapus, Annhook, and Porrige, have hereunto put to our hands and 
scales, this third day of Dec. in the 12 year of his majesties reign, A. D. 

Signed, sealed, and delivered in pre- The mark of X 

sence of us,- Robt. Bloomer, George Woariatapus 

Copping, David Wliiilock.- The mark of AH Ann Hooke, 

Gramatan Sachem, Porrige. 

The same year it was resolved by the inhabitants of this town, 
" that Edmimd Ward shall have and hold 60 acres of land, in 
consideration that the said Edmund Ward do pay the Indians 
purely, and clear the said town of, and from the said pay, when 
need be, &c. 

' Westchester Rec. 


The Indian purchase to be paid for as follows, viz., 14 guns, 
12 coats, 12 Indian kettles, 12 Indian axes, 4 adzes, and 4 barrels 
of cider ; this agreement entered into by me, Richard Shute, re- 
corder in Eastchester. 

On the 6th of April, 1705, Patthunck, Sagamore, Hopescoe 
alias Porrige, Anne Hook, and Elias, Indian proprietors, sold to 
George Booth, joiner, of the city of New York, and his associates, 

"All that our right of land which is not yet lawfully purchased, lying and 
being from the land which is now in dispute betwixt Westchester and East- 
chester, and so running along by Hroncks's river to Hutchinson's river, and 
bounded on the north by Eastchester lyne, to have and to hold, &c." 

Upon the 22d of Sept. 170S, the following letters patent were 
issued under the great seal of the Province, to Colonel William 
Peartree and his associates.* 

"Anne by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, &c., 
the queen, defender of the faith, &c. ; whereas, it appears, that our beloved 
cousin, Edward Viscount Cornbury, had granted to Col. William Peartree, 
Col. Jacobus van Cortlandt, Joseph van Home, Capt. John Drake, Thomas 
Pinckney, Joseph Drake, Edmund Ward, Henry Fowler, and Roger Barton, 
a grant for a tract of land in Westchester Co., beginning at Hutchinson's 
brook, at the end of the half mile mentioned in Eastchester patent, and so up 
the said Hutchinson's brook, as the brook runs to the head thereof, and from 
thence, northwest t© Brunckses river, and so up the said Brunckses river, as 
the river runs, till it comes to bear with the head of Hutchinson's river, 
due southeast to a chesnut tree, marked, and so down the said Hutchinson's 
river as the river runs, till it comes to the northeast, and southwest line of 
Eastchester patent, and so down southwest, along the said line, to the head of 
Rattlesnake bYook, and from thence down the said brook as the brook runs to 
the aforementioned half mile of Eastchester patent, and from thence westerly 
to the above said Hutchinson's brook, where it began : know ye, that we have 
ratified the said grant to the above mentioned persons, reserving what has 
been granted to Westchester, 23 of Sept. in the 7th year of her majesty's 
reign, A. D. ITOS.b 

a This individual was Mayor of the city of N. Y. in 1703, and for njany years 
senior warden of Trinity Church, in that city, 
b Alb. Book of Pat. No. p. 380. 


In 1724, the inhabitants of East Chester appear to have held a 
quit-rent on the patent of Jacobus van Cortlandt, and others, 

The following items relate to the election of town officers from 
1672 to KS3. 

On the 13th of February, 1672, Samuel Drake was voted in 
constable for the year ensuing. 

April 24th, 1673, the inhabitants nominated William Haiden, 
for the first man to be presented to our commander for our magis- 

Mr, John Hart was elected magistrate, A. D. 1673. 

This 24th day of August, 1673, the inliabitants have nominated 
"William Haiden, for the first man to present to our commander 
for a magistrate, and John Hoitte for the ground man. Upon nom- 
ination also this same day we have forthwith agreed that our de- 
sire is, that Mr. John Pell may be proposed to our commander for 
the year as a skoutte. 

The same year Richard Shute, was chosen town recorder. 

In 16S6, John Pinckney appears as supervisor ; Richard Shute, 
clerk of the town court ; Joseph Drake, constable ; William Haiden, 
Samuel Drake and Philip Pinckney, town commissioners ; Wil- 
liam Haiden and John Pinckney, representatives. 

In 1691, John Pinckney, supervisor. 

The following election took place in 1776-7. 

Stephen Ward, supervisor; Samuel Sneden, town clerk; 
Charles Guion, collector ; Solomon Drake and Moses Drake, as- 
sessors ; Thomas Farrington, Joshua Ferris, Joseph Gedney, 
overseers of roads ; Thomas Pinckney and William Fowler, over- 
seers of fences ; Edmund Ward and John Sneden, viewers of 
fences ; Stephen Ward and William Fowler, pounders. 

The first independent election for town officers took place on 
the 22d of December, 1783, under the superintendence of Stephen 
Ward and Ebenezer S. Burling Esq. <fcc., (in accordance with an 

« Town Rec. No 2. 


act of the legislature passed October 23, 1779,} when the fol- 
lowing persons were elected. 

Ebenezer Burling, Esq., supervisor; Charles Ward, town 
clerk; William Crawford, jun., constable and collector; Thomas 
Pinckney, Jacob Hunt, Daniel Learing and John Wright, asses- 
sors; Charles Guion, EUsha Shute and James Morgan, overseers 
of roads ; William Crawford and James Morgan, pounders ; AVil- 
liam Crawford and Charles Guion, to take care of public edifi- 
ces. ^ 

The public lands of Eastchester are now managed by a board 
of trustees, according to an act of the legislature passed May 1 Ith, 

The village of Eastchester is situated in the south east 
angle of the town, at the head of the Eastchester bay, fifteen 
miles from the city of New York ; it contains about three hun- 
dred and fifty inhabitants, fifty dwelling houses, one Episcopal 
and one Methodist church, post office, three taverns, four stores, 
and one grist mill. There is also a convenient landing,^ from 
whence sail several sloops trading with the New York market. 
. The first settlement in this town appears to have been com- 
menced near the Indian path, (subsequently known as the West- 
chester path or Kingsbridge road,) leading to the wading place, 
cir. 1664, at a spot called Hutchinson's. "That is where the 
house stood at the meadows and uplands to Hutchinson's river."'^ 
' In 1666 it was by royal charter enacted, " That the plantation 
shall continue and retain ye name of Eastchester, by which 
name and style it shall be forever hereafter distinguished and 
known, &c." 

The early planters in order to concentrate their dwellings as 
much as possible, (so as to protect themselves and families,) laid 

a Town Records. — The town books consist of three volumes ; the first com- 
mencing on the 13th of February, 1672 ; 2d vol. in 1693 ; 3d vol. at a much later 

b Laws of N. Y. 69 session, chap. 185-208. 

« At an early period called Sillick's landing, A. D. 1G76. 

d Extracts from Pell's grant. 


out the original farms in narrow strips called home lots, which 
radiated from the village fort in all directions. 

At a meeting of the inhabitants, held Oct. 16th, 1675, it was 
resolved, "That we will forthwith fit William Haiden's house 
by his land, soe as that it may, by God's helpe and blessing, ans- 
wer our honorable governor's order and our own preservation. 
At the same time John Jackson, Richard Hoadley and Samuel 
Drake, jun. were chosen to stake out the place as aforementioned 
for the said fortification ; also John Jackson and Richard Shute 
were chosen to the constable to be overseers for the carrying on 
the said works ; and it was further agreed, that for a man's day's 
work, (provided he do an honest day's work,) he shall be allowed 
two shillings and sixpence a day, for a man, and for their cattle, 
cart, or tackling to do the work, or four oxen, shall be allowed 
six shillings a day, for two oxen, five shillings per day, and so 
begin the said work on Thursday next, it being the 17th of this 
instant, A. D. 1675."^ The above structure (commonly called 
the General Fort) was erected by the village farmers, on the hill 
north-west of Mr. Philemon Fowler's residence. ^ The ruins of 
this Fort were distinctly visible thirty years ago. 

Upon the 1st day of Dec. 1675, Samuel Drake, sen. was ap- 
pointed by the inhabitants of Eastchester " to appear at the hon- 
orable Court of Sessions against Mr. Pell, concerning Eastchester 
work as not being a fort.''^ 

By the governor's orders it appears to have been dismantled 
the following year, for on the 4th of Sept. 1676, we find the in- 
habitants agreeing " to employ a man to tear or to take down 
the stockadoes according to our governor's order ; also on the 
same occasion, Richard Shute was chosen to go to Westchester 
to hire or make an agreement with John Hudson to carry the 
stockadoes of Eastchester down to Yorke."<i 

■^ Town Rec. vol. 1. 

t> This gentleman who has for nearly half a century filled the office of senior war- 
den of St. Paul'" Church, Eastchester, is a descendant of Henry Fowler, one of the 
original patentees of this town, 

'- Town Rec. 

d Town Rf'c 


Near the fort, was located the general fold, into which all 
cattle were driven nightly for protection. The fold appears to 
have been constructed sometime prior to 1684. 

The first school-house was erected in 1683, for at a public 
meeting of the inhabitants, held on the 15th of October of that 
year, it was ordered, " that a school-house be erected upon a site 
between the property of Richard Shule and William Haiden, 
and encouragement given to Mr. Morgan Jones to become tlie 

This building occupied the site of the present village school- 
house. Thus the ground has been used for this purpose one 
hundred and sixty- four years. 

In 1685 it was agreed to build a town house, fourteen feet long 
and twelve feet broad, and to set it up by the highway side be- 
tween the houses of Captain William Haiden and Richard Shute. 

Beside the home lots, the proprietors held equal shares in the 
planting lands, (situated on the west side of Rattlesnake brook,) 
tthe commons, or Conoval meadows, and the sheep pasture. 

At a town meeting, held 21st February, 1705, the inhabitants 
did agree by vote, '^ that all the land below Annhooks brook, 
and also a strait line from the old meadow to the head of Rattle- 
snake brook, beside all the land between Hutchinsons brook, 
an Rattlesnake brook, to the extent of the half mile shall be for 
a perpetual sh:ep pasture.'''^ 

Upon the 30th of May, 1707, John Drake and Edmund Ward 
were chosen sheep-masters by the freeholders of Eastchester. 

The town and village of Eastchester were distinguished, in our 
early colonial annals, for the active part they took in favor of 
Governor Leisler; for we find " Leisler's party strengthened on 
the 3d of June, 16S9, by the addition of six captains and four 
hundred men in New York, and a company of seventy men from 
Eastchester, who had all subscribed on that day a solemn decla- 
ration to preserve the Protestant religion and the fort of New 
York for the Prince of Orange and the Governor whom the 
Prince might appoint as their protector.''^ 

"^ Town Rec. ^ Town Rec. vol. ii. 

« Smith's History of New York, English edition, p. 59. 


The pleasant village green in front of St. Paul's Church was 
formerly used as a general training ground for this section of the 
county, and here, too, the county elections were not unfrequently 
held. The following article is taken from the New York Week- 
ly Journal of Monday, Dec. 24th, 1733, "containing the freshest 
advices, foreign and domestic :" — 

" Westchester, Oct. 2Qth, 1733. 
" On this day Lewis Morris, Esq., late chief justice of this province, was, by a 
majority of voices, elected a representative from the county of Westchester. * * 
Election of great expectation : the court and country's interest was exerted 
(as is said) to the utmost. I shall give my readers a particular account of it, 
as I had it from a person that was present at it. Nicholas Cooper, Esq., high 
sheriff of the said county, having, by papers affixed to the church of East- 
chester and other public places, given notice of the day and place of election, 
without mentioning any time of the day when it was to be done, which made 
the electors on the side of the late judge very suspicious that some fraud was 
intended — to prevent which, about fifty of them kept watch upon and about the 
green at Eastchester (the place of election) from 12 o'clock the night before 
till the morning of that day. The other electors, beginning to move on Sun-» 
day afternoon and evening, so as to be at New Rochelle by midnight, their 
way lay through Harrison's Purchase, the inhabitants of which provided for 
their entertainment as they passed each house in their way, having a table 
plentifully covered for that purpose. About midnight they all met at the house 
of William Le Count, at New Rochelle, whose house, not being large enough 
to entertain so great a number, a large fire was made in the street, by which 
they sat till daylight, at which time they began to move. They were joined 
on the hill at the east end of the town by about seventy horse of the electors 
of the lower part of the county, and then proceeded towards the place of elec- 
tion in the following order, viz. : First rode two trumpeters and three violins ; 
next four of the principal freeholders, one of which carried a banner, on one 
side of which was affixed, in gold capitals, 'King George,' and on the other, 
in golden capitals, ' Liberty and Law ;' next followed the candidate, Lewis 
Morris, Esq., late chief justice of this province, then two colors, and at sun 
rising they entered upon the green of Eastchester, the place of election, fol- 
lowed by above three hundred horse of the principal freeholders of the county 
(a greater number than had ever appeared for one man since the settlement of 
that county.) After having rode three times round the green, they went to the 
houses of Joseph Fowler and Child, who were well prepared for their re- 
ception ; the late chief justice was met, on his alighting, by several gentlemen 
who came there to give their votes for him. About 11 o'clock appeared the can- 
didate of the other side, William Forster, Esq., schoolmaster, appointed by the 
Society for Propagation of the Gospel, and lately made, by commission from 


his Excellency, (the present governor,) Clerk of the Peace and Common 
Pleas in that county, which commission, it is said, he purchased for the valu- 
able consideration of one hundred pistoles, given the governor : next him came 
two ensigns, borne by two of the freeholders ; then followed the Honorable 
James De Lancey, Esq., chief justice of the province of New York, and the 
Honorable Frederick Phillipse, Esq., second judge of the said province and 
baron of the exchequer, attended by about a hundred and seventy horse of the 
freeholders and friends of the said Forster and the two judges : they entered 
the green on the east side, and, riding twice round it, their word was ' No Land 
Tax.' As they passed, the second judge very civilly saluted the late chief 
justice by taking off his hat, which the late judge returned in the same manner, 
some of the late judge's party crying out ' No Excise ;' and one of them was 
heard to say (though not by the judge) ' No Pretender ;' upon which, Forster, 
the candidate, replied, ' I will take notice of you :' they, afterj.hat, retired to 

the house of Baker, which was prepared to receive and entertain them. 

About an hour after, the high sherifi' came to town finely mounted, the hous- 
ings and holster caps being scarlet, richly laced with silver, belonging to . 

Upon his approach, the electors on both sides went into the green where they 
were to elect, and after having read his majesty's writ, bid the electors pro- 
ceed to the choice, which they did, and a great majority appeared for Mr. 
Morris, the late judge ; upon which, a poll was demanded, but by whom is not 
known to the relator, though it was said by many to be done by the sheriff 
himself. Morris, the candidate, several times asked the sheriff upon whose 
side the majority appeared, but could get no other reply but that a poll must 
be had, and accordingly, after about two hours delay in getting benches, chairs 
and tables, they began to poll. Soon after, one of those called Quakers, a man 
of known worth and estate, came to give his vote for the late judge. Upon 
this, Forster, and the two Fowlers, Moses and William, chosen by him to be 
inspectors, questioned his having an estate, and required of the sheriff to ten- 
der him the book to swear, in due form of law, which he refused to do, but 
offered to take his solemn afiirmation, which both by the laws of England and 
the laws ©f this province w-as indulged, to the people called Quakers, and had 
always been practised, from the first election of representatives, in this prov- 
ince, to this time, and never refused ; but the sheriff was deaf to all that could 
be alleged on that side ; and notwithstanding that he was told by the late chief 
justice, and James Alexander, Esq., one of his Majesty's council, and counsel- 
lor at law, and by William Smith, Esq., cotmsellor at law, that such a proce- 
dure was contrary to law, and a violent attempt of the liberties of the people, 
he still persisted in refusing the said Quaker to vote, and in like manner did 
refuse seven and thirty Quakers more — men of known and visible estates. 
This Cooper, now high sheriff of the said county, is said not only to be a 
stranger in that county, but not having a foot of land, or other visible estate 
in it, unless very lately granted, and it is believed he has not where withall to 
purchase any. The polling had not been long continued before Mr. Edward 
Vol. I. 18 . . 


Stephens, a man of a very considerable estate in the said county, did openly, 
in the hearing of all the freeholders there assembled, charge \Yiiliam Forster, 
Esq., the candidate on the other side, with being a Jacobite, and in the inter- 
est of the Pretender, and that he should say to Mr. ^Yilliam Willett (a person 
of good estate and known integiity, who was at that time present and ready 
to make oath to the truth of what was said) that true it was he had taken the 
oaths to his Majesty, King George, and enjoyed a place in the governnfrent 

under him, which gave him bread ; yet notwithstanding that, should 

James come into England, he should think himself obliged to go there and fight 
for him. This was loudly and strongly urged to Forster's face, who denied it 
to be true ; and no more was said of it at that time. About eleven o'clock that 
night the poll was closed, and it stood thus : — 

For the late chief justice, 231 

" Quakers, 38 

For William Forster, Esq.^ 151 

For difference, 118 


So that the late chief justice carried it by a great majority, without the Qua- 
kers. Upon closing the poll the other candidate, Forster, and the sheriff 
wished ihe late chief justice much joy. Forster said he hoped the late judge 
would not think the worse of him for setting up against him, to which the 
judge Replied, he believed he was put upon it against his inclinations, but that 
he was highly blamable, and who did or should know better for putting the 
sheriff, who was a stranger, and ignorant in such matters, upon making so 
violent an attempt upon the liberty of the people, which would expose him to 
ruin if he were worth jC10,000 if the people aggrieved should commence suit 
against him. Tlie people made a loud huzza, which the late chief judge 
blamed very much, as what he thought not right. Forster replied, he 
took no notice of what the common people did, since Mr. Morris did not put 
put them upon the doing of it. 

The indentures being sealed, the whole body of electors waited on their 
new representative to his lodgings with trumpets sounding, and violins playing^ 
and in a little time took their leave^f him. Thus ended the Westchester elec- 
tion to the general satisfaction. 

New York, November 5th. On Wednesday, 31st October, the late chief jus- 
tice, but now representative, for the county of Westchester landed in this city 
about five o'clock in the evening, at the ferry stairs. On his landing he was sa- 
luted by a general fire of the guns from the merchant vessels lying in the road, 
and was received by great numbers of the most considerable merchants and 
inhabitants of this city, and by them, with loud acclamations of the people as 


he walked the streets, conducted to the Black Horse tavern, where a hand- 
some entertainment was prepared for him at the charge of the gentlemen who 
received him, and in the middle of one side of the room was fixed a tablet with 
golden capitals, " King George, Liberty, and Law."* 

The road which passes through the village green on the north 
side of the church, was formerly called the Kingsbridge turnpike. 
This road appears to have been first opened in 1G71, as we find 
in that year, "Mr. John Pell, and Mr. John Richbell appointed to 
lay out the new road to New England, through Eastchester."^ 
The Kingsbridge road was the first stage route estabhshed be- 
tween New York and Boston in 1732. "The coach, which 
would at the present time be thought an extremely slow one, was 
fourteen days in the journey, carrying news to and fro once a 
month. "c 

Beneath the shade of the venerable locusts (which still adorn 
the green,) stood the village stocks, erected in 1720. ^ Embedded 
in the bark of one of the trees may be seen the iron staple to 
which culprits were formerly attached and publicly whipped. 
Upon the green, between the locust trees and the present church 
yard, stood the old parish church, built by the Independents, 
about 1699. This edifice was destroyed by fire at an early period 
of the Revolution. e 

The first settlers of Eastchester, like the people in general of 
that day, paid early attention to religion, to the support of the 
gospel, and the institutions of the church to which they belonged. 
The Congregational church in this place was gathered in 1665 ; 
for, in that year it was ordered : "That all and every one of us, 
or that shall be of us, do pay unto the minister according to his 
mead," also, " that we give new encouragement to Mr. Brewster 
each other week, to give us a word of exhortation."^ A. D. 1670, 

a Nev7 York Weekly Journal, 1733, No, viii. 

b Assize Rec. Alb. 

c Bridgman's Hort. Rep. 1846. 

d The stocks consisted of a rude wooden instrument, firmly secured in the ground, 
into which the offenders' hands and feet were locked. It was once a common mode 
of punishment, but since the Revolution has fallen into disuse. — Editor. 

^ The fact that the old church once stood upon the green is conclusive evidence 
that this property is still vested in the church. 

f See Covenant. 


it was farther enacted : " That whereas we being a society oT 
christians living together, liave agreed that all those of our asso- 
ciation shall join togther in meeting on Lord's days to tell aboiU 
the worship of God ; it was also resolved that whereas Moses 
Hoit being deserter, and being behind, and not seeming to be 
willing to contribute unto our minister, whereupon the inhabi- 
tants of Eastchester have agreed that the said Moses shall be pre- 
sented unto the next Court of Sessions," (fcc. 

Upon the 29th of July, 1674, Richard Shute was chosen for to 
go to our honored governor as a representative from the village of 
Eastchester, upon the occasion that we may have the Rev. Eze- 
kiel Fogge to be established and confirmed by our honorable 
governor, and also the humble request to have the liberty or grant 
to build a Chapel of Ease, and not to be paying toward Westches- 
ter church's building." 

The following day, at a public meeting of the inhabitants of 
Eastchester, it was resolved by vote, " to go jointly unto West- 
chester, and so speake with the Rev. Mr. Fogge, by reason we 
heard that Mr. Fogge did express himself to be desirous, and also 
willing to live and settle among us in Eastchester ; in considera- 
tion whereof, we are willing to manifest our acceptance to em- 
brace his good company, and shall provide for his present com- 
fort, and likewise for his future livelihood." 

Upon the 5th of September, 1677, it v^ras agreed, '-'that if it be 
the will of God to bring a minister to settle among us we pay him 
£40 a year, for his subsistence, and also provide him a house 
and land for his use during the time he stays here as our minister. 
At this meeting it was resolved to send Philip Pinckney and 
Samuel Drake, sen., as representatives to Westchester to the town 
meeting to treat with that town for the providing a minister." 

The 31st day of March, 1678, was appointed by the inhabi- 
tants of Eastchester, " to be kept as a day of fasting and prayer, 
that it will please Almighty God to withdraw his judgments 
from UP. As in some measure, according to our honored 
governor's order to keep the said day in the best manner we can 
attain unto. 



Mr. Pinckiiey appears to have been selected to carry on the 
said day of humiliation." 

It was farther agreed on the same occasion. " that we will 
meet together on Sabbath days, for time to come to celebrate the 
worship and service of God, in the best manner that we can at- 
tain unto." 

It was also decided by vote, " that we will pay towards the 
carrying on the said Sabbath days services, by a free will offer- 
ing for the year ensuing, the following sums : 

s. d. 

William Haiden, 


Richard Shute, 


Nathaniel Tompkins, 


John Pinckney, 


Richard Hoadly, 


John Drake, 


John Tompkins, 
Will. Gregier, 
Henry Fowler, 
Henry Creway, 
Samuel Drake, 

s. d. 

Upon the 17th of December, the inhabitants of Eastchester 
agreed to pay £40 a year unto Mr. Morgan Jones, minister of 
Newtown, L. I. That is to say, to be paid unto the said minis- 
ister, for his encouragement to administer the word of God unto 
us, as our minister ; and that we the said inhabitants, do engage 
to pay the abovesaid sum of £40 in good provincial pay, at 
the price according to the same of this government ; provided, 
that the said Mr. Jones do come and live among us. and per- 
for.n the office of a minister, and to pay it by vote." 

Feb. 11th, 1680, we find the Rev. Morgan Jones, officiating 
in the village of Westchester.^ 

During the year 1684, Eastchester appears to have been united 
with Westchester in the support of a pastor, for, in the spring of 
the same year, it was resolved, " that the justices and vestrymen 
of West and Eastchester, and Yonkers, do accept of Mr. War- 
ham Mather as our minister for one whole year.''^ 

At a public meeting of the inhabitants, held Sept. 5th, 1685, 

» See Westchester. 

b Westchester Rec. 


it was resolved to contribute the following salary towards the 
maintenance of a minister. 




Daniel Drake, jr. 


Richard Shute. 



Moses Hoite, 


Richard Hoadley, 


John Pinckney, 


John Drake, 


John Wear ford, 


Cornell Goding, 



Henry Fowler, 



John Joan, 


Nathaniel White, 



5. d. 

William Gray, 


John Clarkson, 


Thomas Norton, 


John Shute, 


Thomas Pinckney, 


Walter Lancaster, 


Thomas Keurkin, 


do. junr. 


John Coe, 


This present testifieth, that we whose names are above writ- 
ten, do engage to pay the said several sums by us, every particu- 
lar man, to pay as abovesaid, unto Mr. Morgan Jones, for the 
carrying on the work of the ministry for this present year en- 
The following entry occurs in the records of Newtown Long Island, 
" Whereas. I, Morgan Jones, have officiated for some time as a minis- 
ter in Newtown, without any agreement for a salary, upon the pro- 
mise of some particular persons of the town, to allow me some small 
recompense, of their own accord, I do hereby acquit and dis- 
charge the town of all salary, moneys, goods, or wares, which I 
might claim. Aug. 28, 168G. Morgan Jones."* 

This must have been preparatory to his removal and settlement 
in East or Westchester. 

The Rev. Morgan Jones was succeeded by Mr. Samuel Goding, 
who received instructions to "read" in the Bible, and other good 
sermon books, and so to carry on the Sabbath exercises (in East- 
chcster) according to the Hon. Colonel Fletcher's order. 

On the 30th of Nov., 1692, the inliabitants of Eastchester, 

* Thompson's Long Island, vol. ii. 140. 



agreed to pay the following sums towards the support of Mr 


Henry Fowler offers one bushel of good winter wheat. 
John Tompkins 3 John Drake 4 

2 John Pinckney 5 pecks of Indian corn. 

4 William Gray 2 

John Shuts 3 
2 Bcnj. Taylor 2 

Thomas Shute 4 6. 

Jonn Clark 
Joseph Drake 
Thomas Pinckney 3 
Isaac Taylor 

Upon the 9th of May, 1693, it was resolved that a meeting 
bouse should be built, and Captain William Haiden, John Drake, 
John Pinckney, Richard Shute, and Henry Fowler, sen. were ap- 
pointed overseers to superintend the work." 
". On the 31st of July, 1696, it was determined to lighten the 
meeting house by a lantern to every seat of the same. The fol- 
lowing is a plan of the meeting house, with the names of pew- 
holders, as represented in the town records. a , 

Mr. Justice Pinckney, 

Richard White, 

Tliomas White, 

John White, ■ > '; 

Mates Fowler, 

The south side belong 
to this. -. -: 

Henry Fowler, sen. 
John Pinckney, 
Moses Hoit, sen. 
" - Moses Hoit, jun. .^ / ' 
John Haute, . - ,. 
Robert Stonith, ■,• ' 
John Lancaster, ' - 
East to this. 

Capt. John Drake, 
Ensign Drake, - -■ .: • ^.'■- 
John Tompkins, 
Nathan'l Tompkins, 
Mr. Will. Chaterton, 
a place of John Clark, 
South side to this. 

Isaac Taylor, 
Isaac Lawrence, 
Edward Hancock, 
Thomas Vail, 
Jeremiah Fowler, 
Isaac Odcll, 
John Coe, 

Joseph Coe, " *•. 
West to this. ■ -' " 

■^ ■ - 


* There is a tradition in the Pinckney family, that one of its early members pre- 
sented the land to the church, embracing the present green, church-yard and ad- 
joining property, for which they enjoy the privilege of free interment. 


By an act of Provincial Assembly, passed 1 llh of May, 1697, the 
parish of Westchester was divided into four several districts, viz. 
Westchester, Eastchester, Yonkers, and the manor of Pelham.a 

In August, 1699, we find the inhabitants of the precinct of 
Eastchester petitioning the Governor, Council and General As- 
sembly, in behalf of themselves, and for their neighbors in Yon- 
kers and the Mile Square, to be taken off from the parish of 
Westchester, and to have liberty to call a minister of their own." 

On the 26th of December, 1699, it was resolved, at a public 
meeting b.eld in Eastchester, " to haste and erect the said meet- 
ing house, and that it shall be finished at or before the 3lst of 
Ma}^ in the year of our Lord 1700, and in case the said work 
be not finished, that then John Drake and Jeremiah Fowler 
shall set men at work and finish the said work on the town ac- 

The same year a lot was provided for the minister, and £30 
appropriated annually for his salary, which sum was ordered 
to be raised upon all rateable estates. Mr. Henry Fowler at the 
same time was directed to " write a letter unto Mr. Morgan con- 
taining our proceedings." 

Upon the 14th of October, 1700, we find Mr. Henry Fowler, 
sen. authorized by the inhabitants to proceed to New York to 
petition the General Assembly for the calling and settling a min- 
ister with ourselves, and that we may be freed from Westchester 
in the ministry." 

12th of King William, lil. A. D. 1700, occurs an act of the 
General Assembly, declaring that 

" Whereas since the passing of said act, (that of 1699,) it has been found in- 
convenient, to the great discouragement of religion and the public worship of 
God, for the inhabitants of Eastchester to travel to Westchester aforesaid at 
the preaching of God's word. Wherefore the said inhabitants and freeholders 
of the town of Eastchester have by their humble petition to the House of Re- 
presentatives, now convened in General Assembly, most humbly prayed that 
it might be declared and enacted, and it was enacted, 1st. That the said town 
of Eastchester in the county of Westchester be henceforth and for ever here- 

» Acts of Assembly, from 1691 to 1725. 


after separated from the parish of West and Eastchester, lower Yonkers and 
the manor of Pelham. 

" 2d. It was further enacted (by the authority aforesaid) that the said town 
of Eastchester, &c. be and hereby is declared to be and remain for ever a 
distinct parish from the parish of Westchester, &c. by the name and style of 
the parish of Eastchester in the county of VA^estchester, provided that the 
freeholders and inhabitants thereof do maintain a good orthodox Protestant 
minister in the said town of Eastchester, &c.''a 

June the 12th, 1700, "the town exchanged land with Mr. 
Joseph Morgan, pastor of the church in Eastchester." 

"At a public town meeting called by order of the inhabitants, 
Oct. 4th, 1700, the said inhabitants directed Mr. Henry Fowler 
and Richard ^hute, (with the rest of the intended church,) to 
write nnto the reverend ministers in New England concerning 
the ordination ; they having the assistance of the Rev. Mr. Mor- 
gan. Also, that Mr. John Pinckney, Henry Fowler and Richard 
Shute, shall write unto his Excellency for his approbation, that 
he will be pleased to induct our minister the Rev. Joseph Moi- 
gan ; at the same time Joseph Drake and John Shute, were 
chosen to hire a man to build a pulpit on the town account.'' 
" Upon the 3d of April, 1702, John Drake and Thomas Pinckney 
were authorized to agree with a carpenter to make a pulpit, and 
set up the gallery and repair the window shutters, &c." 

John Tompkins, jun., was also chosen " to beat the drum con- 
stantly every Lord's day if occasion require, and at other times 
when it is needful, and to keep the drum in rej^air, and the said 
inhabitants do promise to pay him therefor 9 pence a piece every 

In a summary account of the state of the church in the pro- 
vince of New York, as it was laid before the clergy, convened 
October 5th, 1704, at New York, by the appointment of his Ex- 
cellency Edw^ard Lord Viscount Cornbury and Colonel Francis 
Nicholson, it was stated, that "There is one independent congre- 
gation at Eastchester whose minister designs to leave tljere, 
whose congregation upon his departure are resolved to join with 
the church."^ 

^ Laws of N. y. 1700, chap. xc. 40. 
b Church Record, vol. i., No. 16. 

Vol. I, 19 


Col. Caleb Heathcoate, in a letter to the secretary of the vener- 
able Society for Propagating the Gospel in foreign parts, dated 
Manor of Scarsdale, November 9th, 1705, thus writes; "and 
thirdly, one Mr. Morgan, who was minister of Eastchester, pro- 
n;»ised me to conform."^ 

To Mr. Morgan appears to have succeeded the celebrated 
AVilliam Tennent, who officiated here for a short time only, from 
whence he removed to Bedford. ^ 



Jnstituted Ministers. Vacated by 

1665-G, Rev. Brewster, Resignation, 

1675, ** Ezekiel Fogge, ditto 

16S4, " Warham Mather, ditto 

16S6, '' Morgan Jones, ditto 

1692, " Samuel Goding, ditto 

1700, " Joseph Morgan, ditto 

cir. 1720, " William Tennent, ditto 

About 1703-4, the Congregational church of this place became 
merged in the Episcopal, (at that time the established religion of 
the colony,) which clearly appears from the following notice of 
the Rev. John Bartow, first Episcopal rector of the parish: " Be- 
sides Westchester, (observes Dr. Hawkins,) at which he resided, 
Mr. Bartow officiated once a month at Eastchester, and occasion- 
ally at Yonkers. The population of Westchester was about 553, 
that of Eastchester 400, who, being Presbyterians, obtained an 
act by which they were formed into a separate parish, and ob' 
tained a minister of their own persuasion, but on Mr. Bartow's 
comino[ among them " they were so well satisfied with the liturgy 
and doctrine of the church, that they forsook their minister and 
conformed to the Church of England.''^ 

The following memoranda occurs in the vestry book of St. 
Peter's Church, Westchester. 

January 12ih, 1702. *'It was resolved by the justices and ves- 
trymen, that there shall be raised £50 for the minister's mainte- 

» Church Rec vol. i. No. 29. t See Bedford. <^ See Westchester. 


nance, and poor of the parish, (the quota furnished by Eastchester 
Avas £7 13^.) to be paid unto the church wardens at or before the 
15th of December, next ensuing." The name of Joseph Drake 
appears in the Ust of vestrymen. 

On the same occasion, Edward Avery late constable of East- 
chester produced a receipt from the Rev. John Bartow, for the 
minister's rale in the year 1703, stating that he had paid Mr. Bar- 
tow the sum of seven pounds thirteen shillings, for his collecting.* 

On the 23d of December, 1707, it was resolved to raise the 
sum of five pounds towards purchasing boards for Eastchester 
church. b 

In 1703 Capt. John Drake and Edmund Ward were appointed 
to go to New York to ask concerning the settling the minister 
according to a warrant granted by General Heathcoate, for the 
good of the county.c 

Upon the 20th of March, 1703, it was agreed that " Judge 
Drake, Moses Fowler, and Isaac Taylor should have full power 
to hire a man to repair ye meeting house in Eastchester, and in 
making a pulpit and pew seat, (reading desk) and further to sell 
and make other seats in the same as far as the boards that are 
already bought will go."'^ In 1713 the Rev. John Bartow contri- 
Jbuted £9 6s. 6d. towards rectifying the pews and seats in East 
and Westchester.e During the year 1728, the Rev. Thomas 
Standard (rector of Westchester) officiated here every other Sun- 
day, and publicly catechised the children. This year there ap- 
pear to have been fifty children, and thirty communicants.^ In 
1745 Mr. Standard informs the society that the parishes of East 
and Westchester are in a thriving and growing state." The 
Rev. Mr. Milner, his successor in 1764, reported to the Propaga- 
tion Society, " That the peopk of Eastchester have laid the foun- 
dation of a new church of stone, seventy-one feet by eighty-eight, 

* Westchester Rec. 
b Ibid. 

« Hawkins Hist. Notices of the Church of England, 276. MS. Letters in the 
Lambeth collection, England, vol. xx. 109. 
d Town Rec. 

•Ibid. • • • ■'-■-. -_^. j\ 

i Propagation Soc Rep. 


in the room of a small decayed wooden building erected in the 
infancy of the settlement." Throughout the years 1766, 7, and 8> 
the Rev. Samuel Seabury (afterwards bishop of Connecticut,) 
officiated in Eastchester. 

Occasionally the French clergy of New Rochelle must have 
performed services in this parish, as we find the following entry 
on the records of Trinity Church, New Rochelle. 

'• Cet anjourd'hui le 5 mars, 173f , baptise a East Chester, Wil- 
liam Fowler, fils de Joseph Fowler et de Madame Sarah sa femme 
age d'environ six mois, et presente au saint bapteme par Ezekiel 
H.ilstead, son oncle et par Sarah Fowler, sa mere, Parrain et 
Marraime. P. Stouppe." 

The parsonage formerly stood on the Alstine property, directly 
north of the present church. Here the Rev. Thomas Standard 
resided for many years.^ 

St. Paul's Church, Eastchester, was first incorporated on the 
12ih of March, 1787, in pursuance of an act of the legislature 
passed April 6th, 1784 ; on which occasion Thomas Bartow? 
John Wright, Isaac Ward, Elisha Shute, Lewis Guion, and Philip 
Pell, jun., were unanimously elected trustees. This church was 
again incorporated 4th of October, 1795, by the style and title of 
'• St. Paul's Church in the town of Eastchester.''^ William Pop' 
ham and Lancaster Underbill, churchwardens. Philip Pelh 
Lewis Guion, Isaac Ward, John Reed, Isaac Guion, Abraham 
Valentine, William Pinckney and William Crawford, vestrymen. 

We have previously shown, that the present church was 
erected in 1764, by the inhabitants of this town, situated in a 
pleasant valley (bordering the Aqueanouncke.) It presents from 
the neighboring hills, a very picturesque appearance. On the west 
end is a neat tower, containing a bell, which bears the following 
inscription. c 

1758." "LESTER & PACK FECIT." 

" It appears that as early as 1699 a lot was provided for the minister. 

b In pursuance of an act passed for the relief of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the state of New York, 17th March, 1795. 

e Immediately above the tower door are inscribed the initials of the principal bene- 
factors, viz. P. n. P., P. P., I), v., nli^o a tablet bearing the date of erection 1765. 



Beneath the chancel floor, repose the remains of the Rev. 
Thomas Standard, former rector of the parish, and Anne his 
wife. a 

St. Paul's Church, Eastchester. 

The chandelier and organ, were the gift of George Rapelje, 

The communion silver consists of a flaggon, two chalices, and 

The former bears the following inscription : 


St. Paul's Ch., Eastchester, N. Y. 

In memory of 

Mrs. Mary Gregg, 

obt. Janry. 2d, 1844. 

yE 71 years. 

The chalices are inscribed as follows : 1st. St. Paul's Church, 
Eastchester, N. Y., from Mrs. John Q^uincy Adams, 1829. 

2d. The gift of Frederick van Cortlandt. " St. Paul's Church, 
Eastchester, N. Y., A. D. 1829." 

"^ On the erection of the present edifice, their badies were removed from the old 
church which stood near the locusts. 


During the American Revolution, services appear to have been 
suspended here, and the congregation dispersed. At this period 
the church was used as an hospital, and subsequently served the 
purposes of a court house. The following entry occurs in the 
records of the court of Common Pleas. At a court of Oyer 
and Terminer and general jail delivery, held at the church at 
Eastchester, in and for the county of Westchester, on Tuesday, 
the l:^th day of June, in the year of our Lord, 1787. Present, 
the Honorable Richard Morris, Esq., Chief Justice of the (Supreme 
Court of Judicature, for the state of New York. 

Stephen Ward, 1 t f r r^ i n^ • 

, , r^ m 1- I Justices of Oyer and lermmer 
Jonathan G. Tompkms, . ^ , t •, t^ ,• r 

^ and General Jail Delivery, for the 

Ebenezer S. Burling, 
Benjamin Stevenson, 

county of Westchester. 

Immediately after the Revolution, the inhabitants of Eastches- 
ter appear to have associated themselves with the parish of Yon- 
kers, under the charge of the Rev. Elias Cooper. This connec- 
tion was dissolved about 1798. From the year 1800, to cir. 1837. 
Eastchester was alternately united to Westchester and New Ro- 
chelle ; but for the last ten years it has supported its own incum- 

The village grave yard which lies on the south and west side 
of the church, is one of the most extensive in the county. 

The earliest tombstones bear the following inscriptions : 

R. S. D. Here H D 1 D 


14. 1704. the body N 20 

of Thomas 1711 
PiNCKNEY died 
ye 1 1732 E. G. 71. 

On the north side of the church is a marble tomb, inscribed 
as folio AS : 


Therese Boulland 


who departed this life 
Ihe 5th of October 
' aged 29 years, 

wife of 
Joseph F Mangin 
DE Dompaire 
Major of the engineers of the 
General staff of 
St. Domingo, 
surmounted with the arms of Boulland, viz. arg. a chev. between three quar- 
ter foils, surmounted by a coronet ; supporters, two lions rampant regardant. 

There are vaults in this yard belonging to the Pell, Gregg, 
Drake, Sands, Prime, Cain, Masterton and Morgan families. 

The following is a catalogue of the ministers and rectors of 
this parish, from the year 1703. 


Instituted or called. Incumbents. Vacated by 

1703 Rev. John Bartow, Clericus, per mort. 

1726 Thomas Standard, Clericus, do 

1764 John Milner, Clericus, do 

1766 Samuel Seabury, Clericus, per resig. 

1787 Andrew Fowler, Presb. do 

5 July, 1790 ; Theodosius Bartow, Presb. do 

1794 ' ,. Elias Cooper, Presb. ^ , do 

Aug. 1795 . ..^ John Ireland, Presb. do 

18 Jan. 1800 Isaac Wilkins, D. D. Presb. do 

1817 Revaud Kearney, Presb. do 

1818 Lewis P. Bayard, Presb. do 
14 Oct. 1826 - La wson Carter, Presb. do 

1837 John Gregg, Presb. do 

1838 Robert Bolton, Presb. do 


Insrituted or Incumbents. Vacated by- 


1S16 Edwin Harewood Presb. do 

22Ang. 1847 Henry E. Duncan. Deacon, present incumbent. a 


A. D. 1728, 30 communicants. 

1817, 48 do 45 baptisms. 

1819, 60 do 7 do 

1847, 35 do 15 do 

The first delegates from this parish to the Diocesan Conven- 
tion, in 1787, were Pliilip Pell, sen., and Thomas Bartow. 

From the church records we extract the following curious 
item : — 

" At a meeting of the vestry, held at the house of William Crawford on 
Saturday, the 7lh of May, 1791 — present Stephen Ward, Abraham Valentine, 
John G. Wright, Isaac Ward, Lewis Guion, and Thomas Bartow — 

" Marcus Christian, the sexton to the church in Eastchester, was sent for 
and examined respecting the bell's being rung on Saturday, the 30th of April, 
on the family of James Bogart's moving out of this place ; which charge he 
denied, and, on his examination, said he was lame, in bed, and was not at the 
church on that day. He was further examined on his former conduct, on his 
selling licure in the belfrie of the church, on a training day, which he acknow- 
ledged. Whereupon they did agree he was not worthy to keep the keys of 
the church, or to be employed as sexton ; upon which, he delivered the key 
and was dismissed the service "^ 

The Methodist Episcopal church in the village of Eastchester 
was first organized in 1836, and incorporated the same year by 
the name and title of "the Methodist Episcopal church in the 
town of Eastchester ;" Thomas Griffin, Peter Bertine, Josiah 
Sickles, Nicholas Duff, and Gilbert Underbill, trustees.^ The 
church was erected in 1837. 

This portion of Westchester county appears to have suffered 
severely during tlie war of the Revolution, and was constantly 

" This individualis a lineal descendant of the first Episcopal Rector of the parish, 
his mother being a daughter of the late Augustus Bartow, great grandson of the 
Rev. John Bartow. 

b Church Rec. ^ Religious Soc. Co. Rec, Lib. A. 54. 


the scene of marches, points of defence, and skirn:ii5hes. Here, 
also, the lawless "skinner" and " cow boy" practised their black 
deeds of rapine unmolested. 

In October, 1776, a skirmish took place in this town between 
the patriots, on their route from King's Bridge to Westchester, 
and the enemy under Lord Howe. 

For some time the Connecticut troops were billeted in the vil- 

On the 3d of October, 1779, " Lieut. Gill, of the American 
dragoons, patrolling in Eastchester, found a superior force in his 
rear, and no alternative but to surrender or cut his way through 
them ; he chose the latter, and forced his way, when he found a 
body of infantry still behind the horse. These he also charged, 
and, on his passing them, his horse was wounded, and threw 
him, when he fell into the enemy's hands. Two of the lieuten- 
ant's party, which consisted of twenty four, were killed, and one 
taken prisoner ; the rest escaped safe to their regiments.^ 

In the vicinity of the village a detachment under the command 
' of General Parsons, fitted out in sleighs, (returning from an en- 
terprise against the enemy at Morrisania,) were overtaken and 
almost entirely cut to pieces by a party of British light horse.^ 

The small stream that waters the western part of the village of 
Eastchester, was formerly known as Rattlesnake Brook. An 
early town order required " the inhabitants to meet together one 
day in the spring, for the destruction of this dangerous reptile.''^ 
In 1721 Nathaniel Tompkins was permitted to erect a fish wair 
on Rattlesnake Creek, - to ye advantage of himself to catch ye 
fish that swimmeth therein, for ye space of ten years from this 
date, providing he put it up at once."d 

Near the mouth of the brook is situated the tide mill of Mr. 
Robert Reed. The cottage commands an extensive view of the 
winding creek and the high grounds of Pelham. The adjoining 
property formed a portion of the ancient planting grounds of 
Eastchester. Further to the southwest lies Black Dog Brook, 

a Heath's Mem., 218. t Hugh Gaines' Gazette, 

b As late as 1775, a rattlesnake was killed near the brook, measuring some six feet, 
c Town Rec, 1 Feb., 1696-7. John Pell, senr., had the privilege of erecting a 
mill on this brook. 

Vol. I. 20 


sometimes called Hutchinson's Brook. This stream constitutes 
a portion of the southern line of the township. 

Upon the western shore of Hutchinson's Creek (north of Reed's 
mill) is located the village landinsf already alkided to.^ 

Id the sou ih west corner of Eastchester lies the estate of the 
late George Faile, Esq., at present occupied by his widows for- 
merly the property of Fleetwood Marsh, Esq., a native of Diitchet, 
Buckinghamshire, England, for many years a freeholder of this 
town. The situation of the estate is very fine, commanding all 
the various undulations of a hilly district. 

The house, seated upon rising ground, overlooks the valley to 
the southeast, Eastchester Creek, and the distant waters of the 

The adjoining property on the west belongs to Mrs. Givans, 
widow of the late Robert Givans, Esq. The mansion is sur- 
rounded by extensive plantations and ample woodlands. The 
latter affords a favorite rendezvous or head- quarters for vast flocks 
of crows, which receive every protection from their generous ben- 
efactress. The noise created bv ihem, in their assemblage and 
re ascension in the morning, is incredible, causing the woods to 
re-echo with a thousand reverberations. 

In the immediate neighborhood are the properties of the Hon. 
Effingham C. Schietfelin and Alfred Seton, Esq. The residence 
of the latter gentleman occupies the summit of a high ridge over- 
looking the valley of Eastchester on the east. 

There is a remarkable rock in this vicinity, well worthy of the 
stranger's notice, marked with the rude impression of a human 
foot, seven inches in length. ^ 

a During tlie revolutionary war, a British sloop was captured in this creek by a 
party of whale boatmen. 

b About half a mile from the fort " on Montauk point," says Mr. Prime, " in a 
Bouthcasterly direction, is a granite rock imbedded in the ground, on the upper 
surface of whichjs the apparent impress of a human foot. 

'•The figure is as perfect and distinct as would follow from the pressure of the 
left foot, upon some cohesive substance, except being deficient in a toe ; a deficiency 
not at first sight apparent, and discernible only by inspection. No artist could 
have chiselled a more perfect resemblance. The impression is still fresh, and with- 
out the least appearance of injury from time. There are two other tracks less per- 


T fate page I. 5, vol. i 

Anns, ar. a ci 

John Lawrence emigrated from England Wiil 

lo the colony of Sew Amsterdam in Uiil ; brothe 
one of the first patentees of North Hemp- ing in 
stead. L I., 16-14; a resident of VVestches- magis 
ter, 1644; deputy lo Haitford from Gov. ob 1& 
Stuyvesant in 1663 ; mayor of New York 
and member of the Gov. Council at the 
time of his death in 1699; judge of the 
tsupreme Court Nat l'il8; will dat. 1698, 

Thomas, joint patentee with his__Francina Smith 

father, ancestor of the East- 
chester branch. 

widow of M. 

Thomas, justice of the—Frances Isaac, nat, 
peace for Bergen co. from Edsall. from Long 
1702-1*13, judge of court of Chester, ciJ 

of C. P., ancestor of N. J. branch. 1730. 


I — 1 

Isaac, nat 1687, ob cir. 1768=1 Widow Ward. 1 
I —2 Ruth Owens. 

- 2 I I , 

-^n ~=5 1 Is^artc =:Keziah Pell, 2 Jesse, nat, 

nat |nat. 1729, ob Dec 9, 1727 

17-^4 25 March, nb. Feb. 14, 

1795. ISOl. I 

- — "< 


I I I 1 I i I I I 

w-^-fs 2, i m » =. ?5 = 


S3 — "1, 

2 K 

B » 3 — 

" II iT II 
5 > ? 

^ '6- a - E - 


Within a short dii^tance of the village are situated the estates 
of Mr. Thomas Rimisey, and John R. Hayward, Esq. the latter 
geniienian represented (in 1846) this county in Assembly. =^ 

Most of the farms in this neighborhood now cover the old 
Lawrence property, which at one period embraced nearly five 
hundred acres. A portion of it was called Virginia from its 
beantifnl appearance. The earliest proprietor (of this estate) was 
Isaac Lawrence, Esq. who originally emigrated from Long Island 
to Eastchester, cir. 1C89. On the I2th of ]May, 1690, Isaac Law- 
rence was chosen by the inhabitants of this town, one of the 
pound-masters for the year ensuing. In 1700, he appears to 
have been town treasurer, and in 17'2l his name occurs in the 
list of the grand jurors for the county of Westchester. Isaac 
Lawrence died about 1730, leaving three sons, the eldest of 
whom was Isaac Lawrence, grandfather of the present Augustus 
Lawrence, Esq. This gentleman has for many years filled the 
office of justice of the peace for the town of Eastchester. 

The Lawrences of Westchester county. New Jersey, and 
Long Island, descend from three brothers who emigrated from 
Holland to the colony of New Amsterdam in 1641. John, Wil- 
liam and Thomas Lawrence were originally from the county of 
Lancaster, England, and left their native country at the com- 
mencement of those political troubles which preceded the rebel- 
lion, and death of Charles I."'' ~ . .. ■ •• ■ 

The Pinckney estate in this town originally embraced the pro- 
perties of Mr. Jesse Lyon, Joseph Disbrov^, Henry Slayman, Al- 
fred H. Buncombe, and Benjamin Underbill, Esq. 

The Pinckney residence, which stood a little to the south-west 
of Mr. Lyon's, appears to have been a favorite resort for officers 

feet and distinct ; the one in the Indian field, and the other west of Fort Pond. 
The heel of the foot is towards the east in ail of them, as though formed in passing 
to the west. Excepting that they are the footsteps of the evil spirit, no record or 
tradition pretends to give their story. They existed at the first settlement by the 
whites, and were a subject of pawwa to the Indians." [N.S. Prime's Hist, of L. I.] 

^ Mr. Hayward purchased of the executors of tlie late Richard Shute. In 1671, 
James Eustice and others were appointed to lay out land for Richard Shute an- 
cestor of Richard above mentioned) near Rattlesnake brook, 

b For a further account of this family, see pedigree. 

T fnrp page ir^.l, vol. 


aguly, gu Crest, a demi tarbot, tail upwards. Motto, Qiioero, Iiiven 

3 of Lancashire, England. 

Joliti Lawrence eniigriiied from England 
lo ihe colunyof New Amsterdam in HiM ; 
one of ihe first patentees of North Hemp- 
stead. L I., 16J4 ; a residt-ni of Westchea- 
ler, IG44; depute to Hartford from Gov. 
Stuyvesantin 166:1; mayor of New York 
and member of the Gov. Council at the 
time of his death in 161)9; judge of the 
Supreme Court Nat l-i 18; will dat. 1698. 

William emigrated to Ami 
brother, one of the first paten 
ing in 1645, proprietor of L^ 
magistrate of I<'lushing und 
ub 163U. 

_ Elizabeth Smith of Smiihtown, da of 
Richard, patentee of Smithtowti ; this la- 
dy afterwards married Sir Philip i 'arteret, 
tiiiv. ol >Jew Jersey. From her Elizabeih- 
town takes itanaiiie. 

Thomas, oneof the patenieesof New-= 
town 1666- proprietor of Hell-gate neck, 
a major in Leisler's forces, 1690; died 
at Newtown, July 170.1. 

rhomas, joint patentee with his_-Francina 
father, anct-stor of the East- I widow 
Chester branch. Smitii. 

William, member of the, 
Gov. Council from 170^- 

John, high sheiift" of Qu 
CO. 16118, commander 
troop of horse, ancesK 
the Newtown brajich. 

Jonathan whu rtmnived to Westchester.^^, 
ancestor of the Wt-Mche-lei- branch, | 
and probal) y of Kuckland co. branch, I 

Tiiornas, justice of the— Frances 
peace for Bergen co. from Edsatl. 
1702-n n, judge of court of 
of C. P., ancestor of N. J. branch. 

Isaac, nat. 166&-7, reinoved_.Anna 
Ironi Long Island to East- I Squii 
Chester, cir. 1689, oh. cir. _=2 E 
1730. Ca 

John nat. 1668,^ Eliza' 
ob. 17;^2, remov- I _2Ma 
ed IJ Cortlandt's 
patent, 1730- | 

Thomas, will 
dat. i:i May, 
1752; lib. 18 
p 202. 

Isaac, nat 1687, ob < 

—Keziah Pell, 2 Jesse, nat— Elizabeth 3JosephkiII- 4 Gilbert,— 1 Margaret 

I nat. 1729, ob l>ec 9, 1727, I Vandostern. ed by a fall nat 1738, | Kissac 

1 25 March, nb. Feb, 14, | from his ob. July 17 I —2 Mrn. 

j 1795. lyUl. I prior 1817. | Magdalene 

I to the Kc-vo- , I Alyres 


5 AaioiJ— 

1 Jane Law- 

nat. I'J 

rence, ob 18 

Mar. 1741, 

Aug. 1785. 

ob. 2 Jan. 

_2 Cralt, 


ab 182il. 





= Nehemiali 
Hunt nat. 
May 21, r,24 
ob July 2 I, 

■ I I I i. I 
-o<oH o M §■ ^ 

I I J I I J 


Within a short distance of the village are situated the estates 
of Mr. Thomas Rnnisey, and John R. Hay ward, Esq. the latter 
gentleman represented (in 1846) this connty in Assembly. ^ 

Most of the fnrms in this neighborhood now cover the old 
Lawrence property, which at one period embraced nearly five 
hnndred acres. A portion of it was called Virginia from its 
beantifnl appearance. The earliest proprietor (of this estate) was 
Isaac Lawrence, Esq. who originally emigrated from Long Island 
to Eastchester, cir. I(i89. On the r2th of ]\Lay, 1690, Isaac Law- 
rence was chosen by the inhabitants of this town, one of the 
pound-masters for the year ensning. In 1700, he appears to 
have been town treasurer, and in 1721 his name occurs in the 
list of the grand jurors for the county of Westchester. Isaac 
Lawrence died about 1730, leaving three sons, the eldest of 
whom was Isaac Lawrence, grandfather of the present Augustus 
Lawrence, Esq. This gentleman has for many years filled the 
office of justice of the peace for the town of Eastchester. 

The Lawrences of Westchester connty, New Jersey, and 
Long Island, descend from three brothers who emigrated from 
Holland to the colony of New Amsterdam in 1641. John, Wil- 
liam and Thomas Lawrence were originally from the county of 
Lancaster, England, and left their native country at the com- 
mencement of those pohtical troubles which preceded the rebel- 
lion, and death of Charles I."^ 

The Pinckney estate in this town originally embraced the pro- 
perties of Mr. Jesse Lyon, Joseph Disbrov^, Henry Slayman, Al- 
fred H. Duncombe, and Benjamin Underbill, Esq. 

The Pinckney residence, which stood a little to the south-west 
of Mr. Lyon's, appears to have been a favorite resort for officers 

feet and distinct; the one in the Indian field, and the other west of Fort Pond. 
The heel of the foot is towards the east in alt of them, as though formed in passing 
to the west. Excepting that they are the footsteps of the evil spirit, no record or 
tradition pretends to give their story. They existed at the first settlement by the 
whites, and were a subject of pawwa to the Indians." [N. S. Prime's Hist, of L. I.] 

a Mr. Hayward purchased of the executors of tlie late Richard Shute. In 1671, 
James Enstice and others were appointed to lay out laud for Richard Shute /an- 
cestor of Richard above mentioned) near Rattlesnake brook, 

b For a further account of this family, see pedigree. 


of the British army during the RevoUuionary war. In front of 
this mansion Henry Pinckney was shot before the ryes of his 
family, (by a party of soldiers,) whilst endeavoring to effect his 
escape on horseback, April 2d, -3780. 

The Pinckneys of Eastchester descend from Philip Pinckney, 
one of the first ten proprietors and patentees of this town, who 
originally emigrated from Fairfield, cir. 1663-4. Philip Pinck-. 
ney was a lineal representative of the Pinckneys of England,, 
whose ancestor Gilo de Pincheni or Pinckenie came into that 
country in the train of William the Conqueror. The Pinckney 
estate is watered on the east by the Aqueanouncke, (Hutchin- 
son's river,) and its tributary called Ann Hook's brook, from the- 
Indian chief of that name. 

The Drakes were also extensive proprietors in this town ; the 
old estate called Nonsuch being bounded on the west by the' 
Bronx, on the north by the Yonkers road leading to Swain's 
mill, on the east by the White Plains turnpike, and on the south 
by the Hunt's Bridge road. The property is now owned by vari- 
ous individuals. It is somewhat curious, that the only portion of 
the original estate at present vested in the Drake family, is the site 
now occupied by the barns and out-buildings of the late Moses: 
Drake. This individual was the son of Benjamin Drake, third 
in descent from Samuel Drake, Esq. of Fairfield, one of the first 
ten proprietors of Eastchester in 1664. 

On the 9th of Sept. 1650^ Samuel Drake received a grant of 
land from the freeholders of Fairfield. 

Upon the 8th of Feb. 1677, Samuel Drake of Eastchester sold 
luito his son Samuel Drake, three separate parcels of land lying 
in Fairfield. a 

The will of Samuel Drake, sen. bears date May 30th, 1676. i> 
Samuel Drake is presumed to have been a son of John Drake 
who emigrated to Boston in 1630, and finally settled in Windsor 
Conn., from whence his son Samuel removed to Fairfield. 

The Drake family are of great antiquity, and descend from thcv 
old house of Drake of Ashe, Devonshire, England, a branch of 

« Fairfield town Rec. 

fc Surogate's office, N. Y. vol. iii. 47. 

To face page 156, vol. i. 


Thomas, died=Elizabeth 

after ihe war 

L. 1. 


Jonaihan^l. Sarah "V — 
I 2. Alida Si 
j a Dutcles, 


Thomas, nat.=Abby Is rael= Dorothy Rich 

Feb, 1729. 



da. of John 

Thomas Elijah Rachel 1. Lewis 3. Willi- Rachel, Philip Richard=Su 

Briggs Josiah Rebecca 2. John am married Eliza- C 

4. Israel Jacob beth h 

David, a re- 
of the house 
of assembly 
of Nova 


<; I II 

e-- ~- 
= 3-0 

1. John Town- William=Hannah 1. Elijah 

send. Bertine 2. Peter 

2. Thomas C. 3. Stephen 

1. Mary 

2. Eliza 

1. Wi 

2. Jar 

3. Isa- 


Stephen Jas. Henry Geo. Washington William Bertine Charles 


- 1, Freelove, — 1 
m. Thos. 

2. Maiy, m.— 
Dan Ro- 

3. Jemima, — 
m Maj. 
Frazer, B. 

4. Ann, m.— 
Jos Rey- 

5. Sebina, — j 
m. Elijah 

6. Phebe, ra.— 

7. Sarah, m — 
Dr. Po»l. 


of the British army during the Revolutionary war. In front of 
this mansion Henry Pinckney was shot before the ryes of his 
family, (by a party of soldiers,) whilst endeavoring to effect his 
escape on horseback, April 2d, -3780. 

The Pinckneys of Eastchesler descend from Philip Pinckney, 
one of the first ten proprietors and patentees of this town, who 
originally emigrated from Fairfield, cir. 1663-4. Philip Pinck-. 
ney was a lineal representative of the Pinckneys of England,," 
whose aticestor Gilo de Pincheni or Pinckenie came into that 
country in the train of William the Conqueror. The Pinckney 
c'state is watered on the east by the Aqueanouncke, (Hutchin- 
son's river,) and its tributary called Ann Hook's brook, from the 
Indian chief of that name. 

The Drakes were also extensive proprietors in this town ; the 
old estate called Nonsuch being bounded on the west by the 
Bronx, on the north by the Yonkers road leading to Swain's 
mill, on the east by the White Plains turnpike, and on the south 
by the Hunt's Bridge road. The property is now owned by vari- 
ous individuals. It is somev/hat curious, that the only portion of 
the original estate at present vested in the Drake family, is the site 
now occupied by the barns and out-buildings of the late Moses 
Drake. This individual was the son of Benjamin Drake, third 
in descent from Samuel Drake, Esq. of Fairfield, one of the first 
ten proprietors of Eastchester in 1664. 

On the 9th of Sept. 1650^ Samuel Drake received a grant of 
land from the freeholders of Fairfield. 

Upon the 8th of Feb. 1677, Samuel Drake of Eastchester sold 
unto his son Samuel Drake, three separate parcels of land lying 
jn Fairfield. a 

The will of Samuel Drake, sen. bears date May 30th, 1676. •> 
Samuel Drake is presumed to have been a son of John Drake 
who emigrated to Boston in 1630, and finally settled in Windsor 
Conn., from whence his son Samuel removed to Fairfield. 

The Drake family are of great antiquity, and descend from the 
old house of Drake of Ashe, Devonshire, England, a branch of 

• Fairfield town Rec. 

* Surogate's office, N. Y. vol. iii. 47. 

To face page 156, vol. 


Arma. or, four fusils in fesee gules. Crest, out of a ducal coronet or, a griffen's liead ppr. 

Philip Pinckney, one of first the patentees of Eastcheater, 1664= 

Thomaa Pinckney, of Eastchcster=Hamiah' 

Tbomas, died=Elizabeth 

.1 I 

Samuel Ferris, 1699. Sarah 


II a. Aiiaasran, 
■[ aOutcli faily 

I I 


I I I 

Thomaa, nat.=:Abbv Is raei= Dorothy Rich Philip=EIiza')eth 

Feb, 1729. | Briggs I I Tovvnsern 



da. uf Jolin 




tiathan, ob. 

Gilbert, nat. John, nat. 

Philip, nat. 


Mav3l, laihJuly, 

21st Ocio 



1743 1746, of No- 

her, 1749, nf 


of the house 

va Seolia. 

Nova Scotia 

1751, of 

of nssejubly 


of Nova 



Thomas Elijah 
Briggs Josiah 


Henry, kiHed du-: 
ring the war 

da. of Ja- 

Jonalhan=Elizabeth Palmer 

1. John Town- 

2. Thomas C. 

1. Elijah 

2. Peter 

3. Stephen 

J. Will. Townsend 

2. James Ward 

3. Isaac Micajah 

4. Abraham Cross 

5. Joshua Gedney 

6. Alex. Ru 

7. 'Ihos. Coleaworth 4. Adelif 

1. Amelia Freelove 

2. Sarah Caroline 

3. Octavia 


Stephen Ja3. Henry Geo. Washington William Bertins Charlea 


I I 

1. Jaa, Gilbert 
2 Jncob Henry 
3. Daniel 

I I I 

;ajah^ane William=l. Jarvis James^ David= 
Cross =2. Ulrdaall 

1. Freelove | I | 

2. Amelia 1. .Tames 

3. Deborah 2. Lovvery 

1. Wil 

filliam 4 Ellas 
3. James 1. Roaella 

3. Peter 


;r, B. 


4. An 
Job Rey- 

5. Bebina, — 
m. Elijih 

6. Phebe, ra.— 

7. Sarah, nj.— 
Dr. Foil. 


which gave birth to the ilhistrious Sir Francis Drake. The 
name is supposed to be derived from the heraldic wivern. The 
arms of tiie family, which is another name for the fabled drngon 
of antiquity ; draco or drago being the Roman name. As late as 
the time of Sir Francis Drake, writers called him the Dragon. 
Of this family was Joseph Rodman Drake, the poet, and the late 
Charles Drake, M. D.«- 

Opposite Mrs. Drake's is situated the property of the late Elisha 
Shute, whose ancestor Thomas Shute is named in the covenant 
of 1665. Richard Shute, the son of Thomas, was for many years 
recorder of this town. Elisha Shute was the father of the late 
Richard Shute, whose five sons are still living in the town. 

The representatives of James Eustis another of the ten propri- 
etors in 1664, are also numerous in East and Westchester. 

On the west side of the town (at Hunt's Bridge, on the Bronx) 
is located the Eastchester Railroad depot. 

About two miles and a half north of this place is situated 
Bronx Mill, the property of James P. Swain, Esq., formerly 
known as Underbill's Mill. The Bronx River here affords a fine 
water power to an extensive gj-ist mill and screw manufactory. 
The building is a large and handsome structure of stone, four 
storiajg high, and measures forty feet by eighty. The machinery 
is of the best kind, and the water is sufficient to carry the mill 
throughout the year, which enables it to grind at all seasons. 

The course of the Bronx immediately below the mill is said to 
have been formerly changed by a large beaver dam, which those 
industrious animals had erected near the foot of Mr. Underbill's 
garden. Beaver Pond lies directly north of the mill ; vast quan- 
tities of trout, roach, suckers, and other fresh water fish, are bred 
yearly in the Bronx. In 1S25 Canvas White, Esq., engineer, em- 
ployed by the New York Water Works' Company, reported to the 
directors of that corporation, that he would rccomiwend taking 
the waters of the Bronx at Underbill's Bridge, estimating that 
9,100,000 gallons of water might be delivered in the city daily, 
and that the whole expense would not exceed $1,450,000.^ 

a Genealogical and Biographical account of the family of Drake, by Samuel G^ 
Drake. Boston, 1845. 

t Corporation Doc. Report for 1833, doc. xxxvi., 375- 


The mill and adjoining property, at an early period, belonged 
to the late Lnncasler Underhill, who lived to the remarkable age 
of 9S. Thronghout the trying period of the Revoluiion, this 
individual resided on his farm, and appears to have suffered se- 
verely both in person and estate. Durifjg many a severe winter 
nig!u he lay concealed beneath the body of an oxcart, (which he 
had taken the precaution to cover with hay,) and on each re- 
turning day blessed his good fortune that his liouse had escaped 
the flames. Near the mill is located the Bronx Railroad depot, 
distant about four and a half miles south of White Plains. 

Upon the Long Reach, in this town, are situated the farms and 
residences of John Townsend, Esq., (former sheriff of the county, 
and senator for the second district in 1821,) Alexander Pirnie, 
Mr. Headly, Alexander Masterlon, Abijah Morgan, Charles Mor- 
gan, and Mr. Pinckney, (fcc. 

The whole of this elevated district commands extensive views 
of the Sound and surrounding country, in the innnediate vicin- 
ity stands Marble Hall, the site of which is celebrated in our 
Revolutionary annals. From the petition of Jonathan Ward 
(one of the former proprietors of this place) to Congress in 
1825, we learn, " that at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tionary war, Stephen Ward (the petitioner's father) resided in 
Eastchester, and county of Westchester, seven miles south of 
White Plains ; that the British troops took possession of the city 
of New York and the southern part of the county of Westches- 
ter, in the autumn of 1776 ; that in consequence of which, the said 
Stephen Ward left his residence, consisting of a large and valuable 
dwelling, barn, and sundry other buildings ; that between this 
period and the autumn of 1778, those buildings were occupied, a 
large portion of time, by the American troops, at which place 
there were several engagements between them and the British ; 
that in November, 1778, a large body of the British forces, com- 
manded by General Tryon, made an excursion as far as Ward's 
house, and, by the g:eneral's orders, totally destroyed, by a fire, 
the buildings, with considerable other property.''^ 

In the spring of 1776Captain Archibald Campbell, with a strong 

» Araer. State Papers, No cccclxv., G54. See Simcoe's Mil. Journal, p. 92. 



force of the enemy, surprised a Continental guard (under the 
conmiaiid of Captain Dehivaii) stntioned at Ward's house. After 
an offer of surrender hnd been nriade by the Americans, a shot 
was fired from one of the windows, which, unfortunately, killed 
Capiain Campbell. ^ The Briiisfi, seeing their commander fall, in- 
stai]tly forced the house, and, no resistance l)eing made, revenged 
his death by killing upwards of twenty on the stairs and in the 
adjoining. rooms ; a few effected tlieir escape by jumping out of 
the back windows. I'he dead, who fell upon this occasion, were 
interred among the locusts on the west side of the road.^ 

The Hon. Stephen Ward, who occupied this property prior (o 
the Revolution, was the son of Edmund Ward,^ and grandson of 
Edmund W^ard, of Fairfield, Connecticut, who removed to East- 
chester at a very early period. In 1700 the inhabitants of this 
town granted to Edmund Ward fifty acres of land, in consideration 
that he pay the Indians for the same. These lands were situated 
on the Long Reach, for the name of Edmund Ward occurs in the 
Long Reach Patent, granted to Wm. Peart ree and others A. D. 1708. 

The Honorable Stephen Ward, above mentioned, was for many 
years a judge of the county, and a firm patriot throughout the 
Revolution. At an early period he appears to have been pro- 
scribed by the loyalist party, and a bounty set upon his head. ' 

The following epitaph is inscribed on his tombstone in East- 
chester church yard : : . ... . ^ r - ■. , 

' 'In ^- ' -■ :-,r/^ ■;:_:' T'v •. ; 

MEMORY OF ' ' /. ^ / 

Stephen Ward, Esa. ' • .. - 
Who died 8th Dec'r., 1797, 

AGED 67 years, 9 months and 17 DAYS. ■" 

Sons of America ! ' ",-- . 

Mourn for your country, she has lost a friend 
Who did her rights and liberties detend. 
May rising patriots keep those rights secure, 
And hand them down to latest ages pure. 
Mourn too, ye friends and relatives who knew 
His worth, his kindness, and his love to you. 

* The shot is said to have been fired by Lieut. Paddock. 

b The old Ward house stood directly on the site of the present Marble Hall, and 
s said to have closely resembled it in all its proportions. 

Edmund Ward was for many years a member of the Colonial Assembly, 


But duty bids us all resign, and say, 

Thy will be done, who gave and took away. 

By his wife Ruth Gedney, the Hon. Stephen Ward left issue 
eight sons and four daughters ; the fourth son was the late Jona- 
than Ward, surrogate of the county of Westchester, and a dele- 
gate to the convention that framed the late constitution of this 
state in lS21.a 

In the vicinity of Marble Hall are situated the two valuable 
marble quarries of Elijah Morgan & Co., and George Hall. The 
former supplied the material for the construction of the New 
York custom house, and is now fulfilling a heavy contract for the 
city hall, Brooklyn. ^ 

Upon the eastern side of Long Reach lies the estate of the late 
James Somerville, Esq.,c (a native of Roxburghshire, Scotland,) 
for a long period one of the associate judges of the county, and a 
well known and respected free-holder of this town. The Som- 
erville property (at present occupied by Archibald Somerville, 
brother of the late judge,) formerly belonged to David Williams; 
and was given him by the state, upon the 16th of June, 1783, 
"for and in consideration of the services of David Williams*^ of 
Cortlandt manor, in the county of Westchester, hath rendered his 
country in apprehending and securing the British deputy adjutant 
general. Major John Andre, who was returning to New York, 
after having, in the character of a spy, concerted measures with 
the infamous Benedict Arnold, then commanding at the posts in 
the Highlands, for betraying the said posts into the hands of the 
enemy, and for his virtue in refusing a large sum of money 
ofi'ered by the said Major Andre as a bribe to permit him to 
escape, &c., and consisted of all that certain tractor parcel cf 

» Also a member of the state senate ia 1806. 

b The Winter Hill burying ground in this neighborhood contains some ancient 
memorials to the Hodens and Hunts. One of the headstones is inscribed " S. 1719," 
another, " Mary Hoden, deceased March ye 10th, 1731- 

c James Somerville was the son of Archibald Somerville, M. D., of Melrose, 
Roxburghshire, (whose family originally came from Berwickshire, in the same king- 
dom,) a lineal descendant of Sir Gualter de Somerville, Lord of Wichnour, one of 
the companions of the Norman conqueror. 

d For a full account of this individual see Hist, of Schoharie County, N. Y. 

To face pnge 161, vol. i. 

Arm?. — A 


Edmund Ward, member of the=P] 
Colonial Assembij'; will da 
ted 12ih Feb 1731. Surro- 
]2ate's Rec. No 11, 276. 

Ediinnd, of Ea-tchestnr, to whora^^Phcebe Hon. Stephen, J| 

lii:J fatber bequeathed a silver 1 Fowler of Westchestel 

liilted sword; ob. 1805. | 1730, ob Dec. 

1. Emund=. . 2. John 3. VVil- 4. Moses^ 
I liam 

5. E.ijah G. Richards. , 


7. Step! 

1. Phoel 

2. Miri: 

I.Oliver 4. Steplien I.Phoebe 

y William 5. John 2. Miriam 

3. Moses. 6 Augustus H. 





1. Horatio 

2. Alfred 


Stephen, nat. 
Apiil £*, 

Philip Pell, JefTer- 
sou County, N.Y. 

Margaret Sarah=^Benj. 
Mary VVrlglit 



Charles, nat April 
11, 1802, ob. 

Sally Ann, nat. June 
10, 1800, ob. 


Emeline, nat. 
June. 18119 

nat. Towns- 
June 3, end 
17'. 4 

Jolm, naf.=Sarah 
26 June, Morgan 

James, nat.=Eslher Thomas, n 

21 April, Fowler 22d March 

1780, ob28 1785. ob s. 
Aug 18:i8 

Mooes, of=;Ann, da. of Philip, 
Sing I Job Sher- ob. s. p. 
Sing Wood. 



I I I I I I J J . 

Isaac Abijah, Nathan- Mnj. Gen. Fran=Jame3 Sally— Will Thomas Mary 

ob. iel.ob. Aaron, of ces Pugs- Ann Carpen- 

8. p. Sing Sing ley ter 

Hannah=Elijah Elizabeth Ann=Levi Rcbecca=Dr. Scrib- Jemima=Georgi 
Wash- Shutc ner, of Tar- Sher. 

burn rytown, ob. 1847. wood 


land situate in the town of Eastchester, late iii the possession of 
Edmund Ward, amounting to 252^ acres.^ 

The above mentioned Edmund Ward, was the only brother of 

.•the Hon. Stephen Ward. Daring the RevoUition, Edmund ap- 
pears to have sided with the loyalists, for which he lost his pro- 
perty under the confiscation act of 17S2. His second son John 
Ward, was an officer in the Loyal American regiment, " and 
entered (remarks Sabine) the military service of the Crown as 
early as 1776. During the war, he was frequently in battle. 

. The loyal Americans went to New Brunswick, in 1783 ; and when 
in the course of that year the corps was disbanded, he settled at 
St. John as a merchant. He filled various public stations, and 
for many years enjoyed the appellation of the father of the city. 
At the time of his decease, he was not only the senior magistrate 
of the city and county of St. John, but the oldest merchant and 
half pay oflicer in New Brunswick. Mr. Vf ard was a gentleman 
of noble and venerable appearance. He died in 1S46, in the 
ninety-third year of his age. His remains were taken to Trinity 
Church, " where the impressive funeral service of the Church of 
England was read, and were subsequently interred in the new 
burial ground, followed to the grave by one of the largest and 
most respectable funeral processions ever seen in this city ; in- 
ckiding in distinct bodies, the justices of the peace for the city 
and county of St John, the common council of the city headed 
by his worship the Mayor, and his honor the Recorder, the mem- 
bers of the legal profession, (the barristers being in their gowns) 
at the head of whom, was his honor Mr. Justice Carter, sup- 
ported by the Honorable the Attorney General, and Solicitor 
General, the grand jury for the city and countj^ then attending 
the Circuit Court, and the officers and men of the New Bruns- 
wick regiment of artillery of St. John, as Vv'ell as a vast concourse 
of other citizens, all anxious to pay the last sad tribute of re- 
spect, to one who was so intimately associated with the early 
history of the country, &c."^ 

The Ward family originally came from Kent, England, and 

a Abstract of Sales of Confiscated Estates, 138. 
b Sabine's Hist, of Amer. Loyalists, 67?, 

Vol. I. 21 

To ftre pnge lCl,Vol, 

ArmF. — Az. a cross, patonce, or. Crest. — A wolf's head, erased, or. Motto. — Non nobis soliin 

Andrew Ward, of Walertown, Afasa. freeman, 1634, accompanied the first settlers^ 
to Connecticut, and was elected a magistrate ia 1636 ; removed to Long Islaiid I 
in 1643 : a resident of Fairiield, Conn, in I64S. 

Edmnnd Ward, of Fnirlield,=Mary 
Conn, removed to East- I 
ciiener : will dated June, 
17i2. Surrogate's of- 
fice. No. 7. III. I 

Sainuel, Eastcliester, 1608=Hannah 

of tlie=Pliffibe Sands 


Uicliard, of Westcliester=Mary 

Edniund, of Ea-5tcliestnr, 1 
llis fatljer bcqueatlied a 
liilled sword ; ob. 1805. 


1730, ob I)ec. 8, 1797 

•I I I 

.2. John 3. Wil- 4. Moses=. 
liaui I 

5. Elijah 0, Kichard= 

I I I 
7. SlCflit 

1. Olivei 
a VVillii 
3. Moses 

,1 I I 
4. 8tepliea 

I I 

1. Pbtebo 

2. Mirian: 

I I 

1. Horaiio 

2. Alfred 



Charles=JVIary James,=Phffibe Barthn 
m. Jan. I Pell nat. 
2U, 1783 May 



Toinp- Jomew, 

S' Surr. of 

kins. nat. 

g. Weit'r 



~ Sep. 31, 


? 1768,0b. 

= Sep. 28, 

2 I8t3. 

W Jonathan=Sarah Kicliard=: tJ Jagper= t> 


nat. 1st 

g- nat. 

da. of 


S Fe.4, 



g. |-7;i. 


Mar. 6, 

a ot) 4 

nat. 2d 


2. Dec. 


S8 May 

g 1834. 




Stephen, nat. Philip Pell, Jefler. Margaret Sarah=nenj. 
Apiil8, sou County, N.Y. Mary Wright 


Caleb T. Bennett, nat, Mary, nat. Caroline Stephen 

Ward, of July 11. 1795. May. 18U1, Anna= James H. 

Slaten ob. 8 Jaa. ob. 21 Jackson nat. Sept. 

Island 1812 May, 1816 ('dell 12 If2i 

I I 

Rev. John W. 


Joiin, nat.= 
2fi June, 

Daniel, nal 
31 March 

Theodore A. Caroline M. Mary A. 

Abigail, nat. Ann, nat.=Tnwn- Margaret=Da 
1776 25 Feb. send nal 16 Moi 

17o3 June, 1787 




John, of East-=Mary Tho- 
chest'T, will niaa 
dated n6t 
But. Reo^fol. 
19, 1U2. 


Hester, nat.=Peter Martha. nat.=Simeon 
19 Aug. 1791 Boyd Sept. 10, 1709 Burgess 

i, of=Ann, da. of Philip, 
g I Job Shcr- ob. s, p. 

I I I 

Israel—Sarah Samuel=Mary Nancy=St€phen 
I Ros- I Pur- Arclier. 

I sell I dy 

Rebecca—Naihani- Freelove^OIiver EIi2abeth=Gilbert 
U'ider- Torra Tomp- 

Hannah=Jame3 Phffibe— Wiltiatn 

Naihan- Maj. Gen. ] 
iel.ob. Aaron, of 
S-P- Sing Sing 

Hannah=EIijah Elizabeib Ann=Lev 

riiomaa Mary=G. 


ca=:Dr. Scrib- Ji 

ner, of Tar. 
rylown, ob. 1847. 

J I 


John, ob. Thomas, l.eonard, James 
s- p. ob, 8. p. EssexCo. 
K. Y. N. J. 

Ezra Elijah narriet:=:Wm. 
N. V . Den. 




land situate in the town of Eastchester, late in the possession of 
Edmund Ward, amounting to 252^ acres.^ 

The above mentioned Edmund Ward, was the only brother of 
the Hon. Stephen Ward. During the Revolution, Edmund ap- 
pears to have sided with the loyalists, for which he lost his pro- 
perty under the confiscation act of 17S2. His second son John 
Ward, was an officer in the Loyal American regiment, " and 
entered (remarks Sabine) the military service of the Crown as 
early as 1776. During the war, he was frequently in battle. 
The loyal Americans went to New Brunswick, in 1783 ; and when 
in the course of that year the corps was disbanded, he settled at 
St. John as a merchant. He filled various public stations, and 
for many years enjoyed the appellation of the father of the city. 
At the time of his decease, he was not only the senior magistrate 
of the city and county of St. John, but the oldest merchant and 
half pay officer in New Brunswick. Mr. AYard v^as a gentleman 
of noble and venerable appearance. He died in 1S46, in the 
ninety-third year of his age. His remains were taken to Trinity 
Church, " where the impressive funeral service of the Church of 
England was read, and were subsequently interred in the new- 
burial ground, followed to the grave by one of the largest and 
most respectable funeral processions ever seen in this city ; in- 
chiding in distinct bodies, the justices of the peace for the city 
and county of St John, the common council of the city headed 
by his worship the Mayor, and his honor the Recorder, the mem- 
bers of the legal profession, (the barristers being in their gowns) 
at the head of whom, was his honor Mr. Justice Carter, sup- 
ported by the Honorable the Attorney General, and Solicitor 
General, the grand jury for the city and county, then attending 
the Circuit Court, and the officers and men of the New Bruns- 
wick regiment of artillery of St. John, as well as a vast concourse 
of other citizens, all anxious to pay the last sad tribute of re- 
spect, to one who was so intimately associated with the early 
history of the country, &c."^ 

The Ward family originally came from Kent, England, and 

^ Abstract of Sales of Confiscated Estates, 138. 
b Sabine's Hist, of Amer. Loyalists, 673. 

Vol. I. 21 


claim descent from William de la Ward, who flourished temp. 
Henry II. 1154 to 1189. 

The first member in this county appears to have been Andrew 
VVard,^ of Watertown, Mass., who accoinpanied the early settlers 
to Connecticut, and was elected a magistrate in 1636; he sub- 
sequently removed with the Rev, Richard Denton to Hemp- 
stead, L. I. In 1649, we find him residing at Fairfield, Connec- 
ticut. His sons were Samuel, of Easlchester, John, and Edmund 
the grandfather of the former proprietor of the Somerville estate. 

In the northern part of this town are situated the residences of 
James Morgan^ and William Silliman, Esq. Immediately north 
of the latter stood the old Tredweli mansion, the head quarters of 
Lord Howe, when the British army lay encamped in the vi- 

The farm of Mr. John Bates completes the northern boundary 
of this town. 

Upon Hutchinson's river are situated the saw and grist mills of 
John Tompkins and Stephen Anderson ; the latter gentleman, 
besides his mill, carries on a large rope and cord manufactory. 

The general surface of Eastchester is hilly and somewhat stony, 
the soil chiefly consisting of a fertile loam, there is, however a 
good proportion of interval and meadow land upon the rivers. 
The town is well watered throughout, both by springs and streams. 
The growth of wood and timber resembles that of other towns in 
general ; oak of various kinds, hickory, chesnut, white wood, ash, 
walnut and pine, (fcc. 

'•Among the most important minerals" of Eastchester, ("in an 
economical point of view,) may be ranked the dolomitic marble.^ 
which occurs abundantly in various places, and is extensively 
employed as a building material. Pyroxene occurs every where 
in the dolomite.''^ 

» For further particulars of this family see genealogy. 
^ See genealogy. 

«■ From John Tredweli this property passed to the late Capt. Joseph Skinner, who 
died October 20, 1&36, aged 70 years. 

-i Dolomite, magnesian carbonate of lime. 
• Geological survey of the state, 1840. 




Christ Cliurch, Tarry town. 

In the Dutch lan- 
guage Grein (Grain) 
bnrgh (borough,) lite- 
rally the Grain town. 
In some of the early- 
deeds called Lawren- 
ces plantation, a name 
undoubtedly derived 
from one of its original 

At the period of the 
Dutch discovery, this 
town formed a part of the Indian territory of Wikagyl, as laid 
down in the Dutch carte of 1614. «• 

The aboriginal name of the town itself was Weckquaskeck ; 
afterwards varied to Wechquossqueeck and Wiequoeshook ; in 
pure Algonquin, Weec-quoes-guck, the place of the bark kettle. b 

Opposite Tappaan, (says Be Yries, in 1640.) lies a place called 

Van Tienhoven describing tlie same spot" remarks : '• Wicli- 
quaesqueek, on the North River, five (twenty) miles above New 
Amsterdam, is a right good and suitable land for cultivation, con- 
tains considerable maize land which the Indians planted, rising 
from, the shore. In the interior the country is flat and mostly 
even, very abundantly watered with small streams and runniuo" 

* See Dutch carte, Secretary of State's office, Alb. 
k Schoolcraft's paper, Pro. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 1^44, 


fountains. This land is situate between two rivulets called Sint- 
sinck and Armonck, lying between the East and North rivers. 
''Bedenkinge over het aenvaerden van de landeryen^inN. Neder- 

To a large current of water which descends through the vil- 
lage of Dobh's Ferry and falls into the Hudson at the upper land- 
ing, the Indians gave the name of Weghqueghe or Wysquaqua, 
by the English called afterwards Wickers creek or William Por- 
tugues creek. 

At the mouth of this beautiful stream the powerful tribe of the 
Wichquaesqueecks, had erected a village which was standing 
in the time of Nicholas Johannes Visschers, (Nicholas John Viss- 
chers.) for in his map of Novum Belgium, published at Amster- 
dam, 1659,^ he calls it Wickquaskek, a name which was also ap- 
plied to the surrounding lands as already shown. The site of this 
ancient village can still be traced on the neighboring banks by 
the numerous " Indian shell beds" which in some places are 
found to vary from two to three feet in depth. Another Mohegan 
village occupied the site of Tarrytown, called in the Algonquin, 
Alipkonck, " Anneebikong ? place of leaves or rich foliage.''^ 
"Above Weckquaskeck says Schoolcraft, was the village of Alip- 
konck, that is " a place of elms."<i 

On the mnp of ''Novum Belgium" it is also styled Alipconck, 
which clearly shows it was standing in 1659. 

From the bark of the white elm (ulmus Americana) the Indian 
manufactured his light canoe.e This tree is also celebrated for 
the elegance of its foliage. 

As early as 1644 there were three entrenched castles belong- 
ing to the Weckqaaskecks.f One of these strong-holds was 

* O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 240. 

i> See copy of Visscher's map engraved by Thomas Starling, Wilmington Square » 
London, 1833 ; from the original, in the possession of S. Converse, New York. 

""■ Schoolcraft's Ethnology. Oneota. 

d Proceedings of N. Y. Hist. Soc. 1844. 

e These canoes of bark were sewed together with thongs made from the dry 
sinews of the deer. One of them was capable of holding from twelve to fourteen 
men, or one hundred and fifty bushels of corn. 

' O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. 299. 


still remaining in 1663, and garrisoned with eighty warri- 

The first sachem of Weckquaskeck, of whom we have any 
account, was Mongockonone, who appeared in behalf of this 
place, A. D. 1644, at Fort Amsterdam. 

This chief must have held his authority under the high sach- 
em of the Mohegans, for on the 30th of August, 1645, we find 
Aepjen, chief sachem of the Mohegans, appearing in behalf of 
Weckquaskeck before the Director General and Council at Fort 
Amsterdam. a- 

Eighteen years later Oratam, chief of Hackinkishacky, sum- 
moned the chiefs of Weckquaskeck before the Council. Upon the 
death of Mongockonone, (who doubtless fell in one pf the Indian 
wars so frequent in that stormy period,) Pounpahowhelbshelen 
appears to have inherited the chieftainship. This individual 
sanctioned the sale of lands called Ubiequaeshook toPetrus Stuy- 
vesant, A. D. 1649.b 

The chief of Weckquaskeck in the year 1660 was Ackhongh, 
who is called the chief and counsellor of Weckquaskeck. 

In 1663 we have the names of Toawenare, sachem of the same 
place, and Souwenaro his brother. Also the same year occurs 
the name of Schowmenarack. In 16S0 the chiefs were Wes- 
kora or Weskomen and Goharius his brother. And one year la- 
ter Wessickenaiuw, sachem of Weckquaskeck, and Conarhand- 
ed his brother. 

The descendants of the aboriginal proprietors appear to have 
been very numerous in this town, A. D. 1731, nearly half a cen- 
tury after their last sale to Frederick Philips. 

In 1746 there were two Indian villages situated in the vicinity 
of Hart's corners ; one stood on the farm of Mr. James Mc 
Chain, whilst the second crowned the summit of Indian Hill, 
the property of Mr. John Tompkins. Even as late as 1755 
the banks of the Hudson were thickly populated by the Indians 

a N. Y. Hist. Soc. 2 series, vol. i. 27G. 

b Pennekeck, sachem in Achtercol, stated on the 16th July, 1649, (before the 
Director and Council,) that the tribe named Raritans residing before at Wecquas- 
keck, had no sachem, &.c. Alb. Rec. vol. vii. 252. 


particularly south of Tarrytovvn in the vicinity of Mr. James 

The cruel murder of an aged warrior of this town, Sept. A. D. 
1620, plunged the Dutch colony into a long series of wdrs. It 
appears that " one of the neighboring tribe of Wickwasqueeck In- 
dians had come, with his nephew and another of his nation, to 
the Dutch fort to sell some beaver skins. He was met, unfor- 
tunately, by three of Minuit's farm servants, who not only rifled 
the Indian of his property but murdered him in cold blood. The 
nephew of the unfortunate man, who was then a mere youth, 
was a witness to this outrage. He returned home brooding over 
the wrong, and vowed to take vengeance when he should arrive 
at the years of manhood ; a vow he too faithfully fulfilled years 
afterwards, the Dutch having neglected to expiate the crime by 
a suitable present of wampum, in conformity with the customs 
of the redmen, or to punish the murderers, as justice and good 
policy demanded."^ 

Sept. A. D. 1641, the boy had now attained the age of man- 
liood. " His uncle's spirit was still unappeased — his murder was 
unavenged. His voice was heard in the roaring of the storm — 
in the rustle of the leaves — in the sighing of the winds; and full 
of the conviction that that spirit could not find rest until ven- 
geance should be had, the young Weckquaeskeeck sought for a 
victim to offer to the manes of the dead. Shrouding his evil 
purpose under the cloak of a friendly or business visit, he called 
a-t the house of one Claes Cornelisz Smits, the '• raadmaker,"^ 
an aged settler resident on the west side of the river, under pre- 
tence of making some purchases. The old man suspecting no 
harm, (for the Indian had been in the habit of working for his 
son,) set some food before him, and proceeded to get from a 
chest, in which it lay, the cloth which the other wished to pur- 
chase. The moment he stooped, the savage seized an axe, struck 
him dead, and then wiihdreWj having rifled the house of all its 

• O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 105. 
lb Raadmaker (wheelright.) 


*• This aggression on an old and helpless man excited, when 
it became known, considerable feeling at Fort Amsterdam."* 
" Director Kieft promptly demanded satisfaction from the chiefs 
of the Weckquaskecks. "But the sachem" (who was doubtless 
Mongockonone) " refnsed to make any atonement. He was sar- 
ry that twenty Christians had not been immolated ; the Indian 
had but avenged, after the manner of his race, the murder of a 
relative whom the Dutch had slain nearly twenty years before. 
On receipt of this answer, armed parties were sent out to retaliate, 
but they returned, having effected nothing,"*^ - / 

Aug. 29, I641y it was proposed to wait -'until the hunting 
season, when it was suggested that two expeditions should be 
got np ; one to land in the neighborhood of the ' Archipelago,' 
or Norwalk Island — the other, at Weckquaskeck." 

Notwithstanding the impatience of Kieft to attack the Weck- 
quaskecks, he could not obtain the consent of his council un- 
til Feb. IS, 1642. Having now received their sanction, " he 
ordered Hendri^ck Van Dyck, ensign in the Company's service, 
who had been already over two years stationed at New Amster- 
dam, to proceed with a force of eighty men against the Weck- 
quaskecks, to execute summary vengeance upon that tribe, with 
fire and sword. >■ 'i *^ '^- '• 

To ensure complete success, the expedition was placed under 
the direction of a trusty guide, who professed to be intimately 
acquainted with the homes and haunts of the savages. This 
party started in the fore part of March, and pushed actively for- 
ward towards the Indian village ; but fortune favored the red 
man. The night set in clouded and dark; and when the expe- 
dition reached Armenperal,'^ Van Dyck called a halt, notwith- 
standing the entreaties of his men to push on, ere the savages 

a O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N . p. 240, 1. 

b O'Callaghan's Hist N. N. p. 24:1. Journal van Nieuw Nederlaut, Hoi. Doc. v. 
314. De Vries corroborates the statements in the text. 

« O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 242. 

d Armenperal supposed to be the west branch of the Sprain river, which flows in 
the rear of Dobb's Ferry. - 


should have warning of their approach. An hour and a half was 
thus lost ; the guide then missed his way, whereupon Van Dyck 
Jost temper, and made a retrograde movement to Fort Amster- 
dam, whither he returned without having accomplished the ob- 
ject for which he had been detailed. The expedition however 
was not without its effect. The Indians had observed, by the 
trail of the white men, how narrowly they had escaped destruc- 
tion, and therefore immediately sued for peace, which Cornells 
van Tienhoven concluded with them, in the course of the 
spring" of 1642, "at the house of a settler named Jonas Bronk, 
who resided on a river to which he gave his name, situate east 
of Yonkers, in the present county of Westchester." 

One of the conditions of the above treaty was the surrender 
of the murderer of Clas Smits, dead or alive ; a condition which 
however was never fulfilled, owing either to unwillingness or in- 
ability on the part of the Indians.''^ 

" Feb. 7ih, 1642, winter came, and while the earth was yet 
buried in snoW, a party of armed Mohawks, some eighty or 
ninety in number, made a descent upon the Weckquaskecks and 
Tappaen Indians, for the purpose of levying tribute.''^ 

'• At the approach of these formidable warriors of a braver 
Huron race, the more numerous but cowering Algonquins crowd- 
ed together in despair, begging assistance of the Dutch. Kieft 
seized the moment for an exterminating massacre. In vain was 
it foretold that the ruin would light upon the Dutch themselves. 
In the stillness of a dark winter's night, the soldiers at the fort, 
joined by freebooters from Dutch privateers, and led by a guide 
who knew every by-path and nook where the savages nestled, 
crossed the Hudson," (into Pavonia, New Jersey, whither the 
unsuspecting Weckquaskecks and Tappaens had fled from Man- 
hattan,) " for the purpose of destruction. The naked and un- 
suspecting tribes could offer little resistance : the noise of mus- 
ketry mingled with the yell of the victims. Nearly a hundred 

« O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 249, 50. 
b O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 264. 


perished in the carnage. Day break did not end its horrors ; 
men might be seen, mangled and helpless, suffering from cold 
and hunger; children were tossed into the stream, and as their 
parents plunged to their rescue, the soldiers prevented their land- 
ing, that both child and parent might drown. "^ Beside these 
thirty more were murdered at Corlaers Hook on Manhattan 
Island while sunk in repose. 

"This unjustifiable outrage led to consequences ulmost fatal 
to the Dutch. It estranged the Long Island Indians, the wann- 
est of their friends, who now formed an alliance with the River 
Indians, whose hate knew no bounds when they discovered that 
it was the Dutch, and not the Mohawks, v/ho had attacked them 
at Pavonia and Corlaers Hook. The tomahawk, the fire-brandj 
and scalping knife, were clutched with all the ferocity of phrensy, 
and the war-whoop rang from the Raritan to the Connecticut, for 
eleven tribes of savages proclaimed open war against the Dutch. 
Every settler on whom they laid hands was murdered — women 
and children dragged into captivity ; and though the settlements 
around Fort Amsterdam extended, at this period, thirty English 
miles to the east, and twenty-one to the north and south, the en- 
emy burned the dwellings, desolated the farms and form-houses, 
killed the cattle, destroyed the crops of grain, hay, and tobacco, 
laid waste the country all around, and drove the settlers, panic- 
stricken, into Fort Amsterdam. ' Mine eyes saw the flames of 
their towns,' says Roger Williams, 'the frights and hurries of 
men, women and children, and the present removal of all that 
could to Holland.'^ The assassins, says Bancroft, were com- 
pelled to desire a peace, which was covenanted with the River 
Indians the 22cl of April, 164.3. " This was principally brought 
about by the Dutch Pairoon de Vries, and not by Roger Wil- 
liams, as some of the New England historians claim."c 

This peace proved unsatisfactory, for we find the Indians 
again taking up arms. 

' Bancroft's Hist. U. S. ii. 289, 90. 

b O Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p. 270. Rhode Island Hist. Rec. Lii. 156. 

c O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. p*276, note. 

Vol. I. 22 


*' 15tli Sept. 1643, it was resolved by the Dutch to renew the 
war, either by force or stratagem, ao^ainst the River Indians."^ 

<' A. D. 1644, some of the Stamford people having surprised an 
Indian village and taken some prisoners; one of them an 
old man, proposed to the Dutch, in hopes of obtaining a reward 
'• to lead any of their troops against the Weckqnaesqueecks, 
who are said to be entrenched in ihree casiles, at the north, 
liieutenant Baxter and Sergeant Cock were, thereupon, ordered 
to proceed under the guidance of this old man, with sixty-five 
men against this tribe. But this party was in no way more fortu- 
nate than those which had aU'eady gone on similar expeditions. 
Tiiey found the castles of the Indians formidable in construction, 
and well adapted for defence. They were built of five inch 
plank, nine feet high, and bound around with thick beams, and 
studded with port holes. Though it was calculated that thirty 
Indians could hold out, in one of these, against two hundred 
soldiers, strange to tell, the whole were found uninhabited. The 
Dutch, thereupon, burnt two of these strongholds, reserving the 
third as a point to retreat to, in case of necessity. From this place 
they next marched between thirty and forty miles further, but 
discovered nothing save a few lir.ts.''^ 

April 6, 1644. The spring approaching made our river In- 
dians again anxious for peace, which was brought about by the 
intervention of Capt. John Underbill. '' xMamaranack. chief of the 
Indians residing on the Kicktawanc, or Croton River ; Mongocko- 
none, Pappenoharrow, from the Weckqueesqueecks and Noch- 
peem ; and the AVappings from Stamford, ])resented themselves,ia 
a {^\Y days, at Fort Amsterdam, and having pledged themselves, 
that they should not henceforth commit any injnrV; whatever on 
the inhabitants of INew Netherland, their cattle and houses, nor 
show themselves except in a canoe, before Fort Amsterdam, 
should the Dutch be at war with any of the Manhattan tribes ; 
and having further promised to deliver up Pacham the chief of 
the Tamkitekes," (who resided in the rear of Sing Sing,) "peace 

• O'Callaghan's Hist. p. 285. 

»» O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. 298. 


was concluded between ibem and the Dntch ; who promised, on 
their part, not to molest them in any way."* 

The fall of the same year, 1644, we find the ''eight men" or 
conncil of the director, tjins complaining to the directors of the 
Dntch West India Company at home. 

A semblance of peace was attempted to be patched np last 
spring with two or three tribes of savages towards the north by 
a stranger,b whom we, for cnnse shall not now name, without one 
of the Con)pany's servants having been present, while our princi- 
pal enemies have been nnmolested. This peace hath borne little 
frnit for the common advantage and reputation of our lords, &c. ; 
for so soon as these savages had stowed away their maize into 
holes, they began again, to mnrder our people in various direc- 
tions. They rove in parties continually around day and night, 
on the Island of Manhattans, slaying our folks, not a thousand 
paces from the forts, and 'tis now arrived at such a pass, that no 
one dare move a foot to fetch a slick of fire wood, without a 
strong escort, c 

'•The spring of 1645, brought with it as usual, another desire 
for peace, on the part of the River Indians," " This was brought 
about by Kieft and his counsellor, La Montague." '• To make 
suitable presents to the Mohegans or Mahicanders in token f f 
the ratification of this peace, Kieft was obliged however to borrow 
money" from Adriaen vnnder Donck, sheriff of Rensselaerswyck, 
afterwards Patroon of Colendonck, (Yonkers,) and others.^ 

On the occasion of this treaty, which took place 30'h August, 
1615, " Aepjen, cliief of the Mohegans, spoke for the Wappinecks 
the Wechquaesqueecks, the Sinlsings, and tjie Kitchtawancks ; 
these, with others, sealed themselves, silent and grave, in front of 
Fort Amsterdam, before the Director General and his councih 
and the wholecommonalty ; and there, having religiously smoked 
the great calumet, concluded in "the presence of the sun and 

a O'Callaghan, p. 303. : ^ / '- 

b Captain John Underhiil. • / - . 

c Hoi. Doc. 111,200,222. 

d Vauderdonck's New Neth. N. Y. Hist. Soc trans. ^2 ser.) Isf, 27 Vol, . 


ocean," a solemn and durable peace wiih the Dutch, which both 
the contracting parties reciprocally bound themselves honorably 
and firmly to maintain and observe."* 

The ralification of this important treaty terminated, a re-estab- 
lishment of good understanding with the natives commenced, 
for. on the 14th of July, 1649, we find the Director General, 
Petrns Stuyvesant, purchasing lands in this town, in behalf of 
the Dutch West India Company. 

" On this day, the date underwritten, appeared before the noble Lords, the 
Director General, and the council, Megiegichkama, Oleyochgue, and Weg- 
taJiOckhen ; the right owners of the lands lying on the North River of New 
Netherland, on the east shore, called Ubiequaeshook, in the breadth through 
the vvoods, till a certain kil called Seivegrat, diverging at the East River, 
from thence northward and southward to a certain kil named Rechawes, the 
same land lying betwixt two kils, one-half woods, and betwixt the North and 
East Rivers ; so that the western half to the aforesaid is still remaining ; and 
the other easterly half, with a south and north direction, middle through the 
woods, the aforesaid owners acknowledged ; that with the consent of the chief 
Sachem, they have sold the parcel of land, and all their oystering, fishing, &c. , 
unto the noble Lord Petrus Stuyvesant, Director General of New Netherland, 
fur, and in consideration of certain parcels of merchandize which they ac- 
knowledge to their satisfaction to have received into their hands and power, 
before the passing of these presents, viz. : 

6 Fathom cloth for jackets. 10 Knives. 1 Gun 

6 Ditto seawanl (wampum.) 10 Harrow teeth. 2 lbs. lead. 

6 Kettles. 10 Corals or beads. 2 lbs. powder. 

6 Axes. ' 10 Bells. 2 Cloth coats. 

6 Addices. 

In consideration of which, the before-mentioned owners do hereby the said 
land convey, transport, and give over, to the aforesaid (noble Lords the Direc- 
tor General, and his successors in full, true, and free ownership : To the said 
land, we the grantors, neither now nor hereafter, shall ever present any claim 
for ourselves, or our heirs and successors, desisting by these presents from all 
action, either of equity or jurisdicton, but conveying all the same to the said Di- 
rector General and his successors, to do therewith as it may seem proper to 
them, without their, the grantors, or any one of them, molesting the grantee of 
the aforesaid land, whether in his property or his family. It is also agreed 
that the most westerly half, just as the Lord Director pleases, shall go with 

O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. 356. 








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The sachems of this town subsequently committed further 
depredations, and probably armed several of ihe sixty four war 
canoes that attacked and ravaged the country around Manhattan 
during the absence of Stuyvesant in 16o5.a 

For on tlie Cth of March, 1660, we find Ackhongh, the chief 
and counsellor of Weecqjiaesqueeck,i\ppei\nng in the city of New 
Amsterdam, before the Director General and Council, to treat for 
peace. b 

On the lOih of July, 1663, during the negotiation between 
Connecticut and the Dutch, a furious war was raging in the 
neighborhood of Esopus. The insurgent tribes were fieaded by 
five warlike chiefs, viz.. Pennyraweck. kSewekenamo, Wapper- 
onk, Caelcop, and Mekarowe, who threatened not only the ex- 
tinction of the Dutch villages, bat also their allies, the Weeck--'- 
quaesqneecks. In dread of the threatened invasion, we find the 
chiefs of this town repairing to New Amsterdam on the 26th of 
July, 1663. "Souwenaro, sachem of Weeckquaesqueeck, came 
of his own accord, with his brother, and asserted th:)t he was 
warned by a Wappinger Indian that the Esopus Indians intended 
to come down, within five or six days, with forty or fifty men to 
kill them, with the Dutch of New HarUiem and other places, 
and those of the New Village: he told them he, with his people, 
took therefore their flight near Harlaem. He notified them of it, 
and why they came, so that those of New Harlaem should not be 

" He said, further, that he warned those at New Harlaem, and 
requested we would do the same to the pe-^.ple in that neighbor- 
hood, and warn those on the general's farm (Bowery). Souwe- 
iiaro also stated that his people were only eighty strong which 
could bear arms, and that they had, consequently, left their fort 
at Weeckquaesqueeck, and had retired into the woods to defend 

This war with the Esopus Indians lasted till November, 1663, 
when a peace was concluded. In the fi\ll of the same year, Sept. 
15; 1663, appeared in the fort, Schoumenarack, chief of Wecc- 

» Bancroft's IlLst. U. S. iL p. 299. « Alb. Rec. xxi. 247. 

b Alb. Rec. xxi. p. 247. 


qnaesqiieeck, soliciting for himself and his men to go fishing un- 
molested near the village of Harlaem, which was granted on con- 
dition that they shall not come with arms near the Dntch dwel- 
lings, and that it may be known, with full certainty, that they 
were his savages, and not some of Esopns ; so was delivered to 
him a senl (signet) of tlie Dutch Company, printed on wax, in 
small billets, which might be shown in meeting Dntchmen, on 
the day as above. 

Note. — There were delivered to him twelve seals, viz. : — 

For those of Weecquaesqneeck, whose chief is Sawwesach, 

'J'o Kitchtawangh, whose chief is Currupin, four. 

Kiskingthing and Sint Sinck have do chiefs, but are consid- 
ered to belong to those savages. » 

On the 2lst of October, 1663, we find the chiefs of Weecquaes- 
qneeck, united with tliose of Sint Siuck and Kitchtawang, in a 
war with the Dutch. ^' The armistice of November appears to 
have restored tranquillity. During the summer of 16()2, "Connec- 
ticut purchased of the Indians all the lands on the seaboard as 
far west as the North River."c Thus a second lime was this 
territory ceded by the sachems of Weecquaesqneck. Upon the 
confiscation of the property of the Dutch West India Compa- 
ny, 15ih of June, 1665, the New Netherlands passed to his 
Royal HighnesSj James, Duke of York; and these lands being 
within tlie province of New York, formed a part of the North 
Riding of Yorkshire. In consequence, Connecticut ceased to 
hold any jurisdiction. 

The next grantee, under the sachems of Weecquaesqneeck, 
was the Hon. Frederick Philipse, of East Friesland, in Holland, 
who had emiorated to New Amsterdam at an early period. The 
first grant to Philipse occurs on the lOth of December, 1681. 

" From the Intlians Cobus, Oramaghqueer, Betthunsk, Sjoghweena-men, 
Wenraweghien, Saijgadme, and Togtquanduck, of all those lands beginning on 
the north sice of a creek called Bisightick, and so ranging along said river 
northerly to the landd of the said Frederick Philipse, and thence alongst the 

» Alb. Rec. c Bancroft's U. S. ii. 312. 

b Alb Rec. xviii. 446. <i This refers to a former purchase. 


said land, north-east and by east until it comes to and meets with the creek 
called Neppizan, if the said creek shall fall within that line, otherwise to ex- 
tend no further than the head of the creek or kill called Pekantico, or Pueghan- 
duck, and then southerly alongst said river Nippizan if the sanae shall fall within 
the said line as aforesaid, or else in a direct line from the head of the said creek 
or kill called Peckantico, until it comes opposite the said first mentioned creek 
called Bisightick, and from thence westerly to the head of the said creek Bis- 
ightick and alongst the same to the North or Hudson's river,"^ &c. &c. This 
purchase embraced the north-west portion of the town, and a part of Mount 
Pleasant. It was attested by 

W The mark of \yessickenaeuw Sachem of Wesquaskack. 

Witness the mark of C^ Clause the Indian. b 

V The mark of Ghoharius for himself, Cobus, and Toghquandack. 

W The mark of Wramaghaqueer. 

Z The mark of Petthunck. 

O The mark of Sjogheveen. 

V, The mark of Wearaweghein. 

/ The mark of Sayjaenw. 
Here follows a schedule or particular account of the wampum and other 
goods paid by Frederick Philipse for the said land. 
10 fathom of duffils, 2 iron potts, 6 howes, 

10 blankets, 5 earthen cans 12 axes, 

8 gunns, 12 steeles to strike fire, 9 kettles, 

7 shirts, 2 coopers' adds, 40 knives, 

1 anker of rum, 2 half vatts of beere, 6 brass tobacco boxes, 

25 lbs. of powder, 70 fathom of wampum, 6 coates, 

10 bars of lead, 7 pair of stockin^^s, 2 drawing knives. 

The second sale to Philipse embraces lands situated south of the 
former, bearing date the 13th of April, 1682. 

*' Beginning at the south side of a creek called Bisightick, and so ranging 
along Hudson's river, southerly to a creek or fall called by the Indians 
Weghquegsike, and by the christians called Lawrence's plantation ; and from 
the mouth of the said creek or fall, upon a due east course, to a creek called 
by the Indians Nippiran, and by the christians Youncker's kill; and from 
thence along the west side of the said creek or kill, as the same ruas to lands 
formerly bought." 

In presence of Emient, Sachem of Siapham, 
Kicktawongh, Goharis, 

Conarhande, brother of Wassekanew, Teattanqueer, 
Aramaghqueer, Wearaquaeghier, 

» Book of Pat. Alb. v. 54. 

t Tbifl individual appears to have acted as interpreter upon the occasion. 


A schedule or particular of the wampum and other goods paid by Frederick 
Philipse to the Indians, the owners and proprietors of the above land. 

100 fathoms of white 30 barrs of lead, 20 boxes, 

wampum. 12 shirts, 2 ankers of rum. 

12 fathom black ditto, 12 pair of stockings, 2 1-2 vatts of beere, 

. 12 ditto of duiiills, 30 hows, 3 drawing knives, 

12 blankets, , 8 fathom of stroud wa- 2 coopers adds, 

12 kettles, ter cloth, 10 yearthen juggs, 

10 guns, \ ' 8 coates, , 10 axis,* 

60 lb. of powder, 50 knives. 

Upon the 6th of September, 1682, Frederick Philipse purchased 
of tlie native Indians : ' . ' ' 

" All that tract of land situate, lying and being on the east side of Hudson's 
river, beginning on the north side of the land belonging to the Younckers kill, 
or Wepperhaem, at a great rock called by the Indians Sigghes,b and from 
thence ranging into the woods eastwardly to a creek called by the Indians Nep- 
perha, and from thence along the said creek northerly till you come to the east- 
ward of the head of a creek called by the Indians Weghqueghe, being the ut- 
most bounds of the lands formerly bought of the Indians, &c.,&c., attested by 
Waramanhanck, Esparamogh, Anhock, 

Maeintighro, Mightereameck, Sakissjenogh, 


The schedule of the goods, &c., &c., paid by the grantee. 

4 guns, 6 pair of stockings, 2 ankers of rum, 

4 fathom of wampum, 10 bars of lead, 4 shirts, 

4 blankets, 3 kettles, 2 fathom of cloth, 

6 fathom of duffils, 12 lbs. of powder, 1 adze, 

1 drawing knife. « - 

The last purchase made by PliiUpse in this town, (on the 5lh 
of June, 1684,) includes the land situated between the Saw Mill 

and Bronx river, viz. : ■ - ■ ■■ ^ . 

" All that tract or parcel of land, situate, lying, and being, to the eastward of 
the land of the said Frederick Philipse, between the creek called Neppiran, or 
the Younckers kill, and Bronck's river, beginning (on the north side) at the 
northerly bounds of the Younckers land, and from thence along the aforesaid 

» Book of Pat. Alb. V. 57. , . 

b See Yonckers ; also Philipsburgh Patent. 

c Book of Pat. Alb. v. 64. This deed includes the southern part of Greenburgh, 
from the northern line of Yonkers to Dobb's Ferry. 

Vol. I. 23 


creek Neppiran, however it runs, till you come to the most northerly bounds 
of the said Frederick Philipse's land, and from thence north-east into the woods, 
to Bfoncks's river, and from thence along Broncks's river so far as it runs 
southerly to the eastward of the Younckers land aforesaid, and from thence 
with a westwardly line to the aforenamed Younckers kill or Neppiran, together 
with all the lands, &c., &c. 

S3pham, Arradppanint, 

Ghoharin, Kawanghis, an Indian squaw, 

Kakinsjgh, Niepack, 

Enhoak, Kewightakin, 

A schedule or particular of goods, &c., paid to the grantors. 

130 fathom of white wampum, 10 spoons, 

12 guns, 2 knives, 

14 fathom of duffils, 12 pair of stockings^ 

12 blankets, 15 hatches, 

8 coats, 10 hoes, 

6 kettles, 10 earthen jugs, 

6 fathom of stroud water, 10 iron pots, 

16 shirts, 4 1-2 valts of beere, 

25 lbs. of powder, 2 ankers of rumme, 

20 bars of lead, 2 rods of tobacco. » 

The above sales covered the present township of Greenburgh, 
and subsequently formed a portion of Philipsburgh manor. 

These lands remained in the Philipse family, until the attain- 
der of Colonel Frederick Philipse, A. D. 1779, when they became 
vested by forfeiture in the people of this state. Under the com- 
missioners they were parcelled out for small sums, to the Van 
Tassels, Van Warts, Odells, Lawrences, Posts, Archers, Harts, 
Ackers, Dyckmans and Requas, former tenants of the manor in 
pursuance of the aci of J 784. Many of their descendants still 
occupy the patrimonial estates in fee simple. 

The earliest entry relating to town officers occurs in the old 
town and manor book, entitled " the town and manor of Philips- 
burgh for to keep the town redesstors, 1742." 

The first Tuesday in April, is chosen Abraham Martlinghs for 
tlie clerk of the town and manor aforesaid, at the town meeting, 
for chnssen all other assessors in the town. 

■^ Book of Pat. Alb. v. 79. 


In 1742j the first Tuesday in April is chosen four assessors for 
the manor of Philipsburgh, viz : Joseph Geddenie and Gerret van 
Wart, jun. For constable and collector is chosen Jocqheni van 
Wart. Pound master is Elbert Airsse. Frederick Philipse ap- 
pears to have been supervisor in 1752. The first independent 
election held in 1778, is thus recorded. '' Being a memorandum 
of all the public officers appointed and chosen at a town meeting 
held as usual on the manor, the 7th day of April, 1778, and in the 
second year of our independency." 

Joseph Paulding, — Supervisor, 

Joseph Requ a Wj — ToionClerh '- • .' 

Peter Bant, — Cojistahle. 

Jacob Van Wart, sen., > /--. ^,, - ' 

James Keqiiav/, }^Overseers of the poor. ,. , 

Gershara Sherwood, / . . ', 

Tho:nas Buess, ' | ^^^ews. ,^ ; ;; • ; : 

Within the township of Greenburgh are located several pleasant 

Hastings occupies a romantic situation on the east bank of the 
Hudson, at the mouth of a beautiful glen. The country rising 
above the margin of the river with great boldness, is luxuriantly 
ornamented with wood. A steep descent leads to the village 
landing and hotel, from which extensive views are obtained of 
the Hudson. The winding stream that buries itself in the ad- 
joining ravine, supplies valuable water privileges for the che- 
mical and button works of Mr. Sheckler, a brass factory, and 
the celebrated axle manufactory of Mr. Saunders. 

The advantages presented by the river, combined with the 
healthfulness of the situation, has rendered Hastings a favorite 
resort for New York citizens during the summer season. 

The site of the present village nearly covers the old Post es- 
tate, formerly owned by Peter Post, who occupied it during the 


revolutionary war. The house (a small stone edifice) is still 
standing. Immediately subsequent to tlie revolution, this build- 
ins: was used as a tavern, and became celebrated as the rendez- 
A^ous of cock fighters, and hard drinkers. Since that period, it has 
been transformed into the present neat cottage. 

On the east side of Edgar's Lane, (a continuation of the Albany 
Post Road.) stands the mansion of Anthony Constant, Esq., for- 
merly the residence of William Edgar. It is a fine wooden edi- 
fice, surrounded by rich plantations of cedar, fir and locust trees, 
and commands delightful views of the river, and adjacent hills. 
Judge Constant is the son of Col. .loseph Constant, and grand- 
son of the Rev. Silas Constant, of York Town. . 

A. D. 177(3, a skirmish took place in Edgar's Lane between a 
body of Hessians, commanded by Lieut. Wurtz, and a troop of 
Sheldon's horse, under the following circumstances. Col. Shel- 
don having received information from his spies, that the enemy 
were prepaiing an incursion into this vicinity, left his quarters at 
New Castle, and led by Isaac Odell, a trusty guide, followed the 
by-roads to this place, where he ascertained from Peter Post, that 
the Hessians had not yet passed. Enjoining secrecy upon Post, 
the Colonel ambuscaded his horse in the adjoining cedars, which 
he had barely done, when the Hessians rode up, and demanded 
of Post, if he had seen the rebels. The Hessians, deceived by his 
answer, were proceeding in full gallop through the lane, when a 
shrill whistle rang through the air, instantly followed by the im- 
petuous charge of Sheldon's horse. Panic stricken, the enemy 
fled in every direction, but the fresh horses of the Americans car- 
ried their gallant riders wherever a wandering ray disclosed the 
steel cap, or the brilliant accoutrements of a Hessian. A bridle 
path leading from the place of ambush to the river was strewed 
with the dead and dying, while those who sought safety in the 
water were captured, cut to pieces or drowned. The conflict, 
so short and bloody, was decisive. One solitary horseman was 
seen galloping off in the direction of Yonkers, and he alone? 
wounded and unarmed, reached the camp of Col. Emmerick in 
safety. Here he related the particulars of the march, the sudden 
onset and retreat. 

Astonished and maddened with rage, Emmerick started his 


whole command in pursuit. Poor Post was stripped for his fidelity, 
and after having a sufficient number of blows inflicted upon his 
person, left for dead. The lane, half a mile in length, has been 
since used as a race course. The former residence of Van Burgh 
Livingston, Esq. is agreeably situated near the river, a short dis- 
tance north of Hastings, The estate is at present owned by 
Mr. Stephen Archer, who purchased it of Mr. Livingston. 

The remains of the ancient military fort at Dobb's Ferry is 
situated a little south-west of the Livingston residence. The form 
of the embankment is somewhat in the shape of a horse shoe. 
From its elevated position, it overlooks the ferry beneath, and the 
magnificent scenery of the Hudson River. This fort appears to 
have been a post of great importance during the revolutionary 
war, for it not only commanded the passage of the river, but also 
the opposite ferry to Paramus, on the Jersey shore. 

'• On the 19th of July, 17SI, (says Thatcher,) the British fri- 
gates tliat passed up the North River, a few days since, took ad- 
vantage of wind and tide, to return to New York. A severe can- 
nonade commenced from our battery, at Dobb's Ferry, where the 
river is about three miles wide. They were compelled literally 
to run the gauntlet. They returned the fire as they passed, but 
without effect. On board the Savage, ship of- war, a box of pow- 
der took fire, and such was their consternation, that twenty peo- 
ple jumped into the river, among whom was a prisoner on board, 
who informs us that he was the only man who got on sfiore, all 
the rest being drowned. He reports also, that the Savage was 
several times hulled by our shot, and was very near sinking.''^- 

The remains of a second redoubt are still visible on the proper- 
ty of Frederick W. Paulding, Esq. The village of Dobb's Ferry, 
one mile north of Hastings, is prettily seated on the rising hills of 
Greenburgh, opposite the northern termination of ihe Palisades 
and the village of Tappan. This place derives its present name 
from the ancient family of the Dobbs, who have been long set- 
tled here, and also from the fact that they were the early ferry- 
men. In the year 1698, there was living in this vicinity Jan 
Dobs en zyn buys vrou (and his wife,) Abigail, both members of 

» Thatcher's Military Journal, 259. See Heath's Mem. 76, 294. 


the Dutch Church, Sleepy Hollow^ Thomas, their son, was 
born on the manor, A. D. 1712. 

20th September, 1729, occurs a record in the church books at 
Sleepy Hollow, of a marriage between William Dobs, born in 
Philadelphia, and Lea van Waert, a native of the same place. 
They were perhaps Swedes, originally from the Delaware. Je- 
remiah Dobs, proprietor of the ferry, left issue by Jane le 
Vines, besides two daughters, two sons, Jeremiah and Peter. Se- 
veral sons of the latter are still living in Greenburgh. 

The Indian name of this place, as already shown was, Weec- 
qu£es-guck, literally ^^ the place of the hark kettle P The abo- 
riginal settlement appears to have been located at the mouth of 
the Weghqueghe or Wicker's creek, (William Portuguese creek.) 
This beantiful stream arises from two distinct springs, situated 
on the lands of E. W. Wald grove and Frederick B. Wilsie, both 
of which, running nearly west, unite soon after crossing the Al- 
bany post road ; here, commingled, they flow through a rocky 
glen enclosed between high wooded banks. Passing under the 
arch of the Croton aqueduct, the waters again appear rushing 
over their stony bed until their further progress is checked by the 
mill dam. Here a pipe of nine hundred feet in length conveys 
the water lo the neighboring mill, affording a fall of thirty feet 
to an overshot wheel. 

In the vicinity of the upper dock, the ravine opens and dis- 
plays a splendid view of the Hudson River. The road, passing 
through the gap of the Greenburgh hills west of the Saw Mill 
Valley, follows the course of the ancient Indian path, which for- 
merly led to the village of the ^^ Bark Kettle,^^ at the mouth of 
the Weghqueghe, or Wysquaqua Creek. 

The lower landing and ferry are situated some distance south 
of the creek at the foot of a steep bank. Here is a neat hotel, 
kept by Mr. Shadrach Taylor, for the convenience of passengers 
by the ferry, and the daily steamboats that touch at this dock. 

Dobb's Ferry was distinguished, during the Revolution, as the 
scene of active military operations. To this fort, October 9, 1776, 
General Hentli ordered Colonel Sargent, with 500 infantry, 40 
light horsp, Capt. Horton, of the artillery, with two 12 pounders, 


and Captain Crafts, with a howitzer, to watch the movements of 
the enemy up the river.^ 

To this place the British army retreated after tlie battle of 
White Plains, closely followed by reconnoitering parties of the 
Americans. On the 7th of November, 1776, the enemy com- 
menced foraging for grain and hay, and driving in cattle.^ 

On the 29th of January, 1777, General Lincoln's division of 
the Continental army was ordered to Dobb's Ferry. <5 

This ferry was selected by General Arnold and Major Andre 
as the place of their first meeting, *' Andre's letter to Sheldon, 
(observes Mr. Sparks, in his Life of Arnold,) when divested of its 
disguise, will be seen to have had no other object than to com- 
municate the intelligence that he should be at Dobb's Ferry at a 
certain time. He presumed the letter would be sent to Arnold, 
who would understand its meaning, and conduct his plans ac- 
cordingly. So it turned out. Arnold left home on the afternoon 
of the 10th, went down the river in his barge to King's Ferry, 
and passed the night at the house of Joshua H. Smith, who re- 
sided about two miles and a half from the Ferry, near the road 
leading to Haverstraw. Early the next morning he proceeded 
to Dobb's Ferry, at which place Andre had arrived, according to 
his appointment, accompanied by Colonel Beverly Robinson, to 
whom the secret had already been entrusted by Sir Henry Clin- 
ton, probably at the suggestion, or at least with the knowledge of 
Arnold. An accident occurred which prevented the interview, 
and was near putting an end to the plot itself. When Arnold 
was approaching the point of destination by water, he was fired 
upon by the British gun boats stationed in that part of the river, 
and so closely pursued that his life was in danger, and he was on 
the point of being taken prisoner. By some oversight the boats 
had not been withdrawn, or it may have been expected that Ar- 
nold would come with a flag, which appears not to have been the 

"Having landed on the west side of the river, he went down 
to the Ferry, where he remained till night. Whether Andre and 
Robinson were at the landing place on the opposite side, or 

a Heath. Mem. 69. b Ibid. 84. ^ Ibid. 113. 


whether they came np from New York in a vessel and remained 
on board, has not been ascertained ; but, at any rate, no meeting 
took place. 

" Not forgetting his accustomed caution, Arnold wrote a letter 
to General Washington while at Dobb's Ferry. His passage 
down the river had been in so public a manner, that it could not 
foil to be known and he feared suspicions might be raised con- 
cerning his motives and objects. Filling up the principal part of 
his letter with matters of some importance appertaining to his 
command, he said, as if accidentally, that he had come down to 
that place, in order to establish signals, which were to be observed 
in case the enemy ascended the river, and also to give additional 
directions respecting the guard-boats, and to have a beacon fixed 
on a hill, about five miles below King's Ferry, which would be 
necessary to alarm the country. These reasons were plausible, 
and afforded apparent proofs of his vigilance, rather than grounds 
for suspecting any sinister design. 

"Being foiled in this attempt to mature his scheme of treach- 
ery, he left Dobb's Ferry a little after sunset, went up the river in 
the night, and reached his quarters at Robinson's House before 
morning. Andre and Colonel Robinson returned to New 

When Arnold left Andre, (the day previous to his capture at 
Tarrytown,) after delivering the treasonable papers, "Andre 
(continues Mr. Sparks) supposed he was to be sent on board the 
Vulture, as will appear by the following extract, which he wrote 
after his capture. 'Arnold quitted me,' said he, 'having him- 
self made me put the papers 1 bore between my stockings and 
feet. Whilst he did it, he expressed a wish, in case of any acci- 
dent befalling me, that they should be destroyed ; which I said 
of course would be the case, as, when I went into the boat, I 
should have them tied about with a string and a stone. Before 
we parted, some mention had been made of my crossing the 
river, and going another route ; but I objected much against it, 

• Spark's Lile of Benedict Arnold, 180, 181, 182. An account of the second 
interview will be found in Cortlandtown. 


and thought it was settled, that in the way 1 came, I was to re- 

"Arnold left him, and went up the river to hcad-qnarters. Be- 
fore he departed from Smiih's house, he urged Smith to go back 
with Andre to ihe Vulture as soon as it should be dark ; yet the 
matter seemsNo have been undecided, for he wrote and gave to 
Smith two passports, (dating them ' Head (Quarters,') one autho- 
rizing him to go by water, and the other by land. 

" The former was in these words : * Joshua Smith has permis- 
sion to pass with a boat and three hands, and a flag, to Dobb's 
Ferry, on public business, and to return immediately.' "a- 

After the trial of Andr6 at Tappan, and his letters and those 
of Washington, as well as the proceedings of the board of exam- 
ination, had been received by Sir Henry Clinton, then in New 
York, it was resolved by Clinton and a board of general ofncers, 
"that a deputation of three persons should proceed to the nearest 
American out-post, furnished with evidence to prove Major An- 
dre's innocence, and to impart information which Sir Henry Clin- 
ton thousjht would place the question in a different light from 
/ that in which it had been viewed by the American board. The 
persons delegated on this mission were General Robertson, 
Andrew Elliot, and William Smith. They were accompanied 
by Beverly Robinson as a witness in the case, and were fortified 
in their estimation, but w^eakened in reality, by a long explana- 
tory and threatening letter from Arnold to General Washington . 
The commissioners went up the river in the Greyhonnd schoon- 
er, with a flag of truce, on the first of October. Notice of the 
- intended visit and its objects had been already communicated by 
Sir Henry Clinton to Washington; and when the vessel an- 
\ , chored at Dobbs' Ferry, General Greene was there, having been 
deputed by Washington to hold the interview on his behalf. 
The person sent on shore by the British commissioners brought 
word back, that General Robertson only would be permitted to 
land, and that General Greene was then in readiness to receive 

. _ • » Sparks' Life of Benedict Arnold, 209-10. 

YoL. L ': .. . ./ 24 


The conference was opened ly Robertson, who paid some 
compliments to the American general, and expressed the satis- 
faction he Iiad in treating with him, on nn occasion so interest- 
ing to the two armies 'and to humanily. Greene rephed, that it 
was liecessary for them to know at the out-set on what ground 
they stood : that he was not there in the character of an officer ; 
that he was allowed by General Washington to meet him as a 
private gentleman, but that the case of an acknowledged spy 
admitted of no discussion. Robertson said his design was to 
state facts, wljich he hoped would have their due weight, in 
whatever character he might be supposed to speak. 

He then entered largely into the subject, endeavoring to show, 
first, that Andre landed under the sanction of a flag ; secondly, 
that he acted wholly by the directions of Arnold; from both of 
which positions it was inferred, that he could not in any just 
sense of the word be regarded as a spy. The facts having all 
been examined by the board of oncers, and being well under- 
stood, this new statement of them made no change in Greene's 
opinion or impressions ; and when Arnold's testimony was in- 
troduced, he said the Americans would believe Andre in prefer- 
ence to Arnold. General Robertson said, that no military tribu- 
nal in Europe would decide the case of Andre to be that of a 
spy, and he proposed to refer the question to Count de Rocham- 
beau and General Knyphausen. Other considerations w^ere 
urged by him, not so much in the way of argument as on the 
score of reciprocal benefits and humanity. He added that he 
should confide in General Greene's candor to represent in the 
fairest light to General "Washington the arguments he had used ; 
that he should stay on board all night, and hope in the morning 
to take back with him Major Andre, or an assurance of his 
safety. a 

"The British commissioners waited till morning, as General 
Robertson liad proposed, and at an early hour they received a 
note from General Greene, stating that he had communicated to 
Washington the subject of the conference, but that it had pro- 

Sparks' Life of Arnold, p. 71, 2, 3. 


duced no change in liis opinion and determination. This intel- 
h"gence was astoundin:^ to Robertson ; for he had written to Sir 
Henry Clinton the evening before, that he was p^rsna'Jed Andre 
would not be harmed. How he got this impression is not easily- 
discovered, since he represented General Greene as obstinately 
bent on considerin": Andre as a spy, and resisting all his argu- 
ments to the contrary. 

Nothing more could be done by the commissioners. That no 
msasure might be left untried however, General Robertson"* ad- 
dressed the following letter to General Washington, dated 

Greyhound Schooner, Flag of Trace, 

Dobbs' Ferry, Oct. 2, 1780. 

Sir : — A note I liil fro:Ti General Greene leaves me in doubt if his memory 
had served him to relate to you, with exactness, the substance of the conver- 
sation that had passed betvvnen him and myself on the subject of Major Andre. 
In an affair of so much consequence to my friend, to the two armies, and hum- 
anity, I would leave no possibility of a misunderstanding, and therefore take 
the liberty to put in writing the substance of what I said to General Greene. 
I offered to prove by the evidence of Colonel Robinson and the officers of the 
Vulture, that Major Andre went on shore at General Arnold's desire, in a boat 
sent for him with a flag of truce ; that he not only came ashore with the 
knowledge and under the protection of the General who commanded in the 
district, but that he took no step while on shore, but by the direction of Gen- 
eral Arnold, as will appear by the enclosed letter from him to your Excel- 
lency. Under these circumstances I could not, and hoped you would not, 
consider Major Andre as a spy, for any improper phrase in his letter to you. 

The facts he relates correspond with evidence I offer, but he admits a con- 
clusion which does not follow. The change of clothes and name was ordered 
by General Arnold, under whose direction he necessarily was while within 
his command. 

As General Greene and I did not agree in opinion, I wished that distin- 
guished gentlemen of knowledge of the law of war and nations, might be ask- 
ed their opinion on the subject, and mentioned Monsieur Knyphausen and 
General Rochambeau I related that a Captain Robinson had been delivered 
to Sir Henry Clinton as a spy, and undoubtedly was such ; but that it being 
signified to him that you were desirous that the man should be exchanged, he 
had ordered him to be exchanged. 

I wished that an intercourse of such civilities as the rules of war admit of 
might take off many of its horrors. I admitted that Major Andre had a great 

* Sparks' Life of Arnold, p. 275, 6, 


share of Sir Henry Clinton's esteem and that he would be infinitely obliged 
by his liberation : and that if he was pernnitled to return with me, I would 
engage to have any person you would be pleased to name set at liberty. 

I added that Sir Henry Clinton had never put to death any person for a 
breach of the rules of war, though he had, and now has, many in his power ; 
under the present circumstances much good may arise from humanity, much 
ill from the want of it, if that could give any weight. I beg leave to add that 
your favorable treatment of IMajor Andr^, will be a favor I shall ever be in- 
tent to return to any you hold dear. 

My memory does not retain with the exactness I could wish, the words of 
the letter which General Greene showed me from Major Andre to your Ex- 
cellency. For Sir Henry Clinton's satisfaction I beg you will order a copy 
of It to be sent to me at N. Y. 

I have the honor to be your Excellency's 

Most obedient and humble Servant, 

James Robertson. 

" This letter could have produced no effect, even if it had not 
arrived too late ; for it touched upon no points which had not 
already been examined and decided. The commissioners re- 
turned to New York. "a 

Andre was executed at 12 o'clock the same day. 

"On the night of the 3cl of August, 1781, about 11 o'clock, 
the British and American guard boats met in the river near 
Dobb's Ferry, when a considerable firing ensued ; the Americans 
had one man badly wounded, who died soon after. The damage 
sustained by the enemy was not known." 7lh August, 1781, in 
the morning, about two o'clock, the American army was awakened 
by the firing of cannon at Dobb's Ferry. It appeared that two 
of the enemy's gun boats had come up as high as the ferry, pro- 
bably to endeavor to seize some vessels or boats. On finding 
ihey were discovered, they fired four cannon, but to no effect. 
Four cannon were discharged at the boats from the battery, on 
which they went down the river.^ 

Beides the two redoubts, there must have been a military 
block house erected here ; for, on the 17th March, 1781, we find 
Major Graham ordered out with a detachment of 150 men for its 

Sparks' life of Arnold, Q76. t> Heath's Mem. 295. 


relief, on which occasion, the garrison on both shores were 

Upon the suspension of hostilities, May 3, 1783, General Wash- 
ington, His Excellency Governor Clinton, and General Sir Guy 
Tarleton, (the British commander,) and their respective suites, 
met here. The two former came down the river in barges ; the 
latter ascended the river in a frigate. Four companies of light in- 
fantry performed the duty of guards on this memorable occasion. b 

Near the junction of the Albany Post, and Saw Mill river road, 
is situated the Presbyterian C.iurch, sometimes called by way of 
distinction, the lower Greenburgh Church. This society was 
organized on the 11th of April, 1825. Present at its first meet- 
ing of the clergy, the Rev. Samuel Robertson, Rev. Mr. Weeks, 
and the Rev. Mr. Wells, of New Rochelle. Of the members, 
Perez Jones, Peter Nodine, James Odell, Elizabeth Lefurge, Van 
Burgh Livingston, and Harriett Livingston. 

The present edifice was erected, A. D. 1827. Principal con- 
tributor, Van Burgli Livingston, elder of the church. 
Install or call. Ministers. vacated by 

1825 Rev. Chester Long, -, resig. 

1831 Rev. David Remington, ~' ; do 

1832 Rev. Mark Mead, ■. do 

1834 Rev. Hosea Ball, . do 
1838 Rev. George Walker, do 
1841 Rev. Samuel Kellogg, present Pastor. 

Elders. Deacon. 

1825, Perez Jones, ■ - ' 1825, James Odell. 

Van Burgh Livingston. / -- ' ' " - 

Church Notes. 

1835 Total number of communicants, 37, bapt., 7 
1846 do 67 do 6 

First delegate to Presbytery, Van Burgh Livingston, Esq. 

a Heath's Mem. 277. 

b "The tour of duty having fallen to our regiment, we marched from Nelson's 
point, on the 24th, crossed the river at King's Ferry, and on the 25th, encamped 
near the block house at this place." August 5th ; " flags are passing and repassing 
from this post to New York and back, every day." Thatcher's Mil. Journal, 310. 


Previous to the year 1843, this church was connected with the 
Upper Greenburgh and White Plains churches. The burial 
ground on the east side of the church, contains monuments to 
the Browns, Ackers, Lockwoods, Lefurges, Wilsies, Dyckmans, 
and Storms, 

Zion Church stands upon the highest ground in the village 
near the Albany post road. 

The wonderfully extensive views which this elevated spot 
commands on every side, are better seen than described. 

The building which is constructed of stone, is in the Gothic 

The ground whicli it occupies, was the gift of Van Burgh 
Livingston, Esq. Its erection took place A. D. 1833, during the 
incumbency of the late Alexander Crosby, A, M., at that time 
Rector of the parish. 

This gentleman was succeeded by the Rev. William Creigh- 
ton, D. D. The present incumbent is the Rev. W. G. Higher. 

There are two or three interments in the grave yard surround- 
ing this cluirch, of members belonging to the Noble, Bowdoin 
and Irving families. 

Immediitely in the vicinity of Dobb's Ferry, and contiguous 
to the river, is the residence and estate of James Hamilton, Esq., 
son of the Hon. Alexander H imilton. This place formerly be- 
longed to the OJell family. Jonathan Odell, father of the distin- 
guished Colonel John OJell, was residing here in the autumn of 
1776, v/hen the British army, after retiring from White Plains, 
encamped in the neighborhood. 

The enemy, upon their final retreat to New York, arrested 
Mr. OJell and four of his neighbors, as prisoners of war. On 
their arrival in the city, they were consigned to the provost. 
Here four of them died of poison, said to have been administer- 
ed in their food. Jonathan Odell escaped through the kindness 
of a friend, who daily brought him provisions. Each of the suf- 
ferers had sons in the continental army, which was the cause of 
this inhuman treatment. 

Bordering the river in the same vicinity, is the cottage of 
George Schuyler, E. q. 

About two miles south of Tarry town, a winding lane leads to 


Sunny Side, the residence of the Hon. Washington Irving. 
'' There is scarcely (observes Mr. Downing,) a building or place 
more replete with interest in America than the cottage of Wash- 
ington Irving, near Tarrytown. The legend of Sleepy Hollow, 
so delightfully told in the sketch book, has made every one ac- 
quainted with his neighborhood, and especially with the site of 
the present building there celebrated as the ' Van Tassel House,' 
one of the most secluded and delightful nooks on the banks of 
the Hudson. With characteristic taste, Mr. Irving has chosen 
this spot, the haunt of his early days, since rendered classic 
ground by his elegant pen, and made it his })erraanent residence. 
The house of 'Baltns Van Tassel' has been altered and rebuilt 
in a quaint style, partaking somewhat of the English cottage 
mode, but retaining strongly marked symptoms of its Dutch 
origin. The quaint old weathercocks and finials, the crow- 
stepped gables and the hall paved with Dutch tiles, are among 
the ancient and venerable ornaments of the houses of the original 
settlers of Manhattan, now almost extinct among us. There is 
also a quaint keeping in the cottage, and grounds around it, that 
assists in making up the chain of the whole ; the gently swel- 
ling slope reaching down to the water's edge, bordered by pret- 
tily wooded ravines, through which a brook meanders pleasantly, 
and threaded by foot paths, ingeniously contrived, so as some- 
times to afford secluded walks, and at others to allow fine vistas 
of the broad expanse of river scenery.''^. 

Over tlie porch, is the following inscription : .. ' ... ■ 

M,nm 1650. ^ ^. ,;. . .- •• .': .^ 

Unno 1835. 

' Geo. Harvey, 
' , Architect. 

» Downing's Rural Architecture, 335. 



Above the peaked turret of the portal, pttters a horse in full 
gallop, once the weathercock of the great Van der Hydeii palace 
at Albany ; the other upon the eastern gable formerly surmount- 
ed the Stadt House of New Amsterdam. 

The interior is in perfect harmony with the exterior design 
of this quaint and venerable edifice. In the. library are preserved 
the elbow chair and writing desk of Diedrich Knickerbocker. 

?unny Side, the residence of the Eon. Washington Irving. 

" Van Tassel House" occupies the site of " Wolfert's Roost," 
which was built by Wolfert Ecker, an ancient Dutch burgher of 
this town. 

In 1697, we find recorded the name of Jan Ecker, first accept- 
ed deacon of the Dutch Church, Sleepy Hollow, which office he 
appears to have held for several years. By his wife, Magdalentje 
Jan Ecker, left issue Wolfert, Cornelis and others. 

The will of Wolfert Ecker bears date 1753, " wherein he be- 
queaths to his son, Stephen, a cow, or the worth thereof, more 
than the others, for his birth right, and to the child of his grand- 
son, Wolfert Ecker, son of Sybout, twenty shillings, beside other 
bequests to the remainder of his children, viz. Sybout, Abram and 
Mareijc."a A branch of this ftimily still resides in the neigh- 

Rec. Surrogate's Office, N. Y. lib. .\ix. 29- 


boihood. From the Eckers, tliis property passed by marriage lo 
the gallant family of the Van Tassels, who figure so coiispicii- 
onsly in the writings of Died rich Knickerbocker. 

During the stormy period of the revolution, it belonged to 
"Jacob Van Tassel, or Van Texel, as the name was originally 
spell, after the place in Holland, which gave birth to this heroic 
line." The following graphic sketch of the exploits of this re- 
doubtable hero, is taken from the chronicle of the Roost :. 

" The situation of the Roost is in the very heart of what M-as the debatea- 
ble ground between the American and British lines, during the war. The 
British held possession of the city of New York, and the island of Manhattan, 
on which it stands. The Americans drew up towards the highlands, holding 
their head-quarters at Peekskill. The intervening country, from Croton River 
to Spiting Devil Creek, was the debateable land, subject to be harried by 
friend and foe, like the Scottish borders of yore. It is a rugged country, with 
a line of rocky hills extending through it like a back bone, sending ribs on 
either side ; but among these rude hills are beautiful winding valleys, like those 
watered by the Pocantico and the Neperan. In the fastnesses of these hills, 
and along these valleys, exist a race of hard-headed, hard-handed, s^.out-heart- 
ed Dutchmen, descended of the primitive Nederlanders. Most of these were 
strong whigs throughout the war, and have ever remained obstinately attach- 
ed to the soil, and neither to be fought nor bought out of their paternal acres. 
Others were tories, and adherents to the old kingly rule ; some of whom took 
refuge within the British lines, joined the royal bands of refugees, a name 
odious to the American ear, and occasionally returned to harrass their ancient 

" In a little while, this debateable land was overrun by predatory bands from 
either side ; sacking hen-roosts, plundering farm houses, and driving off cattle. 
Hence arose those two great orders of border chivalry, the Skinners and the 
Cow Boys, famous in the heroic annals of Westchester county. The former 
fought, or rather marauded, under the American, the latter under the British 
banner ; but both, in the hurry of their military ardor, were apt to err on the 
safe side, and rob friend as well as foe. Neither of them stopped to ask the 
politics of horse or cow, which they drove into captivity ; nor, when they 
wrung the neck of a rooster, did they trouble their heads to ascertain whether 
he were crowing for Congress or King George. 

" While this marauding system prevailed on shore, the Great Tappan Sea, 
which washes this belligerent region, was domineered over by British frigates, 
and other vessels of war, anchored here and there, to keep an eye upon the ri- 
ver, and maintain a communication between the various military posts. Stout 
galleys, also armed with eighteen pounders, and navigated with sails and oars, 
cruised about like havvkSj readv to pounce upon their prey. 

Vol. I. 25 


" All these were eyed with bitter hostility by the Dutch yeomanry along 
shore, who were indignant at seeing their great Mediterranean ploughed by 
hostile prows ; and would occasionally throw up a mud breast work on a point 
or promontory, mount an old iron field-piece, and fire away at the enemy, 
though the greatest harm was apt to happen to themselves, from the bursting 
of their ordnance ; nay, there was scarce a Dutchman along the river, that 
would hesitate to fire with his long duck gun at any British cruiser that came 
within his reach, as he had been accustomed to fire at water fowl. 

I have been thus particular in my account of the times and neighborhood, 
that the reader might ihe more readily comprehend the surrounding dangers 
m this, the heroic age of the Roost. 

It was commanded at the time, as 1 have already observed, by the stout Ja- 
cob van Tassel. As I wish to be extremely accurate in this part of my chron- 
icle, I beg that this Jacob van Tassel, of the Roost, may not be confounded 
with another Jacob van Tassel, commonly known in border story by the name 
of "clump-fooled Jack." a noted tory, and one of the refugee band of Spiting 
Devil. On the contrary, he of the Roost was a patriot of the first water, and, 
if we may take his own word for granted, a thorn in the side of the enemy. 
As the Roost, from its lonely situation on the water's edge, might be liable to 
i^ttack, he took measures for defence. On a row of hooks above his fire-place 
reposed his great piece of ordnance, ready charged and primed for action. 
This was a duck, or rather goose-gun, of unparallelled longitude, with which 
it was said he could kill a wild goose, though half way across the Tappan 
Sea. a Indeed, there are as many wonders told of this renowned gun as of the 
enchanted weapons of the heroes of classic story. 

In different parts of the stone walls of his m-ansion he had made loop-holes, 
through which he might fire upon an assailant. His wife vias stout-hearted 
as himself, and could load as fast as he could fire ; and then he had an ancient 
and redoubtable sister, Nochie van Wurmer, a match, as he said, for the stout- 
est man in the country. Thus garrisoned, the liltle Roost was fit to stand a 
siege, and Jacob van Tassel was the man to defend it to the last charge of 

He was, as I have already hinted, of pugnacious propensities, and, not con- 
tent with being a patriot at home, and fighting for the security of his own fire- 
side, he extended his thoughts abroad, and entered into a confederacy with 
certain of the bold, hard-riding lads of Tarrytown, Petticoat Lane and Sleepy 
Hollow, who formed a kind of holy brotherhood, scouring the country to clear 
it of skinners and cow-boys, and all other border vermin. The Roost was one 
of their rallying points. Did a band of marauders from Manhattan island come 

a The goose gun is still in existence, having been preserved for many years in a 
hollow tree. It is now in the possession of Mr. Caleb Brush, of Grove street, New 
York, who married the celebrated heroine, Laney van Tassel. 


sweeping through the neighborhood, and driving off cattle, the stout Jacob and 
his compeers were soon clattering at their heels ; and fortunate did the rogues 
esteem themselves if they could but get a part of their booty across the lines, 
or escape themselves, without a rough handling. Should the moss troopers 
succeed in passing wiih their cavalfrada, with thundering tramp and dusty 
whirlwind, across King's Bridge, the holy brotherhood of the Roost would 
rein up at that perilous pass, and, wheeling about, would indemnify themselves 
by foraging the refugee region of Morrisania. 

When at home at the Roost, the stout Jacob was not idle ; he was prone to 
carry on a petty warfare of his own, for his private recreation and refresh- 
ment. Did he ever chance to espy, from his look-out place, a hostile ship or 
galley anchored or becalmed near shore, he would take down his long goose- 
gun from the hooks over the fire-place, sally out alone, and lurk along shore, 
dodging behind rocks and trees, and watching, for hours together, like a vet- 
eran mouser intent on a rat hole. So sure as a boat put off for shore, and 
came within shot, bang went the great goose-gun, a shower of slugs and buck- 
shot whistled about the ears of the enemy, and, before the boat could reach 
the shore Jacob had scuttled up some woody ravine, and left no trace behind. 

About this time the Roost experienced a vast accession of warlike import- 
ance in being made one of the stations of the water-guard. 

This was a kind of aquatic corps of observation, composed of long, sharp 
canoe-shaped boats, technically called whale boats, that lay lightly on the vi^a- 
ter, and could be rowed with great rapidity. They were manned by resolute 
fellows, skilled at pulling ari oar or handling a musket. These lurked about in 
nooks and bays, and behind those long promontories which run out info the 
Tappan Sea, keeping a look-out, to give notice of the approach or movements 
of hostile ships. They roved about in pairs, sometimes at night, with muf- 
fled oars, gliding like spectres about frigates and guard-ships riding at anchor, 
cutting off any boats that made for shore, and keeping the enemy in constant 
uneasiness. These musqaito cruisers generally kept aloof by day, so that 
their harboring places might not be discovered, but would pull quietly along, 
under shadow of the shore, at night, to take up their quarters at the Roost. 
Hither, at such time, would also repair the hard-riding lads of the hills, to hold 
secret councils of war with the " ocean chivalry ;" and in these nocturnal 
meetings were concerted many of those daring forays, by land and water, that 
resounded throughout the border. 

The chronicle here goes on to recount divers wonderful stories of the wars 
of the Roost, from which it would seem that this little warrior nest carried the 
terror of its arms into every sea from Spiting Devil Creek to St. Anthony's 
Nose ; it even bearded the stout island of Manhattan, invading it at night, 
penetrating to its centre, and burning down the famous De Lancey house, the 
conflagrati(m of which makes such a blaze in revolutionary history. Nay, 
more ; in their extravagant daring, these cocks of the Roost meditated a noc- 
turnal descent upon New York itself, to swoop upon the British commanders, 


Howe and Clinton, by surprise, bear them off captive, and perhaps put a tri- 
umphant close to the war. 

Tills doughty Dutchman (continues the sage Diedrich Knickerbocker) was 
not content with taking a share in all the magnanimous enterprises concocted 
at the Roost, but still continued his petty warfare along shore. x\ series of 
exploits at length raised his confidence in his prowess to such a height, that he 
began to think himself and his goose-gun a match for anything. Unluckily, 
in the course of one of his prowlings, he descried a British transport aground, 
not far from shore, with her stern swung toward the land, within point blank 
shot. The temptation was too great to be resisted ; bang ! as usual, went the 
great goose- gun, shivering the cabin windows, and driving all hands forward. 
Bang I bang ! the shots were repeated The reports brought several sharp- 
shooters of the neighborhood to the spot : before the transport could bring a 
gun to bear, or land a boat, to take revenge, she was soundly peppered, and 
the coast evacuated. She was the last of Jacob's triumphs. He fared like 
some heroic spider that has unwittingly ensnared a hornet, to his immortal 
glory perhaps, but to the utter ruin of his web. 

It was not long after this, during the absence of Jacob van Tassel on one of 
his forays, and when no one was in garrison but his stout hearted spouse, his re- 
doubtable sister Nochie van Wurmer, and a strapping negro wench called Di- 
nah, that an armed vessel came to anchor off the Roost, and a boat full of men 
pulled to shore. The garrison flew to arms — that is to say, to mops, broom- 
sticks, shovels, tongs, and all kinds of domestic weapons, for, unluckily, the 
great piece of ordnance, the goose-gun, was absent with its owner. Above 
all, a vigorous defence was made with that most potent of female weapons, the 
tongue. Never did invaded hen roost make a more vociferous outcry. It 
was all in vain. The house was sacked and plundered, fire was set to each 
corner, and in a few moments its blaze shed a baleful light far over the Tap- 
pan Sea. The invaders then pounced upon the blooming Laney van Tassel, 
the beauty of the Roost, and endeavored to bear her off to the boat. But 
here was the real tug of the war. The mother, the aunt, and the strapping 
negro wench, all flew to the rescue. The struggle continued down to the 
very water's edge, when a voice from the armed vessel at anchor ordered the 
spoilers to let go their hold. They relinquished the prize, jumped into their 
boats, and pulled off, and the heroine of the Roost escaped with a mere rump- 
ling of the feathers." 

"Shortly after the catastrophe of the Roost, Jacob van Tassel, 
in the course of one of his forays, fell into the hands of the Brit- 
ish, was sent prisoner to New York, and was detained in captiv- 
ity for the greater part of the war.''^ 

Immediately north of Van Tassel house is the residence of 

^ Knickerbocker Magazine. 


Philip R. Pciulding, Esq. delightfully seated on a bold bank of 
the Hudson ; it commands from its elevated position, the noblest 
prospects of the river, while the view to the east is terminated by 
the lofty hills of Greenburgh. The edifice is constructed of 
Sing Sing marble, after the designs of Alex. J. Davis, Esq, In 
its details, both externally and internally, the most minute atten- 
tion has been paid to a careful correspondence with the best ex- 
amples of the Tudor era. Among the most remarkable features 
of the building, deserves to be noticed, the admirable porte 
cochere, or covered entrance for carriages, and a superb library 
ornamented wiih a lofty ceiling of carved timber. 

The Paulding family have long been residents of this town. 
As early as 1712, we find Joost Pauldinck accepted deacon of 
the Dutch Church. The name of Joost Pauldinck occurs in a 
conveyance from William Odell of Rye, A. D. 1667. 

In 17U9 Joost Pauldinck appe;;rs to have been residing at 
Westchester. The father of the present proprietor is William 
Paulding, Esq. mayor of the city of New York in 1827. The 
patriot John Paulding who captured the British spy Major An- 
dre was of this family. 

The next object worthy of notice is the elegant and secluded 
villa of Henry Sheldon, Esq. This building is in the rural Gothic 
style and presents a very beautiful and picturesque exterior, com- 
bined with every accommodation and convenience of internal ar- 
rangement. No pains have been spared in laying out the ad- 
joining grounds and plantations. A small stream running 
through a deep and woody glen has been obstructed in various 
places by rock work, and thus forms several artificial cascades. 
Some close walks, winding by the stream, conduct to a large 
fall situated at the glen's mouth. The scenery about the fall is 
extremely fine, embracing a lovely view of the Hudson river. 
The old Van Weert mill has been transformed into a Swiss cot- 
tage and boat house. The Van Weert family were the first oc- 
cupants of this estate under the Philipses, and subsequently be- 
came its possessors in fee. In 1698 there appears to have been 
three married brothers of this ancient family living in Philips- 
burgh, who claimed descent from the illustrious house of Van 
Weert in Holland, viz. Joacham van Weert and Christyntje his 
wife, Gerredit van Weert and Cathalyna his wife, Jacob vaa 


Weert and Bieltitje his wife. Gerredit van Weert left issue, Jan 
van Weert, father of Isaac, who sold this property to- Mr. Sheld- 

The village of Tarry town is pleasantly situated in the lap of 
the Greenbnrgh hills, overlooking the Hudson at the widest 
point of the Tappan Zee, which is here nearly three miles 

Tarwe town, the old orthography of ihe Dutch word tarwe, 
(wheat) " the wheat town," probably so called from the abun- 
dant culture of that grain in tfiis vicinity. 

Here was an Indian village in 1659, ^ styled by the aborigines 
Alipconck, that is the place of elms. It seems more than pro- 
bable that this ancient settlement occupied a hill at (he sQuth 
end of the present village. This opinion is son^iewhat confirm- 
ed by the circumstance that the whole ground is covered with 
shells, in some places to the depth of two or three feet. It is pre- 
sumed that these " shell beds^^ generally indicate the site of In- 
dian habitations. 

Upon the same spot are situated the remains of the old mili- 
tary redoubt from whence the gallant water guard cannonaded 
the Vulture sloop of war, as she lay grounded on the ballast reef. 
The site of the Indian village and redoubt belong to Mr. Hart, 
who purchased of the Dutch Church. 

The Dutch settlement of Tarwetown commenced soon after 
Philips purchase in 1680. The first dwellings appear to have 
been erected near the water's edge ; for the convenience of ship- 
ping which found here a fine natural harbor. Prior to 1775 a dock 
had been constructed, and several houses erected near it. In 1776, 
the village consisted of twelve dwelling houses. At the present 
day there are over one hundred dwellings, five churches, three 
hotels and taverns, seven stores and an extensive brick yard. 
The steamboats Columbus, Mountaineer and Arrow make daily 
trips from this place to the city of New York. A number of sloops 
are also owned here, which run to various places on the river. 
Among others the Katrena van Tassel, Harvey P. Farrington, 
and the Farmer's Daughter, by Gilbert Requa. The principal 

» Visscher's map Nov Belgii. 



hotels are the Franklin House kept by Mr. H. Wilson, (a favor- 
ite retreat for visitors during the summer season,) and the an- 
cient tavern stand of Martin Smith, another well known resort of 
travellers. Near the water's edge, in the vicinity of the landing, 
is situated the residence of General William Paulding. This 
house was erected previous to the Revolution, by his father 
AYilliam Paulding, Esq. From its proximity to the water it was 
frequently the object of the enemy's fire ; the marks of their can- 
non balls are still visible on its walls. 

Upon a commanding position, north of the village, is seated 
the Irving Institute ; a classical boarding school for young 
gentlemen. William P. Lyon, A. M., principal and proprietor. 
This institution was founded in the spring of 1S3S. The loca- 
tion is, perhaps, the most desirable that could be selected for 
the purposes of education in this vicinity, 'i'he 5iVe is half a 
mile from, the village landing, and about twenty-five miles distant 
from New York, with which there is daily communication. The 
edifice is a commodious brick building with wings, and a large 
rear building for the school. The grounds embrace several 
acres, affording abundant opportunity for healthy sports, and are 
quite retired from the village. 

Irving Institute, Tarry town. 

Christ Church, Tarrytown, is a neat Gothic edifice of brick, 
pleasantly located in the main street. 

This church was erected in 1836, and consecrated to the ser» 
vice of Almighty God by the name and style of Christ's Church, 


Tarrytown, September, 1837. The whole structure is valued at 


On the iiorih side of the chancel are two marble slabs bearing 
the following inscriptions: 


memory of memory of 

Katharine Kemble, Maria* Philips, 

Born October, 1765, (Relict of Frederick Philips, b) 

and departed this life the of Philipstown, Putnam County, 

16th day of July, New York, 

A. D. 1843, who departed this life the 13th day of 

Sister to Maria Philips. November, A.D. 1839, 

" In death they aged 68 years. 

were not 

divided." Her remains rest within the walls of 

the Tower of this Church. 

The memory of the just is 
blessed. — Prov. x. 7. 

The Rev. William Creighton, D. D., first and present incurn- 

Upon a commanding eminence, nearly in front of the Episco- 
pal church, stands the mausoleum of the Cobb family. The lower 
portion consists of a broad marble base, containing apartments for 
two sarcophagi, and likewise an upper receptacle for coffins, the 
whole surmounted by a neat obelisk.*^ 

Tiie Reformed Dutch church is situated immediately above 
the former, on the road leading to Sing Sing. This building is 
also constructed of brick. The front presents a coUonnade of the 
lorjic order, surmounted with a wooden tower and spire. This 
church was erected A. D. JS37, and is in union with the old 
Dutch church at Sleepy Hollow. 

a !\Iaria Kemble and her sister were nieces of the Honorable Viscount Gage. 

b Son of Philip Philipse, proprietor of the Philipstown patent, and grandson of the 
Hon. Frederick Philipse, Lord of the Manor of Philipsburgh. 

* This structure has been recently erected for Capt. Nathan Cobb, now a resident 
of this village, formerly and for many years a most efficient and successful coru- 
mander in the Liverpool packet line from New York. — Irving Banner. 


Above the entrance is placed the following inscription. 

"Reformed Dutch Church." 

Erected A. D. 1837. 

In all places where I record 

my name I will come 
unto thee and I will bless thee. 

Exodus XX. 24. 

The first pastor of this church was the Rev. George Dubois, 
who was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph Wilson, present minister. 

The Methodist society of Tarrytown was first organized by 
the Rev. Mr. Witsell of Haverstraw, A. D. IS31. The present 
church was erected in 1840. Since that period it has been at- 
tached to the Bedford circuit. 

The Asbury Methodist Episcopal church in this village was 
erected A. D. 1837. 

There is also a Baptist church, of which the Rev. Charles 
Underhill is the present pastor. 

Mr. Christopher Collins, the first projector of the Erie canal in 
1805-6, was for several years a resident of this place, and lies 
interred in the grave yard at Sleepy Hollow. 

Tarrytown is far famed as the place where Major Andre, adju- 
tant general of the British army, was captured by Paulding and 
his associates upon the 23d of September, 1780. The circum- 
stances which led to the arrest of the spy were as follows : 

Major John Andre had been long negotiating with the Ameri- 
can general, Arnold, to put the British general, Clinton, in pos- 
session of West Point. " This post, says Major General Greene, 
(who. it must be remembered, was president of the court that 
tried Andre,) is a beautiful little place lying on the west bank of 
the Hudson, a little below where it breaks through the chain of 
mountains called the highlands. Its form is nearly circular, in 
half of its circumference defended by a precipice of great height, 
rising abruptly from the river, and on the other by a chain of 
rugged, inaccessible mountains. It is accessible by one pass only 
from the river, and that is narrow and easily defended, while on 
the land side it can be approached only at two points by roads 
that wind through the mountains and enter it at the river bank 

Vol. I. ^ 26 



on the north and soutli. Great importance had always bepn at- 
tached to this post by the Ainerirans, and irreat labor and ex- 
pense bestowed npoii fortify ini^ it. It has heen well called the 
Gibraltar of America. The North river had long lieen the great 
vein that snpplied life to the American army, and had theenemy 
obtained possession of this post, besides the actual loss in men 
and stores, the American army would have been cut oiF from 
their principal resources in the ensuing' winter, or been obliged 
to fall back above the Highlands, and leave all the country below 
open to conquest, while the communicaiion between the eastern 
and western states would have been seriously interrupted if not 
wholly excluded. Arnold therefore well kiiew the bearing of 
this post upon all the operations of the American army, and after- 
wards avowed his confident expectation, that had the enemy got 
possession of it, the contest must have ceased, and America 
been subdued. 

The British general, Clinton, also appears to have appreciated 
the value of this post, and it is probable that the purchase of it 
had been arranged with Arnold some months prior to the detec- 
tion of the plot. It was when Washington marclied to Kings- 
bridge, with a view to the attempt on New York, and when he 
had mustered under him every man who could carry a musket, 
that he placed Arnold in command of a corps of invalids at West 

The commander-in-chief had offered him a command suitable 
to his rank and reputation in the army, but he niade the unhealed 
state of his wounds, and so;ne other causes, the pretext for de- 
clitiing it, as the negotiations for the surrender of West Point had 
already commenced. Soon after the relinquishment of the enter- 
prize against New York, a meeting was concerted to take place 
between the American commander-in-chief and the French mili- 
tary and naval commanders. Hartford, on the ( onnecticut river 
was the place assigned for their meeting; the object was to con- 
sult on their future joint operations. Upon the departure of 
Washington for this meeting Greene was placed in command of 
the main army. Tliis was on the 17ih of September, 1780. On 
the eighteenth Admiral Rodney arrived in New York with such 
an overwhelming reinforcement to the British navy as must have 


set the consiiliations at Hartford all at nouo^ht. From (hat time 
Greene's communications to the president of congress are full of 
the hurried preparations 2:oing on at New York for some impor- 
tant enterprise ; little did [ie, or any other |)erson suspect to what 
point that enterprze was directed. 

It appears that General Greene had estabh'shed a regular com- 
munication for obtainitig intelligence from the city by spies; 
and his correspondents in that place were at a loss whether the 
expedition was intended for Rhode Island or Virginia, ''j'o one 
er other of these plnces (he enemy had been careful to throw 
out hint?!, or exhibit appearances, that the expedilioa was directed. 

Yet Greene was not deceived, for in a letter of the 21st (just 
two days before the discovery of the plot) to General Washing- 
ton he writes, " Colonel communicated the last 

intelligence we have from New Y'ork ; since that I have not been 
able to obtain the least inlorrnation of what is going on there. 
Though we have people in from three different quarters, none of 
them returning:, makes me suspect some secret expedition is in 
contemplation, the success of which depends altogether upon its 
being kept a secret. 

The British conmander had now become sensible that no 
time was to be lost, as most probably, on the return of Wash- 
ington from Hartford, he would assume the command in person 
at West Point, or confide it to Greene. The present, therefore, 
was the most favorable time that would ever present itself-''^- 

"Andre was accordmgly dispatched in (he Vulture sloopof war. 
to hold a personal conference wi(h General Arnold. I'he Vul- 
ture ascended t.;e Hudson river on the k!Oih, as far as Teller's 
Point, and came to anchor at (he mouth of the Haversiraw bay. 
Here Andre eagerly awaited some opportiujity to acquaint 
Arnold with his arrival. An occasion tor so doing presented it- 
self the next day. A white flag was displayed at 'leller's Point, 
by some of the country people, which bjing" interpreted as they 
Vv^ished, the captain ot (he Vulture sent off a boat with a flag, 
which was fired upon as soon as it approached the shore. '^I'his 
gave x4ndre the ojifjoriimity he desired, as it was a proper sub- 

a See Baraum's Spy Unmasked..-. - - . 


ject for a remonstrance to the commanding oiEcer,and a flag 
with a letter was accordingly dispatched. The letter was 
dared on the 2lst Sept. ; it was in the handwriting of Andr6, 
signed by the captain of the vessel, and countersigned "John 
Anderson." (And e's assumed name.) This flag was sent to 
Yerplanck's Point. Arnold arrived just as the boat returned to 
the Vulture. The letter was handed to him and of course fully 
understood ; thereupon, he hastened to prepare Smith for a visit to 
the enemy's vessel on the approaching night. Crossing from 
Verplanck's to Stony point, he made all the requisite arrange- 
ments respecting the boat that Smith would want, and then pro- 
ceeded to his quarters to remove the difficulty which had occurred 
respecting boatmen. The guard boats had received orders not to 
stop Smith, and he also possessed the countersign for the next 
night, which was the word " Congress." In the morning Smith 
brought his tenant, Samuel Colquhoun to a conference with Ar- 
nold, who requested him to accompany his landlord on a visit 
that night to the Vulture." The man at first refused, but at last 
consented to go with his brother, Joseph Colquhoun and Smith- 
They were directed by Arnold to muffle the oars, and thus pre- 
pared, about midnight, the boat arrived at the Vulture. The 
noise made by the officer on watch, and the sailors in their hail- 
ing the boat, was heard below, and a boy sent up with orders 
that the man should be siiown into the cabin, supposing him to 
be Arnold. Smith descended, and found his old acquaintance 
Beverly Robinson. A letter from Arnold was presented to the 
Colonel, in which he said, "This will be delivered to you by 
Mr. Smith, who will conduct you to a place of safety. Neither 
Mr. Smith nor any other person shall be made acquainted with 
your proposals, if they (which 1 doubt not) are of such a nature, 
that I can officially take notice of t hem, I shall do it with pleasure. 
I take it for granted. Colonel Robinson will not propose anything 
that is not for the interest of the United States, as well as of him- 
self. "Smith had likewise two papers signed by Arnold, which 
he showed to Robinson ; one, a permission to pass and repass 
with a boat to Dobb's Ferry, the other a permission to Joshua 
Smith, Mr. John Anderson and two servants, to pass and repass 
the guards near King's ferry at all times." By these papers, 


Colonel Robinson understood that Arnold expected Andre to 
come on shore. Smith was left with the captain of the vessel 
for abont a qnarter of an hour, when Robinson returned with a 
person whom he introduced as Mr. Anderson. He excused him- 
self from going ashore, but this person would go in his stead, and 
was competent to the transaction of the business. Andre, al- 
though in liis uniform, was so completely enveloped in a blue 
great coat, that Smith (if we believe his assertions) did not sus- 
pect his real name or character. 

Smith and Andre descended into the boat, where the Colqu- 
houns awaited them. They were landed at the foot of a moun- 
tain called the Long Glove, on the western margin of the river, 
about six miles b^low Stony point. The Vulture lay between 
the place and Teller's Point. Here Arnold was in attend- 
ance on horseback, with another horse brought by a servant of 
Smith's. It was perfectly dark, and Smith knowint^ the spot 
designated by Arnold, groped his way up the bank, and found 
the commander of West Point concealed among the trees and 

Smith was sent back for his companion, and having intro- 
duced him, was requested to retire to the boat, where he remained 
ill at ease and watchful, while the Colqnhouns conscience-free, 
slept soundly through the remainder of the night. The confer- 
ence appeared unnecessarily long to Mr. Smith, and he retraced 
his way to give notice of the approach of morning, and the ne- 
cessity of departing before daylight appeared. . ': 

The conspirators had exhausted the night and their business 
was not yet completed. It was agreed that the boat should be dis- 
missed, and sent up the river. Andre consoled to mount a led 
horse brought to the Clove with Arnold, and to accompany him 
to Smith's house, there to remain through the day, and return to 
the sloop of war next night. It was still dark, and, as Andre as- 
serts, the voice of the sentinel demanding the countersign, was 
tlie first indication to the adjutant-general that he was within the 
American lines. About the break of day, the conspirators arrived 
at Smith's house. He had proceeded with the boat to Crown 

Smith's words are, " hid among the firs." 


Island in Haverslraw creek, and dismissing the Colquhouns 
joined Arnold. To the alarm of the group, a cannonade was 
very soon heard, and from the window, Andre beheld that the Vul- 
ture was in peril from the guns, and saw her obliged to weigh 
anchor and stand down the river. In an upper apartment in 
Smith's house, the spy and the traitor viewed this unexpected in- 
cident, and Sir Henry Clinton's adjutant general, no doubt, felt 
for a time, that the net prepared for others, was closing around 
him. It is to be supposed, (hat the commander of West Point 
reassured him, and after breakfast, Smith left him to finish "the 
plot of treachery" between them ; it was understood that Arnold 
was to receive a stipulated sum. The day fixed upon, Andre 
was to return to New York, and the British troops (already em- 
barked under the pretence of an expedition to the Chesapeake,) 
were to be ready to ascend the river. Arnold was to weaken 
the post of West Point by such a disposition of the garrison, as 
would yield it an easy prey to the troops brought against it. 

Every preliminary was settled, and the spy furnished with all 
the papers explanatory of the condition of the post, and the man- 
ner in which its force was to be rendered unavailable, and its 
garrison betrayed to death or captivity. Andre required to be 
put in safety on board the Vulture; to this Arnold assented, and 
although a different route was proposed, yet Andre supposed he 
was to be sent on board the attending sloop of war. Before Ar- 
nold left Smith's house, he urged him to go with Andre on board 
the Vulture as soon as it was dark ; but, as if to provide for ob- 
stacles, he sent two passes for Smith; the one a permission 
to go " with a boat, three hands and a flag to Dobb's Ferry, on 
public business, an^ return immediately;" the other, to pass the 
guards to the White Plains, and return. To this was added a 
third, as follows: "Head Quarters, Robinson's liouse, Sept. 22d, 
1780. Permit Mr. John Anderson to pass the guards to the 
White Plains, or below, if he chooses; he being on public busi- 
ness, by my direction. — B. Arnold, M. Gen." A miserable day 
was passed by the spy in solitude, and when evening came, 
Smith positively refused to go again on board the Vulture, nei- 
ther had he engaged any person to row the boat. The reason he 
gave was an attack of the ague, but this did not prevent him, 


as will be seen, from accompanying Andre on horse-back in his 
nocturnal journey, or from crossing the river with hiuj. Tj)us 
Andre was compelled to take the route Smith chose, which was 
to cross the river, and proceed in the direction of White Plains. 
The uniform coat of the adjutant general was left at Smitli's 
house, and with a coat of Smith's, covered by the dark great-coat, 
with "a wide cape and buttoned close to his neck," Andre was 
equipped for the journey. Accordingly in the morning, he and 
Smith proceeded to King's Ferry. 

On the way. Smith endeavored to draw his companion into 
conversation, but without success. He was reserved and thought- 
ful. On the contrary, Suiith accosted several of his acquaintances 
on the road, and even stopped at a sutler's tent, and joined in 
discussing a bowl of punch, while Andre walked his horse slow- 
ly to the ferry alone, and there waited Smi.h's arrival. 

As they passed through the works at Verplanck's Point, Smith 
rode up to Colonel Livingston's tent, while Andre, and a servant 
who attended him, (a negro of Smith's,) rode on. To the 
Colonel's inquiries. Smith said he was going up the country, and 
took charge of letters for General Arnold and Governor Clinton. 
He excused himself from stopping, as a gentleman waited for 
him whose business was ur5:ent. He then overlook his charo-e 
and they proceeded until between eight and nine at night, " when 
they were hailed by the sentinel of a patrolling party. This was 
near Crompond, and about eight miles from Verplanck's Point. 
The sentinel ordered them to stop, and Smith dismounted, gave 
the bridle of his horse to his servant, walked forward, and inquir- 
ed who commanded the party. He was answered, -Captain 
Boyd,' who, overhearing the conversation, immediately appeared. 
The captain was unusually inquisitive, and demanded of him 
who he was, where he belonged, and what was his business. 
Smith answered these questions promptly, adding tiiat he had a 
pass from General Arnold, and desired not to be detained. The 
captain was not yet satisfied, but inquired how far he meant to 
go that night ; to which he replied, as far as Major Strang's or 
Colonel Drake's ; but this only increased the embarrassment, for 
the captain informed him that Major Strang was not at home 
and Colonel Drake had removed to another part of the country. 


Captain Boyd then said that he must see the passport, and, it 
being dark, they went to a house at a small distance to procure a 
light. Andre began to be a little alarmed, and advanced with 
reluctance towards the house, till he was encouraged by Smith, 
who assured him that Arnold's pass would certainly protect them. 

And so it proved ; for the pass was expressed in positive 
terms, and there was no room to doubt its genuineness or its au- 

The Captain was afterwards more bland in his manner, but 
the ardor of his curiosity was not diminished. He took Smith 
aside, and begged to be informed of this important business which 
carried him down so near the enemy's lines, and induced him and 
his companion to travel so dangerous a road in the night. As an 
apology for this inquiry he manifested a good deal of concern for 
their safety, telling him that the cow-boys had recently been out, 
and were believed then to be for up the country, and he advised 
him by all means not to proceed till mornins:. Smith prevaricat- 
ed as well as he could, saying to Captain Boyd, that he and his 
fellow-traveller, whom he called Mr. Anderson, were employed 
by General Arnold to procure intelligence, that they expected to 
meet' a person near White Plains for that purpose, and that it was 
necessary for them to go foru'ard as expeditiously as possible. 

Upon this statement Captain Boyd seemed more anxious than 
ever, magnified the perils to which they would be exposed by 
travelling in the night, and recommended anew that they should 
turn back to one Andreas Miller's, who lived but a little way oif, 
and at whose house they might lodge. Smith's courage was 
somewhat damped by these representations, and he went and told 
the tale to Andre, counselled with him as to the steps they ought 
to take. It is probable, also, that he had fears of exciting suspi- 
cion, if he hesitated in resisting the Captain's zeal, expressed so 
earnestly in their behalf Andre, as it may well be imagined, 
not being very easy in his present situation, was for going on at 
all events. When Smith found his fears unheeded and his elo- 
quence unavailing, he called in the aid of Captain Boyd, and in- 
quired of him which was the safest road to White Plains. Boyd 
considered both roads perilous, but believed the one through 
ISorth Castle the least so, for the lower party, or cow-boys, infest- 


cd the Tarry town road, and bad lately done mischief in that quar- 
ter. He used various arguments to dissuade them from going 
itirther that night, to which Smith listened with open ears, and 
he resolved against the will of Andre, to trespass on the hospitali- 
ty of Andreas Miller. 

They met with a welcome reception, but coming at alate hour 
to an humble dwelling, their accommodations were narrow, and 
the two travellers were obliged to sleep in the same bed. 

According to Smith's account, it was a weary and restless 
night to his companion. The burden on his thoughts was not of 
a kind to lull them to repose ; and the place of his retreat so near 
the watchful Captain Boyd and his guard, w^as hardly such as 
would impress upon him a conviction of perfect security. 

At the first dawn of light he roused himself from his troubled 
slumber, wakened the servant, and ordered tlie horses to be pre- 
pared for an early departure. 

Having solicited their host in vain to receive a compensation 
for the civilities he had rendered, they mounted and took the 
road leading to Pine's bridge,"=i which crosses the Croton River 
on the way to North Castle. " The countenance of Andre bright- 
ened when he was fairly beyond the reach of the patroHing party, 
and, as he thought, he left behind him the principal difficulties in 
his route. His cheerfulness revived, and he conversed, in the 
most animated and agreeable strain, upon a great variety of top- 
ics. Smith professes to have been astonished at the sudden and 
extraordinary change which appeared in him, from a gloomy 
taciturnity to an exuberant flow^ of spirits, pleasantry, and gay 
discourse. He talked upon poetry, the arts, and literature; la- 
mented the war. and hoped for a speedy peace."^ As they passed 
Major Strang's house, two miles below Yorktown church, they 
were observed by its inmates, who supposed them to be Conti- 
nental officers. " In this manner they passed along, without be- 
ing accosted by any person, till they came within two miles and 
a half of Pine's Bridge. At this place Smith had determined to 
end his journey in the direction of White Plains. The Cow- 
boys, whom he seemed anxious to avoid, had recently been above- 

^ Sparks' Life of Arnold, 214, 215,216, 217. ^ Ibid 217. 

Vol. I. 27 


the bridge, and the territory below was considered their appro- 
priate domain. The travellers partook of a frugal breakfast to- 
gether at the house of a good Dutch woman, who had been plun- 
dered by three marauders, but who was yet enabled lo set before 
them a repast of hasty pudding and milk.^ This being dispatched, 
^Smith divided liis small stock of paper money with Andre, took 
a final leave, and, with his servant, hastened back to Peekskill, 
and the same evening to Fishkill, where he had left his family 
four days before, at the house of his brother-in-law. On his way, 
he took the road leading to Robinson's house, where he called on 
General Arnold, and dined. He gave an account of Andre's pro- 
gress, and mentioned the place where he left him, with which 
Arnold appeared well pleased. It is to be understood, however, 
that Smith had not, at this time, as he always affirmed, any 
knowledge of Andre's true character, and that he supposed his 
name to be John Anderson. 

'i'he Coio-hoys were a set of people, mostly, if not wholly, re- 
fugees, belonging to the British side, and engaged in plundering 
cattle near the lines, and driving them to New York. The name 
indicates their vocation. There was another description of ban- 
ditti, called Skinners^ who lived, for the most part, within the 
American liuesj and professed attachment to the American cause; 
but, in reality, they were more unprincipled, perfidious and inhu- 
man than the Cow-boys themselves ; for these latter exhibited some 
symptoms of fellow feeling for their friends, — whereas, the Skin- 
ners committed their depredations equally upon friends and foes. 

f>y a law of the State of New York, every person refusing to 
take an oath of fidelity to the state was considered as forfeiting 
his property. The large territory between ihe American and Brit- 
ish lines, extending nearly thirty miles from north to south, and 
embracing Westchester county, was populous and highly culti- 
vated. A person living within that space, who took the oath of 
fidelity, was sure to be plundered by the Cow-boys; and if he 
did not take it, the Skinners would come down upon him, call 

*■ This was not a Dutch woman, zis the historian supposes, but Mrs, Sarah Under- 
liill, wife of Isaac Underliii), of Yorktown, whose grandson, Edward Borough Un- 
<lerhitl, still owns ihe iiousc. — Editok. 


him a tory, and seize his property as confiscated by tlie state. 
Thus the execution of the laws was assumed by robbers, and ilie 
innocent and guilty were involved in a common ruin. 

It is true the civil authority endeavored to guard against ihe^o 
outrages, so for as it could, by legislative enactments and execu- 
tive proclamations; but, from the nature of the case, this form, 
idable conspiracy against tlie rights and claims of humanity could 
be crushed only by a military arm. The detachments of Conti- 
nental troops and militia, stationed near the lines, did something 
to lessen the evil, yet they were not adequate to its suppressior, 
and frequently this force was so feeble as not to afford any barrier 
to the inroads of the banditti. 

The Skinners and Cow-boys often leagued together. The for- 
mer would sell their plunder to the latter, taking in exchange 
contraband articles brought from New York. It was not uncom- 
mon for the farce of a skirmish to be acted near the American 

. lines, in which the Skinners never failed to come off victorious ; 
and then they would go boldly to the interior with their booty, 
pretending it had been captured from the enemy while attempi- 

" ing to smuggle it across the lines. 

Such was the social condition of that part of the county through 
which Andre was now to pass alone, for nearh^ thirty miles, be- 
fore he could be perfectly secure from danger; for, although ev- 
ery step diminished the chances of untoward accidents, yet there 
was no absolute safety till he was beyond the limits of this ill- 
. fated neutral ground.''^ 

" But Andre had the American general's pass to produce to the 
■ one, and his true character to protect him from the other, ^till 
he could not but feel that his situation was one of peril. The 
remarks he had heard from the captain of the patrole on the pre- 
ceding night, seems to have induced the adjutant-general to take 

' the Tarrytown road, as the one most frequented by the Cow-boys ^ 
for it was understood by Saiith that he would proceed toward 
White Plains. Upon what apparently chance circumstances the 
fate of individuals, and armies, and states, appears to depend ! 
Had this bearer of ruin to thousands proceeded on the road at first 

, * Sparks' Life of Arnold, 218, 19, 20, 21. 


intended, be probably would have accomplished the treason in 
safety to himself; but a few words uttered at random by the 
American officer, to Smith, respecting the danger of the road 
nearest the Hudson, determined the spy to turn that way, as most 
frequented by his friends, — and by that heaven-directed turn, 
impending ruin was averted, and the lives of thousands saved." 
From Pine's Bridge, the adjutant general of the British army fol- 
lowed the Crum Pond road, which passed the house of Mr. Staats 
Hammond- The son of this gentleman, David Hammond, of 
Norih Castle, is still living, (1847,) at an advanced age. He 
relates, that on the day Andie was taken, he was standing at the 
door of his father's residence, upon the Crum Pond road, when 
he observed a person approaching on liorseback, leisurely walking 
his horse. As he rode up, he observed the stranger to be closely 
enveloped in a light blue swan's down cloak, with high military 
boots, and a low crowned and broad brimmed hat on his head. 
The animal he bestrode was a beautiful bay, bitted with a hand- 
some double snaffle bridle ; the mane, particularly about the head, 
being thickly matted with burs. The stranger immediately asked 
for a driiik of water. It deserves to be noticed, in connection 
with this incident, that Mr. Hammond's faiher, who was laying, 
at the time, badly wounded on the floor, caught a glimpse of the 
stranger, whom he pronounced to be a spy, from the fact of his 
being enveloped in the manner described. 

David Hammond, having procured a drinking vessel, accom- 
panied by his sister, led the way to the adjoining well. Here the 
girl drew the water, which was offered to the stranger, who re- 
quested David to hold the bridle whilst he drank. After satisfy- 
ing his thirst, he turned toward Mrs. Hammond, and asked the 
distance to Tarrytown ; she replied, ''Four miles." " I did not 
think it was so far," said he. 

At Chappequa, in the vicinity of Underbill's tavern, the spy 
encountered several (Quakers. From them he again i*3quired the 
road, at the same time asking whether any troops were out be- 
low, (fcc. 

At the foot of the Chappequa roads the adjutant general select- 
ed that which leads to the river. Following this, he came out in 
the Albany post road, near the village of Sparta. He had now 


securely passed about eleven miles of the neutral gronndj and ap- 
proached within a few hundred yards of the Hudson without inter- 
ruption, and probably felt himself beyond the reach of deteciion. 

A little north of Tarrytown, the road crosses a small brook, (now 
called the Andre brook.) A few rods from this spot a period was 
put to the journey of the spy and the progress of the treason. 

On this fated morning soiiie of the inhabitants of Westchester 
had by agreement taken their arms, and proceeded to the neigh- 
borhood of this brook and bridge, to prevent cattle from being 
driven down towards New York, and to seize as a loyal prize 
any such cows or oxen as might be destined for his majesty's 
troops by their friends. This patriotic band of seven had volun- 
teered of their own account to go upon this expedition the day pre- 
vious, Sept. 22, 1780. John Yerks, (still living in the town of 
Mount Pleasant aged eighty-eight.) says that he proposed this ex- 
cursion to John Paulding, both of them being at that time station- 
ed in North Salem. The latter at first objected, but upon fur- 
ther consideration volunteered his services, provided they could 
induce a sufficient number to accompany them. This Yerks 
assured him could be easily accomplished and offered to procure 
the men ; while Paulding should obtain the necessary permit 
from the com.manding officer. Yerks had in the meantime en- 
listed three volunteers, viz. Isaac See, James Romer and Abra- 
ham Williams. Paulding soon after returned with tlie permit, 
accompanied by his friend Isaac Van Wart. The party now 
consisting of six, took the direct road for Cross river. Here they 
were joined by David Williams from Bedford. From Cross riv- 
er they proceeded' to Pleasantville, formerly Clark's Corner, where 
they halted for the night. From a lady by the name of Mrs. 
Powell, (who had recently arrived at this place from Morrisania,) 
the volunteers ascertained that the British horse from Long Isl- 
and, New Jersey and New York, had advanced from the Island 
into tlie neighborhood of Boar hill, Yonkers. 

Whilst Andre slept at Crunipond, our volunteers turned into 
a hay barrack, (then standing a few yards fiom the present 
Methodist Church,) ai Pleasantville. 

Up by times on the next morning, the party followed the 
windings of the Saw Mill valley to the house of Capt. Jacob 


Rormer, where they obtained breakfast and a basket well pro- 
vided for their dinner. From this place ihey marched to the hill 
iiiimediately above Tarrytown. Here it was agreed that three 
of the number, viz. Paulding, Van AYart and David Williams 
should go below, whilst the remaining four should watch the 
road above, with the full understanding, (according to Yerks,) 
that whatever might be taken should be equally divided among 
the whole band. 

The upper party were stationed two hundred yards east on the 
hill above the lower party, the latter being concealed in the 
bushes near the post-road. 

At Smith's trial, (which was by a court martial, and commen- 
ced the day after Andre's examination, Paulding and YVilliams 
gave the following testimony. Paulding said, '• myself, Isaac 
van Wart and David Williams, were lying by the side of the 
road about half a mile above Tarrytown, and about fifteen miles 
above Kmgsbridge, on Saturday morning between nine and ten 
o'clock, on the 23d of September. We had lain there about one 
hour and a half, as near as I can recollect, and saw several per- 
sons we were acquainted with, whom we let pass. Presently 
one of the young men who were with me said, ' There comes a 
gentleman-like looking man who appears to be well dressed and 
has boots on, and whom you had better step out and stop, if 
you don't know him. (The party must have observed Andre 
rising the hill out of Sleepy Hollow ; when first observed, he 
was walking his horse.) On that, I got up and presented my 
firelock at the breast of the person and told him to stand, and 
then I asked him which way he was going? 'Gentlemen,' said 
he, 'I hope you belong to our party.' I asked him what parly. 
He said ' the lower party.' Upon that, I told him I did. Then 
he said '1 am a British officer out of the country on particular 
business, and I hope you will not detain me a minute;' and to 
show that he was a British officer he pulled out his watch, upon 
v/liich 1 told him to dismount. He then said, ' My God ! I must 
do any thing to get along,' and seemed to make a kind of laugh 
of it; and pulled out Gjueral Arnold's pass, which was to John 
Anderson to pass all the guards to Whiteplains and below ; up- 
on that he dismounted. Said he, ' Gentlemen, you had best let 


me go, or you will bring yourselves into trouble, for yonr slopping 
me will detain the General's business, and said he was going to 
Dobb's Ferry to meet a person there, and get intelligence for 
General Arnold.' 

" Upon that 1 told him I hoped he would not be offended, that 
we did not mean to take any thing from him. And 1 told him 
there were many bad people who were going along the road, and 
I did not know tut perhaps he might be one."' Mr. Paulding 
said further that he asked the unknown gentleman his name 
and he answered " John Anderson." That on seeing General 
Arnold's pass he should have let him go, if he had not previous- 
ly said he was a British officer ; (there was yet another circum- 
stance which tended greatly to increase their suspicions, viz. that 
his pass was for White Plains and not the Tarrytown road ;) 
and that when fie pulled out his watch, he understood it as a 
confirmation of that assertion, and not as offering it to him. 

Mr. Williams confirmed the above statement with these par- 
ticulars. " W^e took him into the bushes, and ordered him to 
pull off his clothes, which he did ; but on searching liim narrow- 
ly we could not find any sort of writings. We told him to pull 
off his boots, which he seemed indifferent about, but w^e got one 
boot off, and searched in that boot and could find nothing. But 
we found there were some papers in the bottom of his stockir)g 
next to his foot, on which we made him pull his stocking off, 
and found three papers wrapped up. Mr. Paulding looked at 
the contents; and said he was a spy. We then made him pull 
off his other boot, and there we found three more papers at the 
bottom of his foot within his stocking." 

The following letters and documents were found in the stock- 
ings of Major Andre. 



From the originals in the possession of Colonel Beeckman,^ of 
Flatbush, Long Island. 

a Col. Beeckman is the grandson and lineal descendant of Governor Georg© 



No. 1.— Pass. 


Pass from General Arnold, dated September 20, 1780, to Joshua Smith and 
Mr. John Anderson, to pass the guards at King's Ferry. 

Head Quarters, Robinsoji's House, 
September 20, 1780. 
Permission is given to Joshua Smith, Esquire, a gentleman, Mr. John An- 
derson, who is with him, and his two servants, to pass and repass the guards 
near King's Ferry at all times. 

(Signed,) B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

No. 2. 
[Endorsed,] Sept. 22, 1780. 

Pass to Joshua Smith to pass to White Plains. 

Head Quarters, Robinsori's House, 
September, 22d, 1780. 
Joshua Smith, Esq. has permission to pass the Guards to the White Plains, 
and to return, being on public business, by my direction. 

(Signed,) B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

No. 3. 
[Letter endorsed to] 

'* Thomas Smith, Esq. Havershaw." 

Robinsoii's House,^Sept. 25lh, 17S0. 
Dear Brother : — I am here a prisoner, and am therefore unab!e to attend 
in person. I would be obliged to you if you would deliver to Captain Cairns, 
of Lee's Dragoons, a British Uniform Coat, which you will find in one of the 
drawers in the room above stairs. I would be happy to see .you. Remem- 
ber me to your family. 

I am, affectionately, yours, 
(Signed,) Joshua H. Smith. 

Thomas Smith, Esq. 

No. 4. 

[Endorsed,] Memo. 

Hennirut, [a word not intelligible.] 
Elijah Hunter. 

Mr. L Johnson, B. R r. 

Mr. J. Stewart to the care of Joshua Smith, Esq. to be left at Head Q'rs. 
Isaac Adams, 5 ,, 5 ,, 5. 


No. 5. 

Gen'l Arnold's permission to Joshua Smith. 

21 Sep. 1780. 
- - to Dobb's Ferry, 

. . -. ^ &c. &c. 

.. •• .■ ' ■ ^ Head Quarters, Robinson'' s House, 

■ ■ Sept. 21, 1780. 

Permission is granted to Joshua Smith, Esq. to go to Dobb's Ferry with 
three Men and a Boy in a Boat with a Flag to carry some Letters of a private 
Nature for Gentlemen in New York and to Return immediately. 

(Signed,) - B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

N. B. — He has permission to go at such hours and times as the tide and 
his business suites. B. A. 

\ ■ : ;' -' • No. 6. 

[Endorsed,] , . - ' 

Sep. 22, 1780. 
Pass to Joshua Smith to pass to Dobb's Ferry. 
* v.- • ' ' ■ • ' '.. Head Quarters, Robinson'' s House^ 

Sept. 22, 1780. 
Joshua Smith, Esq. has permission to pass with a Boat and three handj 
and a flag to Dobb's Ferry on Public business and to return immediately. 
(Signed,) . . ..- - B. Arnold, M. Gen'I. 

■~ '--■.' No. 7. ^- :"■■ .-- 

[Endorsed,] •' ' ; '■. --^ -. 

Arnold lo John Anderson — Pass. ":^ ' ^ >■ 

22d Sept. 1780. "' . ■ 

- ' ; Head Quarters, RobinsorCs House, 

Sept. 22, 1780. 
Permit Mr. John Anderson to pass the Guards to the White Plains, or be- 
low, if He Chuses, He being on Public Business by my Direction. 

B. Arnold, M. Gen'I. 

No. 8. 
" .' - [In Arnold's hand-writing.] 

[ Gustavus to John Anderson." -.^ 

" The following document is one of the highest importance to 
the British, inasmuch as " in case of alarm ^^ it made the British 
— who would have caused the alarm — fully acquainted with the 

Vol. I. , , - •• .: • 28 ■■. - ' ■'/. 


disposition of all the American forces in that vicinity, and thus 
enable them to conduct an attack to the best advantage. It is 
of course in the traitor's own hand-writing: — 

No. 9. 

Artillery Orders, Sept. 5th, 1780. 

W'st Point, Sept. 5th, 1780. 
Artillery Orders. 

The following disposition of the corps is to take place in Case of an alarm. 

Capt. Dannills with his Comp'y at Fort Putnam, and to Detach an Officer 
with 12 men to WylJys's Redoubt, a non Commissioned Officer, with 3 men 
to Webb's Redoubt, and the like number to Redoubt No. 4. 

Capt. Thomas and Company to repair to Fort Arnold. 

Capt. Simmons and Company to remain at the North and South Redoubts, 
at the East side of the River, until further orders. 

Lieut, Barber, with 20 men of Capt. Jackson's Company will repair to 
Constitution Island ; the remainder of the Company with Lieut. Mason's will 
repair to Arnold. 

Capt. Lieut. George and Lieut. Blake with 20 men of Capt. Treadwell's 
Company, will Repair to Redoubt No, 1 and 2, the remainder of the Company 
will be sent to Fort Arnold. 

Late Jones's Company vA-iih Lieut Fisk to repair to the South Battery. 

The Chain Battery Sherburn's Redoubt, and the Brass Field pieces will be 
manned from Fort Arnold as Occation may require. 

The Commissary and Conductor of Military stores will in turn wait upon 
the Commanding Officer of Artillery for Orders. 

The Artificers in the Garrison, (agreeable to former Orders,) will repair 
to Fort Arnold, and their receive further Orders from the Command'g Officer 
of Artillery, J. Bauman Major Comm't Artillery. 

No. 10. 
[In the Traitor's own hand.] 

Estimate of the Forces at West Point, and its dependencies, 
Sept. 1780, 
Estimate of the Forces at W'st Point and its dependencies, Sep, 13th, 1780. 
A Brigade of Massachusets Militia and two Regiments of Rank and 
file New Hampshire Inclusion of 166 Batteaux Men at Verplanks 
and Stoney Points, 992 

On command and Extra Service at Fish Kills, New Windsor, &c. 

&:c., who may be called in occationally, 852 


3 Regiments of Conecticut Militia under the Com'd of Colonel Wells 

on the lines near N. Castle, 
A Detachment of N. York Levies on the lines, 

Colonel Lamb's Regiment 

Colonel Livingston at Verplank and Stoney Pts 

Colonel Sheldon's Dragoons on the lines about one half mounted 
Batteaux Men and Artificers 

Total 3080 







Continent : 


lalf mounted 



•'■-.• , No. 11. ■ ■',;" '■ ' ;.." 

[In Arnold's hand.] • .. . -■ ^ " • 

[Endorsed,] - . , 
Estimate of Men to Man the Works at Wst Point, &c. 
Sep'r 1780. 
Estimate of the Number of Men necessary to Man the Works at West Point 

and in the Vicinity. 

., , Fort Arnold 620 / 

Putnam 450 

Wyllys 140 

Webb _k_- ' 140. - '; ^' 

Redoubt No. 1 . v 15C 

ditto 2 150 

ditto 3 . 120 ' \ */' j- ' 

ditto 4 . , ^ .' 100 . • 

ditto 5 - ' ,-v. 139 

ditto 6 ,'__ 110 . 

ditto 7 . ' V- ~ - 78 ,' - / 

North Redoubt ' _ ' 120 

South Redoubt 130 • ^^ • 

■" .;' Total 2438 

Villepance, Engineer. 
N. B. The Artillery Men are not Included in the above Estimate. 



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"The virulence and malice of Ai'nold's treachery are no where 
more manifest and delestable than in the following document. 
See how the archfiend exposes the weaknesses of the forts — the 
ease with which they could be set on fire — the facilities of ap- 
proach — the commanding heiglits and rising grounds, (fee. The 
whole too, an expose intended expressly for the British, and 
yet endorsed as if it had been a memoran Jum for his own private 
use a.jd fur Gjneral Washington. 


No. 12. 
[In the traitor's own hand.] 
Remarks on Works at Wt. Point, a Copy to be transmitted to his Excell'y 

General Washington. 
Sepr. 1T80. 

Fort Arnold is built of Dry Fascines and Wood is in a ruinous condition, 
incompleat, and subject to take Fire from Shells or Canasses. 

Fort Putnam, stone, wanting great repairs, the wall on the East side broke 
down, and rebuilding From the Foundation at the west and South side have 
been a Chevaux de Frise on the Wst side broke in many Places. The East 
side open, two Boom Proofs and Provision Magazine in the Fort, and slight 
Wooden Barrack. — A. commanding piece of ground 500 yards West between 
the Fort and No. 4 — or Rocky Hill. — 

Fort Webb Built of Fascines and Wood, a slight Work very dry and liable 
to be set on fire as the approaches are very easy, without defences save a 
slight abathus. 

Fort Wyllys built of stone 5 feet high the Work above plank filled with 
Earth the stone work 15 feet the Earth 9 feel thick. — No Bomb Proofs, the 
Batteries without the Fort. 

Redoubt No. 1. On the south side wood 9 feet thick, the Wt. North and 
East sides 4 feet thick, no cannon in the works, a slight and single Abetters, 
no ditch or Pickett. Cannon on two Batteries. No Bomb Proofs. 

Redoubt No. 2. The same as No. 1. No Bomb Proofs. 

Redoubt No. 3, a slight Wood Work 3 Feet thick very Dry no Bomb Proofs, 
a single Abatters, the work easily set on fire — no Cannon. 

Redoubt No. 4 a Wooden work about 10 feet high and fore or five feet thick, 
the West side faced with a stone wall 8 feet high and four thick. No Bomb 
Proof, two six pounders, a slight Abatters, a Commanding piece of ground 500 
yards Wt. 

The North Redoubt on the East side built of stone 4 feet high, above the 
stone wood filled in with Earth, Yery Dry, no ditch, a Bomb Proof, three Bat- 
teries without the Fort, a poor Abatters, a Rising piece of ground 500 yards. 
So, the approaches Under Cover to within 20 yards. — The Work easily fired 
with Faggots diptd in Pitch &c. 

South Redoubt much the same as the North a Commanding piece of ground 
500 yards due East — 3 Batteries without the Fort. 

"The following document explains itself: — 

No. 13. 
[In Arnold's hand-writing.] 

Copy of a Council of War, held Sept. 6th, 1780. 
Ala Council of War, held in Camp Bergen County Sept. 6th, 1840. 


Present — the Commander-in-Chief. 

The Commander-in-Chief states to the Council, that since he had the honor 
of laying before the General Officers, at Morristown, the Gth of June last, a 
general view of our circumstances, several important events have occurred, 
which have materially changed the prospects of the Campaign. 

That the success expected from France, instead of coming out in one body, 
and producing a Naval Superiority in these Seas, has been divided into two 
Divisions, the first of which only consisting of seven ships of the line, one 
forty-four and three smaller Frigates, with five thousand land Forces, had 
arrived at Rhode Island. 

That a Reinforcement of six ships of the line from England having rein- 
forced the Enemy, had made their Naval Force in these seas amount to Nine 
Sail of the Line, Two Fifties two forty-fours, and a number of smaller Frigates, 
a Force completely superior to that of our Allies, and which has in consequence 
held them Blocked up in the harbor of Rhode Island till the 29th ult., at which 
Period the British Fleet disappeared, and no advice of them has since been 

That Accounts received by the Alliance Frigate, which left France in July, 
announces the Second Division to be Confined in Brest with several other 
Ships by a British Fleet of thirty-two Sail of the line, and a Fleet of the Allies 
of Thirty-six, or thirty-eight Ships of the lias ready to put to sea from Cadiz 
to relieve the Port of Brest. 

That most of the States in their answers to the requisitions made of them, 
give the strongest assurances of doing every thing in their power to furnish 
the men and supplies required for the expected Co-operation. The effect of 
which, however, has been far short of our expectations, for not much above 
one-third of the Levies demanded for the Continental Battalions, nor above 
the Same proportion of Militia have been assembled, and the Supplies have 
been so inadequate that there was a necessity for dismissing all the Militia, 
whose immediate services could be dispensed with to lessen our Consumption, 
notwithstanding which the Troops now in the Field are severely suffering for 
want of Provision. 

That the army at this Post and in the vicinity in opperating Force consists 
of 10,400 Continental Troops and about 400 Militia, besides which is a Regi- 
ment of Continental Troops of about 500 at Rhode Island left there for the 
assistance of our Allies, against any attempt of the Enemy that way, and two 
Connecticut State Regiments amounting to 800 at North Castle. 

That the Times of Service for which the Levies are Engaged will expire 
the first of January which, if not replaced, allowing for the usual Casualties, 
will reduce the Continental Army to less than 6000 men. 

That since the state to the Council above Referred to, the Enemy have 
brought a detachment of about 3000 men from Charles Town to New York, 
which makps the present opperating Force in this Quarter between Ten and 
Eleven Thousand men. 


That the Enemies Force now in the Southern States has not been lately 
ascertained by any distinct accounts, but the general supposes it cannot be less 
than 7,000 (of which about 2,000 are at Savannah) in this estimate the Dimi- 
nution by the Casualties of the Climate, is supposed to be equal to the increase 
of Force derived from the Disaffected. 

That added to the loss of Charles Town and its Garrison accounts of a re- 
cent misfortune are just arrived from Major General Gates, giving advice of a 
general action which happened on the 16ih of August near Campden,in which 
the army under his Command met with a total defeat, and in all probability the 
whole of the Continental Troops, and a Considerable part of the Mihtia would 
be cut off. 

That the State of \^irginia has been sometime exerting itself to raise a Body 
of 3000 Troops to serve till the end of December, 1781, but how far it has suc- 
ceeded is not known. 

That Maryland had Resolved to raise 2000 Men of which a sufficient num- 
ber to compose one Battalion was to have come to this army. The remainder 
to recruit the Maryland line — but in consequence of the late advices, an order 
has been sent to march the whole Southward. 

That the Enemies Force in Canada, Halifax, St. Augustine, and at Penob- 
scot, remains much the same as stated in the preceding Council. 

That there is still reason to believe the Court of France will prosecute its 
Original intention of giving effectual succor to this Country, as soon as cir- 
cumstances will permit ; and it is hoped the second Division will certainly 
arrive in the course of the fall. 

That a Fleet greatly superior to that of the Enemy in the West Indies, and 
a formidable land Force had sailed sometime since from Martinique to make 
a Combined attack upon the Island of Jamaica, that there is a possibility of a 
reinforcement from this quarter also, to the Fleet of our Ally at Rhode 

The Commander-in-Chief having thus given the Council a full view of our 
present Situation and future prospects, requests the Opinicm of each Member, 
in writing, what plan it will be advisable to pursue, to what objects Our Atten- 
tion ought to be directed in the course of this fall and winter, taking into con- 
sideration the alternative of having or not having a Naval Superiority, whether 
any Offensive operations can be immediately undertaken and against what 
Point, what ought to be our immediate Preparations and dispositions, particu- 
larly whether we can afford or ought to send any Reinforcements from this 
Army to the Southern States, and to what amount the General Requests to be 
favored with these opinions by the 10th Instant at farthest. 

" This concludes the famous " Andre Papers.'^ A more re- 
markable set of documents no man surely ever set foot on before. 


The papers themselves look yellow, are much crumpled and 
worn, and bear evident marks of age."a 

« # » ♦ ♦ » # 

" Upon this we made him dress himself and I asked him what 
he would give us to let him go. He said he would give, us any 
sum of money. 1 asked him whither he would give us his horse, 
saddle, bridle, watch, and one hundred guineas. He said 'yes,' 
and told us he would direct them to any place, even if it was 
that very spot, so that we could get them. I asked him whither 
he would not give us more. He said he would give us any 
quantity of dry goods, or any sum of money, and bring it to any 
place that we might pitch upon, so that we might get it. Mr. 
Paulding answered, ' No, if you would give us two thousand 
guineas you should not stir one step.' I then asked the person 
who had called himself John Anderson, if he would not get 
away if it lay in his power. He answered, 'Yes, I would.' I 
told him, I did not intend he should. While taking him along, 
we asked him a few questions, and we stopped under a shade. 
He begged us not to ask in"m questions, and said when he came to 
any commander, he would reveal all. He was dressed in a blue 
overcoat and a tight body coat that was a kind of claret color, 
though a rather deeper red than claret. The button holes were 
laced wiih gold tinsel, and the buttons drawn over with the 
same kind of lace. He had on a round hat and nankeen waist- 
coat and breeches, with a flannel waistcoat and drawers, boots 
and thread stockings." According to John Yerks, the lower 
party were observed coming up the hill, Paulding^ leading 
the horse, upon which Andre was mounted. As they halted, 
Paulding exclaimed, " we have got a prisoner," and immediately 
ordered Andre to dismount. He then asked him for his watch. 

» New York Herald, 1842. 

b Paulding had effected his escape only three days previous from the New York 
Sugar House, in tlie dress of a German yager. General Van Cortlandt states that 
Paiilding wore this drees on the day of the capture, which tended to deceive An- 
dre and led him to exclaim, in answer to their reply, " Thank God, I am once 
more among friends." 



at the same time w.irning him not to make any attempt at es- 
cape, for if he did, he was a dead man. After a short interval, 
Paulding (who appears to have been the master spirit upon 
this occasion,) ordered him to remount. They then led him 
off in the direction of North Castle, the nearest military post, 
where Lieut. Col. Jameson was stationed with a detachment of Shel- 
don's dragoons. The roads being carefully avoided, the party went 
with all speed across the fields, each taking their turns at the 
bridle, some marching on either side, the remainder bringing up 
the rear. During their progress to INorth Castle, the prisoner 
never spoke unless some question was asked, and then said but 
h"ttle in reply. On their route the party stopped for a short tim3 
at Jacob Romers,a(in the vicinity of the present poor-house.) where 
the captors had taken breakfast that morning. Having forgot in 
their hurry the basket of provisions, Captain Romer was dis- 
patched after it. During the absence of Romer, Andre was ask- 
ed by the lady of the house, if he would take any thing to eat, 
his reply was truly descriptive of his bitter feelings, '' No, I 
thank you, I have no appetite to take anything." Upon the ar- 
rival of the basket, the party again resumed their march, and 
within a short time arrived at Northcastle. Here they delivered 
np their prisoner to Jameson, with all the papers that had been 
taken from his stockings. '^ The prisoner w^as confined here 
in a small cottage, at present attached to the barn of Mr. Sands. 
Further details concerning the spy will be found in the respec- 
tive towns,c ' " 

* Paulding, says Jacob Romer, came up in advance of the party and observed to 
me, " Be careful how you talk, I believe we have got an English officer." 

b It is a curious fact mentioned by Sparks in his Biography of Arnold, that the 
last canto of Andre's humorous satire, called the " Cow-chase," was first printed 
on the very day of his capture. It will be found in Rivington's Royal Gazette fof 
Sept. 23, 1780. It ends with the following stanza. 

'* And now I've closed my epic strain, 
I tremble as I show it, 
Lest this same warrior-drover, Wayne, 
Should ever catch the poet." 

[Sparks' Biog. Arnold, 228. 
« See North Castle. S. Salem. 

Vol. L 29 


Upon the delivery of their prisoner, the seven patriots returned 
to their different quarters, little imagining the importance of tlieir 
prize. A little more than a month afterwards, (General Wash- 
ington having recommended the captors to Congress,) they re- 
ceived the following vote of thanks from that body. 

In Congress, November 3, 1780. 

Whereas Congress have received information that John Paulding, David 
Williams and Isaac van Wart, three young volunteer militia men of the State 
of New York, did, on the 23d day of September last, intercept Major John 
Andr-', adjutant general of the British army, on his return from the American 
lines in the character of a spy, and notwithstanding the large bribes offered 
them for his release, nobly disdaining to sacrifice their country for the sake of 
gold, sec and conveyed him to the commarding officer of the district, 
whereby the dangerous and traitorous conspiracy of Benedict Arnold was 
brought to light, the insidious designs of the enemy baffled, and the United 
Slates rescued from impending danger : 

Resolved, that Congress have a high sense of the virtuous and patriotic con- 
duct (>f the said John Paulding, David Williams and Isaac van Wart. In tes- 
timony whereof, Ordered, that each of them receive annually out of the public 
treasury two hundred dollars in specie, or an equivalent in current money of 
these States, during life, and that the board of war procure for each of them a 
silver medal, on one side of which shall be a shield with this inscription " Fi- 
delity," and on the other, the A)ll()wing motto" Yincit amor patriae," and for- 
ward them to the commander-in-chief, who is requested to present the same, 
with a copy of this resolution, and the thanks of Congress for their fidelity and 
the eminent service they have rendered their country. 

The State also gave each a farn). , 

The Westchester Connty Bank, at Pcekskill. has commemo- 
rated this important event on its bills, by a beaniifiil vignette 
picture representing the arrest of the spy. He is in the act of 
snpplicalino[ his captors to let tiim escape, the discovered papers 
are in the hands of one of ih.em, and (he stern eyes of the others 
evince the determination to listen to no sngo:es!ions hut those of 
patiiolism. The form and features of Andre are admirably de 
picted, a miniature hangs in liis hosom exqui>itely finished. 
This was a likeness of Miss Honora to whom he was devotedly 
attached. a The picture had been painted by himself from the 

» This lady died of consumption only a few months before Andre suffered at 
Tappan. She had married another gentlemen four years after her engagement to 


living features of the object of his affections. In 1775, he was 
taken prisoner by General Montgomery, at St. Johns, Canada; a 
few months afterwards, in a letter to a friend, he observes, » I 
have b3en taken prisoner by the Americans, and stripped of 
every thing except the pictnre of Honora, which I concealed m 
my month. Preserving that, I think myself t^ortunate-''^. To 
this touching incident Anna Seward refers in her poem upon 

^' Shade of my love 
'Tis free ! These lips shall resolute enclose 
The precious souther of my ceaseless woes." 

The above vignette suggested the following stanzas. 

"Before their country's foe they stand, 
Each with a stern and searching eye ; 
Grasped with a firm and honest hand, 
The hostile records open lie ; 
They read, and as each- noble brow 
Wears the quiet shadow of resoh'e, 
The true and just exhibit now, 
The secret which they dared to solve. 

Away with gold ! It has no power 
To turn the true heart from its quest ; 
The ordeal of this solemn hour 
Gives firmness to the patriot's breast; 
And as the tempter's art is tried, 
He finds each supplication vain ; 
The weary prisoner turns aside^ 
To hide his laboring bosom's pain. 

Tumultuous thoughts upon his mind, 
In quick succession wildly crowd, 
As urged by the resistless wind. 
Spreads o'er the sky the tempest's cloud. 

Andre, which had been dissolved by parental affection.— [See J^etterg about th^ 
Hudson, published by Freeman &, Hunt, 1837. 
a See Sparks' Life of Arnold, p. 171. 


Why bends his sad and languid glance 
Where, near his heart, that picture lieSf 
AfFection^s fond inheritance, 
With sunny smile and loving eyes t 

Alas ! upon that face no more 
The eager gaze of hope can turnj 
The dream of early love is o'er, 
And ne'er again its fires will burn ; 
A shade is gathering o'er each tress, 
A gloom is lingering on the brow. 
And all its budding loveliness 
Is stained with tears of anguish now. 

Brave, yet devoted ! On thy head 
The bolt, by others forged, shall fall ; 
And history on thy name shall shed 
Of fate, the wormwood and the gall; 
Yet wert thou noble — and thy soul 
The battle and the storm withstood, 
Till bending to a stern control, 
'Twas by a traitor's lure subdued. 

Peace to thy shade, ill-fated one ! 
Though in the abbey's lengthened aisle,* 

* Memorial to Major John Andre in Westminster Abbey, England. 

This is a neat monument in s'.atuary marble, composed of a sarcophagus, eleva- 
ted on a pedestal, upon the panel of which is engraved the following inscription: 

" Sacred to the memory of IMajor Andr^, who, raised by his merit, at an early 
period of life, to the rank of adjutant-general of the British forces in America, and 
employed in an important, but hazardous enterprise, fell a sacrifice to his zeal for 
his king and country, on the 2d of October, 1780, aged twenty-nine, universally 
beloved and esteemed by the army in which he served, and lamented even by his 
foes. His gracious sovereign, King George the Third, has caused this monument 
to be erected." 

The remains of the said Major Andre were deposited, on the 28th of November, 
1821, in a grave near his monument. 

On the front of the sarcophagus, General Washington is represented in his tent, 
at the moment when he had received the report of the court-martial held on Major 
Andre ; at the same time a flag of truce arrived from the British army, with a let- 
ter for General Washington, to treat for the Major's life. But the fatal sentence 
being already passed, the flag was sent back without the hoped for clemency in his 
favor. Major Andre received his condemnation with that fortitude and resolution 
which had always marked his character, and is represented going', with unshaken 


Scarce lit by day's meridian sun, 
Thy marble bust may sadly smile, 
Yet is there darkness on thy name, 
Though gentle pity mourns for thee, 
While patriots bless the holy flame. 
Which kept thy captor's spirit free. 
■.s. ' . - [Westchester and Putnam Republican. 

A remarkable incident is said to have befallen the celebrated 
white wood tree near which the spy was captured. It was struck 
by lightning on the same day that the intelligence of General Ar- 
nold's death arrived at Tarrytown. This tree was a fine 
specimen of the ancient forest, being twenty-six feet in cir- 
cumference, and its stem forty-one feet in length. At the 
present day not a vestige remains of " Major Andre's tree," as 
it was familiarly called. It is thus beantifully described by the 
author of the Sketch Book : " This tree towered like a giant 
above all the other trees of the neighborhoo 1, and formed a kind 
of landmark. Its limbs were knnrled and fantastic, large enough 
to form trunks for ordinary trees, twisting down almost to the 
earth, and rising again into the air. It v/as connected with the 
tragical story of the unfortunate Andre, who had been made pris- 
oner hard by, and was universally known by the name of ' Major 
Andre's tree.' The common people regarded it with a mixture of 
respect and superstition, partly out of sympathy for the fate of its 
ill-starred namesake, and partly from the tales of strange sights, 
and doleful lamentations told concerning it." It was while pass- 
ing beneath this whitewood tree that Ichabod Crane, in his mid- 
night career toward Sleepy Hollow, "suddenly heard a groan, 
his teeth chattered, and his knees smote against the saddle. It 
Avas but the rubbing of one huge branch upon another, as they 
were swayed about by the breeze. He passed the tree in safety, 
but new perils lay before him. About two hundred yards from 
the tree, a small brook crossed the road, and ran into a marshy 
and thickly u'ooded glen, known by the name of Wiley's Swamp. 

spirit, to meet his doom. On the top of the sarcophagus, a figure of Britannia, re- 
clining, laments the premature fate of so gallant an officer. The British lion, too, 
seems instinctivelv to mourn his untimely death. 


A few rouo:h logs, laid side by side, served for a bridge over this 
stream. On that side of the road where the brook entered the 
wood, a group of oaks and chestnuts, matted thick with wild 
grape vines, threw a cavernous gloom over it. To pass this 
bridge was the severest trial. It was at tiiis identical spot that 
the unfortunate Andre was captured, and under the covert of 
those chestnuts and vines were the sturdy yeomen concealed who 
surprised him. This has ever since been considered a haunted 
stream, and fearful are the feelings of the schoolboy who has to 
pass it alone after dark."a 

Beside the capture of Andre, there are several revolulionary 
incidents which deserve to be noticed in connection with Tarry- 
town. One of these was the surprisal qf a large corps of British 
refugees, which took place at the tavern of Ehzabeth van Tassel. 
Major Hunt, having received intelligence of the advance of this 
party, at once determined upon their surprisal, particularly as the 
late murderers of his brother were known to be among the num- 
ber. In company, therefore, with John Archer, and a (e\v volun- 
teers, Major Hunt proceeded from Westchester to. Tarry town, so 
arranging the march as to arrive in the vicinity of the tavern 
about dusk. After darkness had fairly set in. Hunt, with his 
party, surrounded the house: at this moment their unsuspecting 
enemies were engaged in playing cards. Major Hunt, having 
armed himself with a huge club, now gave the signal for attack, 
when the whole party simultaneously rushed in, headed by the 
Major, who exclaimed, as he raised his weapon, " Clubs are 
trumps, gentlemen." During the desperate struggle that ensued, 
Archer attempted to kill several of the refugees, and was only 
prevented from so doing by Major Hunt, who, arresting his arm, 
observed — "Sir, the highest sense of honor in a soldier is to pro- 
tect the lives of his prisoners." After a short but ineffectual re- 
sistance, the refugees surrendered, and were led off in triumph to 
the American quarters. 

In the summer of 1779, a strong detachment iinder the com- 
mand of Col. Emmerick advanced upon Tarrytown so rapidly, 
that the Continental guard quartered in Requa's house were com- 

■ See Sketch Book, Beauties of Irving, tfcc &,c. 


pletely taken by surprise ; four of them were killed upon the 
spot, and the remainder, consisting of ten or twelve, taken pris- 
oners. On this occasion Isaac Martlinoh,a a one armed man, 
and Polly Buckhout, were also killed ; the latter supposed acci- 
dentally, from the circumstance of her wearing a man's hat. 

In the spring of 1782, a small party of refugees, under the 
command of Lieut. Akerly. captured tjiree American militiamen 
named Yerks, Van Wart, and Strong, near the residence of the 
present Gilbert Underhill, situated in Tarrytown. Strong was 
hung on the spot by his inhuman captor. 

The following letter occurs in the book of Military Returns.^ 

Philipsburgh, Oct. 23, 1775. 
Mr. William Paulding, 


I send you a list of the officers chosen in 
the manor of Philipsburgh, in the county of Westchester, in the room of those 
who decline.- - , > 

■ ■ For Tarrytown. 

' ' - ' Gload Requa, Capt. 

Cornelius van Tassel, 2d Lieut. 
Siebout Acker, Ensign. 

Upper Company. ' ' ' , . 

Jf^gias Arsor, 2d Lieut. . " : . / , 

East Company. ' ^ ' '■ , 

Benj. Vermilyea, Capt. 
Gilbert Dean, first Lieut. , ' 

William Forshee, 2d Lieut. " ''• 

a 1 he fullovving epitaph is inscribed upon this individual's grave stone in Sleepy 
Hollow churcii-yaid : — 

T. M. 

lu memory of Mr. Isaac Martungh, 

who was inhumanly 

slain by Nathaniel 

Underhill, May 26, 

A.D. \Ti^, 
in the 39th year 
of his age. 
b Military Returns, Alb. xxvi. 140. 


We have likewise returned you the commission of those who decline. 

George Comb, 
Joseph Young, 
James Hammond. 

In 1776, the ccmmittee addressed the following letter to Gene- 
ral Washington. 

Saturday morning, July 13, 1776. 


On being informed 5'esterday afternoon, that two ships of war had gone 
into the North River, and passed by all the fortifications on York Island, the con- 
vention immediately sent an express to the commanding officer of the fort at the 
Highlands, advising him thereof. Last evening advice arrived that two frig- 
ates and two or three tenders were at anchor at Tarrytown, whereupon the 
convention sent the inhabitants a supply of powder and ball, and took imme- 
diate measures for reinforcing the inhabitants along that shore. This morning 
the convention were informed, that the frigates and tenders still lay there at 
anchor, and that several barges were busy in sounding the river; another de- 
tachment of the militia has been directed to guard the stores in that neighbor- 
hood, in which are sundry effects belonging to the public. 

The convention will endeavor to prevent their making incursions into the 
country, and beg leave to suggest to your Excellency, the propriety of keep- 
ing a strong guard at King's bridge, the destruction of which they apprehend 
tobe an object with the enemy. ^ 

I have the honor to be with esteem, 

Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 
by order 

To his Excellency Gen, Washington. 

July 16th, 1776. A letter from Colonel Hammond then sta- 
tioned at Tarrytown, was read. 

The Colonel therein informs the convention, that the ships of 
war have left that harbor, and are sailing up the river with a 
fair wind, towards the Highlands. Thereupon it was resolved, 
that Colonel Van Cortlandt and Mr. Z. Piatt^ be directed to re- 
pair immediately to the Highlands. '^ 

» Jour. N. Y. Pro. Cou Book I. 523. 

t- A distinguished ofEcer of the American service, grandfather of Lewis C. Plait, 
Esq., present surrogate of the county. 
• Journal N. Y. Pro. Con. Book I. 525. 



Upon the 9(h of October, 1778, a body of 1100 British troops 
embarked on board batleaux at Peekskill and the same night 
proceeded to Tarrytown, where they landed at daybreak, and oc- 
cupied the heights adjoining.* 

Jnly 15th, 1781, ( remarks Thatcher, in his Military Journal,) 
two of the British frigates, and several smaller vessels, passed 
up the North River as far as Tarrytown, in defiance of our can- 
non, which were continually playing on them. Their object ap- 
pears to be, to seize some of our small vessels which are passing 
down the river with supplies for our army. 

One small sloop loaded with bread for the French army, has 
fallen into their hands.''^ 

Greeiiburgh is a small hamlet situated three miles south east of 
Tarrytown, consisting of a church, a store, a few scattered 
houses, and one tavern. 

This place is delightfully located in the Saw mill valley, 
through which flows the lovely Nepera, (Saw mill.) 

Upon the west side of the valley, towers Beaver hill, frown- 
ing in solemn majesty on the quiet scene below. 

Presbyterian Church, and Tomb of Isaac van Wai t. 

■• Gaines' Weekly Mercury, 
b Thatcher's Journal, 258. 

Vol. I. 



The Presbyterian Church of Greenburgh, (situated on the 
east bank of the Saw mill) was first organized about the year 
1790, under tlie ministry of the Rev. John Townley. This 
individual labored here for about twelve years, after which time 
he removed to Somers, and subsequently to Peekskill.^' 

Upon the departure of Mr. Townley, services were performed 
here, by the Rev. Thomas G. Smith, pastor of the Dutch Re- 
formed Church of Tarrytown and Unionville. 

Mr. Smith was succeeded by the late Rev. George Bourne^ 
who served the churches of Greenburgh, and Dobb's Ferry, 
with great acceptance. 

During this period, the church was connected with the old West- 
chester Presbytery, a congregational body, long since extinct. 
Upon the 12th of June, 1825, it was received into union with 
the First Presbytery of New York, and reorganized. It is at pre- 
sent connected with the Bedford Presbytery. This church 
appears to have been first incorporated upon the 25th of April, 
1790, on which occasion, John Martine, Elijah Tompkins, 
Archer Read, Thomas Almond, and Abraham Odell were elected 


Instal or call. Ministers. Vacated by. 

Ministers C 1790, Rev. John Townley, resig. 

under the J 1802, Rev. Thomas G. Smith, supply, resig. 

Westchester ' 1820, Rev. George Bourne, resig. 

Presbytery, [^ 1825, Rev. David Remington, resig. 

Sept. 19, 1826, Rev. Chester Long, resig. 

Dec. 1, 1832, Rev. Mark Mead, resig. 

1834, Rev. John AVhite, resig. 

» The Rev. John Townley died March 1st, 1812, aged 72 years. His remains 
and those of his wife and daughter, are interred in the burying ground attached to 
this church. 

I Religious Soc. Co. Rec Lib. A. 22, a second incorporation occurs 17 May, 
1808 ; a fourth, Cth of June, 1835. 

c The ministers of this church have for a long time officiated alternately between 
the two churclies of Greenburgh and While Plains. 


, 1835, Rev. Hosea Ball, resig. 

July 16, 1838, Rev. George Walker, resig. 

Oct. 9, 1841, Rev. Samuel Kellogg, resig. 

June 10, 1843, Rev. Elias S. Schenck. present minister. 

First elders of the church, Archibald Reid, George Combs and 
Staats Hammond. First deacons, William Brown and Isaac 


A. D. 1836, Communicants, 97 ; Baptisms, 2. 
A. D. 1847, ditto, 65. 

In the cemetery of the Presbyterian Church rest the remains 
of Isaac Van Wart, one of the three captors of Major John Andre. 
A marble monument consisting of a base and pyramid is inscrib- 
ed on its four sides, with the following epitaph : 

(North side.) 

Here reposes 
the mortal remains 


Isaac Van Wart, 

an elder in the Greenburgh Church,' 

who died 

on the 23d of Ma}^ 1828, 

in the 

69th year of his age. 

Having lived the life, he died the death, of the 

Christian. ^' ' . ' 

(South side.) 

The Citizens 

of the 

County of Westchester 

erected this tomb 

in testimony of the high sense 

they entertained for the 
virtuous and patriotic conduct 

a Isaac van Wart was for many years an efficient church officer, and acted as 
chorister up to the time of his death. 


of their fellow citizen, 

as a memorial sacred lo 

public gratitude. 

(Upon the east side.) 

Vincit Amor Patriae. 

Nearly half a century 

before this monument was built, 

the conscript fathers of America 

had in the senate chamber voted that 

Isaac Van Wart, 

was a faithful patriot, one in whom 

the love of country was invincible, 

and this tomb bears testimony 

that the record is true. 

(West side.) 

Fidelity. — On the 23d of September, 1780, Isaac van Wart, accompa- 
nied by John Paulding and- David Williams, all farmers of the County of 
Westchester, intercepted Major Andre, on his return from the American 
lines, in the character of a spy, and, notwithstanding the large bribes offered 
them for his release, nobly disdained to sacrifice their country for gold, se- 
cured and carried him to the commanding officer of the district, whereby the 
dangerous and 'traitorous conspiracy of Arnold was brought to light, the insidi- 
ous designs of the enemy baffled, the American army saved, and our beloved 
country free," &c. 

We extract the following from the Westchester Herald, on oc- 
casion of raising this monument, June 11, 1829 : 

On Thursday last, being the day appointed by the committee of arrange- 
ments for the ceremony of erecting a monument to the memory of the late Isaac 
van Wart, one of the captors of the British spy Andr^, a large concourse of 
our feHow citizens assembled at the spot where repose the remains of the de- 
parted patriot, at the burial place of the Presbyterian church, on the east bank 
of the Saw Mill River, in Greenburgh. The day was very fine and pleasant, 
and by 12 o'clock, there was supposed to be present upwards of two thousand 
spectators, who had convened to participate in the last respects to the memory 
of their esteemed fellow citizen ; among whom were to be seen a few of the 
aged and venerable men who had passed through the scenes and perils of the 
revolution. About 12 o'clock, a procession was formed under the direction of 
Major John Sing, marshal of the day, the whole in the inverse order of their 
rank : — 

1st. Captain Denslow's company Light Infantry of the 12th regiment, with 
the band attached to that regiment, and the first regiment of Light Infantry 
formed the military escort on the left. The left in front. 


Sd. The officers and non-commissioned officers of the 15ih brigade. 

3d. Captain Warner's company of cavalry on foot. 

4th. Citizens of the county. 

5th. Mr. F. Kain, the architect, and his workmen, with their implements to 
complete the work. 

6th. The invited guests. 

7lh. The clergy of the county. 

8lh and last, the surviving officers and soldiers of the Revokition, the com- 
mittee of arrangements and General William Hammond and suite. 

The column was marched in this inverse order to solemn music with arms 
reversed, until arrived at the church yard, when the procession opened to the 
right and left, fronting inward. The officers and soldiers presenting arms. 
The officers and soldiers of the Revolution preceded by General Philip van 
Cortlandt, now the senior surviving officer of the continental army. These 
passed through the line, conducted by General Hammond and suite, and the 
marshal of the day, to the place reserved for them on the right of the monu- 
ment, and the whole procession having passed through in this order, the mili- 
tary escort formed a square about the whole in the church yard. At this spot, 
the column was met by a large procession of the ladies of the county, under the 
direction of S. Simpson Esq., who acted as assistant marshal of the day, is- 
suing from the church, at the head of which supported upon the arm of a 
friend, was the venerable widow of the deceased, followed by his surviving sis- 
ter, also supported, and next came the female children and grand children of 
the deceased, a goodly number, after whom, followed a large train of matrons 
and misses, amountino^ to four or five hundred in number. The whole of this 
interesting group having assembled within the yard and about the monument. 
The Rev. David Remington pastor of the church to which the deceased be- 
longed, addressed the throne of Grace, in a very solemn and appropriate man- 
ner, after which, Colonel Ward^ the orator of the day was conducted to 
the platform prepared for the occasion, where he delivered the following ad- 
dress. (It was afterwards published at the request of the committee of arrange- 

Friends ! Fellow citizens ! 

and Soldiers ! \ ' ' . • ^ ^. 

We have assembled on an interesting occasion, a solemn, not a melancholy 
one. We have come to this spot, to discharge a part of our duty, to one who 
has paid the debt of nature, to bring with us, as it were, each a stone from our 
quarries, fitted and prepared to build a monumental pile to a departed patriot, 
one who fell not in the hour of battle, contending for our liberties, but who 
lived to see our country prosperous and happy, delivered from all her troubles, 

The present General Aaron Ward, of Sing Sing. 


and then gathered like a shock of corn ripe for the harvest. It might be 
asked, if insensible dust and ashes can be benefitted by monumental honors ? 
No I But it is the duty of the living to make and preserve memorials of the 
virtuous and distinguished dead ; for these memorials contain lessons of in- 
struction that are constantly before our eyes. 

The man to whose memory we are now erecting a tomb stone, was one of 
us, a citizen of Westchester county ; his name requires no lineal honors, no 
armorial bearings, to make it dear and precious with us. We knew him and 
that was sufficient, but for those who did not know him personally, (for his cir- 
cle of acquaintance was not a large one,) we put his fame on his character as 
a patriot, and it gives me pleasure to state that he lived and died a christian. 
For his patriotism, it is enough to say, that Isaac van Wart was one of the 
captors of Andre. For proofs of his exemplary life, and for his firm belief 
in our holy religion, to you my friends I appeal as witnesses. Some of you 
have known him in the noonday and evening of life, have heard him breathe 
the patriot's prayer, " God save my country," have seen his practical ex- 
amples of virtuous conduct, his piety, his devotion, and his humble submission 
to the will of Heaven. 

The capture of Andre, fellow citizens, formed an important epoch in the his- 
tory of our Revolution. This event took place on the morning of the 23d oj 
Sept., 1780, and what is well worthy of observation, within three miles of the 
spot where we are now assembled, and within a few miles of the place where 
the man, to whose perishable remains we are now paying the last tribute of re- 
spect, w^as born, brought up and died. It 03curred too, at a period when our 
country was in the deepest distress. It will be recollected, that Charleston, 
South Carolina, had then but recently been taken by the enemy, with the loss 
of our whole army, under the command of General Lincoln, amouhting to up- 
wards of five thousand men, together with all the magazines of military and 
naval stores, the shipping in the harbor, and four hundred pieces of ordnance. 
General Gates had also been defeated at Camden in North Carolina, seven 
hundred of our troops having been killed in battle, and one thousand three 
hundred wounded and made prisoners, and the whole of his forces routed and 
dispersed. The eastern states had likewise been overrun by the enemy, with 
fire and sword. And to add to the general gloom which now overspread the 
United States, the small army that was left, was reduced to the greatest dis- 
tress and misery ; and, nothing, it is believed, but the wisdom and prudence 
of the immortal Washington, could have kept it together ; for, in the language 
of a committee appointed by Congress to visit it, the soldiers were unpaid for 
months together, seldom having more than six days provision in advance ; 
and on several occasions for several successive days, entirely without meat. 
The medical department having no supplies whatever, for the sick, and every 
department of the army being alike without money, and not even the shadow 
of credit left." Discontent to an alarming extent, at the same time among the 


officers and soldiers, on account of the depreciated currency of llie country. 
The pay of a private for a year, would not subsist his family for a single week 
nor would the pay of an officer procure forage, or even oats for his horse. 

And in addition to these evils which fell so heavily upon the army, others 
not less deplorable, had, by reason of the embarrassed slate of the country, 
fallen upon the community at large. For the aged and infirm, who had re- 
tired to enjoy the fruits of their industry, found their subsistence reduced to a 
scanty pittance, and the widow and the orphan were obliged to accept a dollar 
where hundreds were their due. 

At this moment when all was dark, our hopes for a successful termination of 
the war well nigh gone, when the east and the south were in gloom and doubt, 
and fear which "betrays like treason," was setting on many an honest face, Major 
Andrd was sent from the British army, whose general then wished to finish the 
war at a blow, to tamper with the low principles of Benedict Arnold, and by 
the strength of bribery and corruption, to pluck up his shallow rooted patriotism 
at once. The treason had so far prospered, that the delivery of West Point 
and the army there stationed, was agreed upon. The plan to effect the pur- 
pose was drawn up ; nay, more, the victims of deceit and slaughter, were 
marked out, perfidy and destruction had sharpened their daggers for the march, 
when it pleased Divine Providence to make three of our fellow citizens instru- 
ments in His hand for good. 

They arrested the spy on his return to the camp. On this event, perhaps, 
hung the destinies of our country ; if not that, certainly the lives of thou- 
sands, and long years of war were involved in it. The spy was taken, and 
conducted to the lines of the American army : the immeasurable power of 
gold was tried upon Van Wart and his associates — it would not do ; rewards 
beyond their knowledge of wealth were offered them, if they would give up 
their prisoner, but ofFered them in vain. Their virtues, to the honor of hu- 
man nature — to the honor of republican principles — to the honor of our coun- 
try, stood the test — nobly stood it.. The spy was tried, and expiated his of- 
fence against the laws of nations by his death, and our country was saved. 

During the whole of this excitement, so momentous and alarming, we have 
to thank God that our country w^as stained by one act of treason only ; and to 
alleviate our grief and mortification for this act, we have to offer the incorrup- 
tible integrity of three militiamen in the common walks of life, (where virtue 
always resides,) in whose breasts all ordinary springs of action were absorbed 
by the love of liberty, and whose enthusiastic ardor in the cause was regula- 
ted and guided by prudence and firmness ; and we have it to say too, that if 
one proud, envious, canker-hearted general had his price, our soldiers were 
above purchase ! — that if treason found its way to the stronghold and the cita- 
del, it was in the end crushed at the outposts. To commemorate this event, 
that posterity should not lose sight of it — that future ages should understand 
it by full and satisfactory proof — that our countrymen know how to respect 
and value patriotism as well as to practice it — that they were as ready to 


render justice to the merits of a private soldier, as (o the officer highest in 
rank — and to show, too, that our Revolution was achieved by principles of the 
highest order, we have assembled to erect this monument. Such an act is in 
conformity with the usages of the wisest of nations in every period of history, 
and, whenever neglected, has been a source of censure and regret ; such an 
act is in conformity with the habits of our own country, for it is consonant to 
a sense of gratitude in every bosom. Monuments are now rising to the he- 
roes of the Revolution in every part of the United States. Montgomery, 
Warren, De Kalb and others, are now remembered by a grateful people, and 
on the banks of our majestic Hudson has lately been placed a tasteful monu- 
ment to the great and good Kosciusko, who dispensed honors and rewards for 
the freedom of rnan. This last tribute of respect has sprung from the purest 
of all sources — from the bosoms of the youthful soldiers of our national mili- 
tary school, whose pursuits lead them to search history, and to canvass every 
military character for models of the patriot soldier. 

The time, fellow citizens, is fast coming, when the actors in our revolution- 
ary scenes will live but in the remembrance of the few, and in the annals of 
our country ; more or less of their number are daily passing to their eternal 
rest. Within a few days past, the citizens of this county and of this nation 
were called to mourn the loss of one of the most distinguished members of 
that valiant band — the great, the illustrious John Jay, the American Fabri- 
cius : and even while I am speaking, there are only here and there one of the 
men of that age to be seen, and he, with whitened locks and solemn demeanor, 
standing on the confines of eternity, and taking, as it were, a farewell of us 
and of all the present generation.^ 

Illustrious relics of a patriotic age ! ye shall not be forgotten when you shall 
have passed away. Monuments shall arise to your fame, written over with 
the story of your deeds. You have lifted your warning voices to us to be vir- 
tuous and united, and they shall be heard ; your principles shall not be lost — your 
examples shall have their influence — your very monuments shall have a tongue 
that shall never be silent in teaching us how to live and how to die. The vir- 
tuous deeds of one generation are monuments for the next, and so onward in 
the procession of ages. We know that our country is yet in its youth, and is 
still forming its habits and fixing its principles ; and I thank God, that among 
her best habits is that of cherishing the memory of her benefactors. The 
deed that we are now doing, my friends, in gratitude and modesty, is not to be 
done for this day alone. In some distant period, when the traveller shall 
inquire of our descendants, " Whose monument is this ]" they shall answer, 
with pleasure and pride, " This is the grave of Isaac van Wart, who was an 
incorruptible patriot and a good Christian. He lived with our ancestors, and 
was one of them, and they appreciated his services ; and to perpetuate his 
memory, erected this tomb stone, and gave it in charge to us to keep it from 
profanation. Nearly half a century before this monument was built, the Con- 

'■" The late General Philip van Cortlandt. 


script Fathers of America had, in the senate chamber, voted he was a faithful 
patriot, one in whom the love of country was invincible — and this monument 
bears testimony that the record is true. 

Mr. Francis Kain then gave the finishing stroke to the monument, after 
which the military escort divided into three sections ; each division fired one 
round. The procession was again formed by the marshal in the same order 
as before. The officers and soldiers of the Revolution, on the right, passed 
the line, the same honors being paid to them by the military ; and the whole 
returned to the house of Mr. E. Mead, from whence they had started." 

During the Ainericaii war, this section of the neutral ground 
was frequently harassed by incursions of the enemy. 

On one occasion a large body of British Cow-boys (who had 
been up the country in prosecution of their trade) were returning, 
laden with spoil, when they received a severe check in the vicin- 
ity of Smith's tavern, from a small force of American volunteers. 
The attack is said to have been commenced by an individual 
named John Dean. The neighborhood, alarmed by the firing, 
immediately turned out to his assistance. 

November 17th, 1777, the British, under Captain Emmerick, 
made an excursion from their quarters to the Saw Mill Valley, 
and completely surprised the Van Tassels, who were residina: 
near Captain Romer's, burnt their houses, " stripped the women 
and children of necessary apparel to cover them from the sever- 
ity of a cold winter's night," and led off, in triumph, the two 
brothers, Peter and Corneliiis van Tassel.* 

In retaliation for this inhuman outrage, the patriots fitted up 
an expedition at Tarrytowii, under the command of Abraham 
Marllingh, which proceeded down the Hudson River, passed the 
enemy's guard boats in safety, and succeeded in setting fire to 
General Oliver de l^ancey's house on New York island, after 
plundering it of its contents. The whole party returned to Tar- 
rytovvn in safety. This enterprise was conducted in the very 
face of the British army. 

Three young lads named Vincent, Smith, and Lawrence, were 
overtaken by a party of Totten's refugee corps a little south of 
Rowland's mill ; two were killed on thes pot, Vincent recovered 

"" See Gen. Parson's Letter, Mamaroneck. 

Vol. I. 31 


irom his wounds, but remained a cripple for life. Major David 
Hunt of the continental army afterwards conveyed him to Paulus 
Hook where he was noticed by several members of Congress who 
subsequently obtained a pension for the suflerer. This is said to 
liave been the first pension granted by the United States' gov- 

A short distance south of the hamlet of Greenburgh is situated 
the residence of Samuel Howland, Esq. It is embosomed in 
trees, and stands on the west bank of the Saw Mill river, in 
its rear rise bold and majestic hills covered with luxuriant 
woods. The building itself is a very handsome structure of 
wood, in the modern style. The river arrested by the mill 
dam, forms in front of the house an extensive sheet of water 
which adds greatly to the beauty of this romantic spot. 

The former possessors of the estate were the Odells, who in 
1816, sold the property to Joseph Howland, Esq., father of the 
present proprietor. 

Chatterton height, the battle field of 1776, lies on the north- 
east corner of this town. AVe have reserved a description of the 
battle for the town of White Plains, with which place it is gene- 
rally associated, although more properly belonging to Greenburg. 

The Chatterton family, from whom the hill derives its name, 
have been long residents in the town of Greenburg. A member 
of this family was settled on the hill as early as 1731. A. D. 
3 750, we fii]d Michael Chatterton purchasing land6 in the vicin- 
ity, of David and Nathan Purdy. 

Chatterton bridge which crosses the Bronx at the foot of the 
hill was first erected in 1736. Cornelius Chatterton, one of the 
earliest magistrates of Eastchester was an ancestor of this family. 

Hart's Corners, formerly Barnes' Corners, is another small ham- 
let in Greenburg, situated about three miles south of White Plains, 
in a fine valley, tlie neighborhood of which is rendered extremely 
beautiful by the inequality of the ground and surrounding 
scenery. The settlement is composed of one church, several 
dwellings and stores. The Bronx River Powder Manufactory, 
and Railroad depot adjoin it on the east. This place derives its 
name from John Hart, who purchased the property of the com- 
missioners in 1784, 


The ; stands on the summit of the high ridge 
west of the hamlet, it was erected A. D. 1832.a The burying 
ground Ues near the Raihoad. 

A fine line of hills extend south from Hart's Corners to the 
foot of Thirty Deer ridge in Yonkers, watered on the east and 
west by the two branches of the Spraine, called by the Indians 
Armenperal. These hills were formerly so covered with thick 
woods as to be almost impassable, and abounded in deer, wolves, 
bears, wild-cats, and rattle snakes. Deer were numerous as late 
as 1760. 

One of the earliest settlers of the place was John Tompkins of 
Eastchester, who purchased a large tract upon these hills in 173 L 
For some time after this purchase, Mr. Tompkins was in the con- 
stant practice of spending the week here, and returning to his 
family on a Saturday. During the whole of this period he was 
surrounded by Indians, but they never once offered to molest him. 
A small hill to the south-east of the present Mr. John Tompkins, 
still bears the name of Indian hill, and the adjoining spring is 
called the Indian spring. Two descendants of the original pro- 
prietor, John and James Tompkins, yet occupy a large portion of 
the estate. 

A little west of the Methodist church at Hart's Corners stands 
the residence of Jackson Odell, son of the distinguished Colonel 
John Odell. This gentleman, during the early part of the Revo- 
lution served in the capacity of a guide to the American army, 
and subsequently received a colonel's commission from Congress. 
He was the second son of Jonathan Odell, Esq., by his wife^Iar- 
garet Dyckman, and descended from a common ancestor with 
the late General Jacob Odell of Yonkers. Col. Odell died 26ih 
October, 1835. 

At one period of the war the house was occupied as head- 
quarters by the French commander. Count de Rochambeau, 
General Washington having encamped on the west bank of the 
Spraine. On several occasions large tables were arranged for the 

» For incorporation of this church see Religious Soc. Lib., B. 7 ; first trustees, 
Underhill Tompkins, Ste-phen Leviness, Gilbert Tompkins, Joseph Forster, Joha 
Cxawford, and Elijah Tompkins. 


military staffs of Generals Washington and Rochambeaii in the 
adjoining stables, the mangers serving as a repository for their 
hats and swords. 

Mrs. Churchill, daughter of Mr. Taylor, former proprietor of 
the place, remembers to have danced with the celebrated Marshal 
Berthier, at that time one of the aides of the Count de Rocham- 
be.iu in the parlor of the present mansion. 

The summits of the Greenburgh hills command a variety of 
beautiful prospects, in which long reaches of the East River, 
Bronx valley and Scarsdale, form the principal features. In the 
south east corner of Greenburgh is situated Greenville, where 
there is a Dutch Reformed Church, and a iew scattered dwellings. 

The Dutch Church of this place was first organized in 1842, 
under the pastoral charge of the Rev. V^. M. Hulbert of Yonkers, 
and incorporated on the 3d of December, 1842, by the title of the 
" Minister, Elders and Deacons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Church of Greenville, in the town of Greenburgh." First elders, 
John Dusenberry and Charles Dusenberry ; first deacons, Ichabod 
Saiith and Benjamin Carpenter.'^ Mr. Hulbert, was succeeded by 
the Rev. Abel T. Stewart, present minister. 


1847, communicants 21, baptisms 5. 

"The township of Greenburgh is situated 27 miles north of 
New York, 135 south of Albany, and 5 miles west of White 
Plains ; bounded north by Mount Pleasant, east by White Plains 
and Scarsdale, south by Yonkers, and west by the Hudson. Saw 
Mill creek, (Nepera,) runs south on the west part, Bronx creek, 
(Acjnehung,) along the east line, and there are some branches also 
which supply mill seats."t» 

The general surface of this town is hilly, but not mountainous. 
It is richly and beautifully interspersed with hills, valleys and 
streams of water. The hills are most of them good and suitable 
for cultivation. The soil in general is gravelly clay, and sandy 
loam, producing all kinds of fruit and grass in plenty. 

» Religious .Soc. Co. Rec, Lib. B. 79. * Spafford's Gazetteer. 


There are some valuable quarries on the banks of the Hudson, 
that yield great quantities of beautiful building stones. The fo- 
rests are principally of oak, chesnut, hickory, ash and walnut. 

Among the mineral productions may be mentioned the Dolomi- 
tic marble, which occurs in various places ; also several localities 
of feldspar, especially in the vicinity of Tarrytown. 



Harrison, sometimes called the purchase and Harrison's pre- 
cinct,^ is situated 3 miles east of the village of White Plains, dis- 
tant 30 miles from New York, and 134 miles from Albany; 
bounded northerly by North Castle, east and southerly by Rye, 
west by Mamaroneck, \Yhite Plains and North Castle. Its length 
north and south is about nine miles, and its medial width near 
three miles, but like most of the other towns in this county, its 
form is irregular, having no right lines for its boundaries. The 
present township was organized 7th of March, 1788. ^ 

The tirst proprietor of this land of whom anything is known, 
was Shanasockwell or Shanarocke, sagamore of Poningoe, who, 
with other Indians in 1661 conveyed to John Budd of Southhold, 
Long Island ; " one neck of land lying on the mayne called 
Apawammeis, (Budds neck, Rye,) also range, feeding and grasse 
for cattle, twenty English miles into the country ^^ Under 
this purchase the inhabitants of Rye subsequently claimed the 
whole territory, a demand which the province of New York re- 
fused to sanction. 

From Shanasockwell, the territory north of Westchester path, 
(including the above mentioned range for cattle,) appears to have 
passed into the possession of Pathunck or Pathung, Indian sachem, 
for upon the first of February, 1695, we find the latter convey- 
ing the present township to John Harrison, in the following 
manner : 

"This indenture, made the 24th day of January, and in the seventh year of 
the reign of William the Third of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 

* Prior to 1775, Harrison constituted one of the six prec'ncts of Rye parish. 

f' Revised Statutes. 

•= See Rye, for Budd's purchase. 


King, Defender of the Faith, &c. &c., and in the year of our Lord God 
1695, witnesseth, that I, underwritten Pathungo, the true owner and proprie- 
tor of a certain part or parcel of land situate, lying, and being in the county 
of Westchester, and province of New York, by these presents, further mani- 
fested to Christian people, to whom this deed of conveyance may any ways 
concern : Know ye that I, the said Pathungo, the true owner and proprietor 
of the above named tract or parcel of land, upon good reasons and considera- 
tion moving hereunto, but more especially for a valuable consideration of jC40 
current money in hand paid before the ensealing of these presents, hath grant- 
ed, bargained, made over, confirmed and sold, and do by these presents grant, 
bargain, make over and confirm, and fully, freely, and thereby, unto John Har- 
rison, of Flushing, in Queens county, on Nassau Island, in the province afore- 
said, all that aforesaid tract or parcel of land aforesaid, being butted and 
bounded, as followeth — that is to say, westwardly upon a certain river, com- 
monly called and known by the name of Mamarranack River, and so stretching 
eastwardly to a certain brook called by the name of Blind Brook, southwardly 
by the lands of John Budd, as appears by certain marked trees, near unto West- 
chester old road, and northwardly to certain ponds called by the name of Rye 
Ponds, together with all rights, members, jurisdictions, ways, commodities, ad- 
vantages, together with all meadows, woods, underwoods, liberties, franchises, 
privileges, and singular appurteuunces to the said tract or parcel of land be- 
longing or in any ways appertaining, to have and to hold the said tract or par- 
cel of land, according to the butts and bounds above mentioned, and recited to 
the only proper use or uses of him, the said John Harrison, his heirs and as- 
signs forever, and the said Pathungo, for himself, his heirs, successors, and 
assigns, that at the time of the signing and ensealing of these presents, hath 
full power and lawful authority the land and premises to sell and confirm, and 
that the same is truly acquitted and discharged, and sufficiently saved and kept 
harmless of and from all manner of former bargains, sales, grants, or any other 
incumbrances whatsoever, had made, done, or sufiered to be done by the said 
Pathungo, his heirs, successors, or assigns, or any other person or persons 
whatsoever, by, from, or under him, Christian or Indian, whereby the said 
John Harrison, his heirs or assigns, shall or may be annoyed or ejected out 
of the possession thereof; and the said Pathungo, for himself, his heirs, suc- 
cessors, and assigns, all the said tract or parcel of land, with every part and 
parcel thereof, unto the above said John Harrison, his heirs, executors, ad- 
ministrators and assigns, against all manner of Indians, shall and will war- 
rant, and forever defend, by these presents. In witness whereof, the said Pa- 
thungo hath set his hand and seal this day and year first above written. 

Pathungo, his ICT marke. 

Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of us, (Jharles "] Morgan, his 

marke, Nicolas Haight and James Clement. Moreover, before signing and 

sealing hereof, the said Pathungo doth reserve, liberty for his use, such ivnite- 

wood trees as shall be found suitable to make canoes of. These may certify 


any whom it may concern, that on the first day of February, 1695-6, appeared 
before me, Thomas Willett, Esq., one of his Majesties' justices for the province 
of New York, Pathungo, the within mentioned Indian who did then and 
there acknowledge the within conveyance or deed of sale to be bis free and 
voluntary act and deed, as witness my hand. Thomas Willet. 

This may certify whom it may concern, that we Indians, whose names are 
now underwritten, do own to have received full satisfaction of the within 
mentioned John Harrison for all the within mentioned tract of land beirfg but- 
ted and bounded as within specified. As witness hereof, we have hereunto 
set our hands and seals this 15th day of February, in the year of our Lord 
God 1695-6. 

Betty Pathungo, 3 her mark, Pathungo Wappatoe, Pi his mark, Elias Jo- 
zes Pathungo Askarame, q her mark, Chrishoam Pathungo, S her marke, Po- 
rige, § his marke, Elaas Arowash, Arawask's wife, Hannah >- her mark, 
Ingen. Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of James Mott, Samuel 
Palmer, Joseph Horton, the marke of '<^ Akabaska.^ 

The wliitsw^ood trees referred to in the above deed by the sachem 
Pathungo, are the Liriodendron tnlipifera of Linnaeus, from the 
trunk of which the Indians manufactured their canoes; hence 
it was commonly called by them " canoe wood." 

" Whoever (remarks Mr. Downing) has once seen the tulip tree 
in a situation where the soil was favorable to its free growth, can 
never forget it ; with a clean trunk, straigiit as a column for forty 
or fifty feet, surmounted by a fine ample summit of rich green 
foliage. It is, in our estimation, decidedly the most stately tree 
in North America. When standing alone, and encouraged in its 
lateral growth, it will indeed often produce a lower head, but it.s 
tendency is lo rise; and it only exhibits itself in all its stateliness 
and majesty, when, supported on such a noble columnar trunk, 
it towers far above the heads of its neighbors of the park or for- 
est. Even when at its loftiest elevation, its large specious blos- 
soms, which, from their form, one of our poets has likened to a 
cljalice — 

Through the verdant maize 

The tulip tree 
Its golden chalice oil triumphantly displays — 


• Indian deeds warrant of survey, Albany Rec. Lib. i. 4. 


jilt out from amid the tufted canopy in the month of June, and 
glow in richtiess and beauty. This tree was introduced into 
Enghind about 1G68, and is now, we are informed, to be found 
in ahp.ost every o:entlemnn's park on the continent of Europe, so 
highly is it estimated as an ornamental tree of tfie first chiss.''* 

We hope tliat the numerous specimens of this noble tree yet 
standing in Westchester county may i3e sacredly preserved from 
the barbarous infliciion of the axe, which has heretofore dis- 
poiled without mercy so many of our majestic forest trees. 

The next notice of tlie purchase occurs in the following war- 
rant for its survey, A. D. 1695-6. 

By his Excellency the Governor in Council, i^'c. — You are 
hereby required to survey and lay out, for John Harrison, a cer- 
tain tract of land in Westchester county which he hath pur- 
chased by virtue of a license, b^arius: date the second day of 
August last past, bounded to the south by the trees of Mr. Budd's 
purchase, west by Mamaroneck river, easlwardly by Blind brook, 
and north by Kyepond, and this shall be to you a sufficient war- 

' Benjamin Fletclier to Anthony Graham, Surveyor General, by 
order of Council. 

Upon the 2.5lh of June, 1696, the Indian purchase was confirm- 
ed by letters patent under the great seal, to William Nicolls, John 
Harrison and others in the following manner. . ■ . •-.. 

William the Third, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, 
France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, to all to whom these presents 
shall come, sendeih greeting : Whereas our loving su!)jects William Nicolls, 
Esq., Captain Ebenezer Williams, David Jameson, John Harrison, and Sam- 
uel Haight have by their petition, presented to our trusty and well beloved 
Benjamin Fletcher, our Captain General and Governor-in-ohief of our pro- 
vince of New York and territories depending thereon in America, and prayed 
our grant and confirmation of a certain tract of land in our county of West- 
chester, beginning at a certain white oak tree marked with three notches, 
standing at the east side of Mamaroneck river, and thence by marked trees, 
as it runs south sixiy-five degrees and thirty minutes, eastwardly fifty-six 
chains to a black oak tree and the marked trees of Joseph Budd's pnrchase. 

* Dow^ning's Landscape Gardening, p. 197,8, 9- There is a fine specimen of this 
noble tree on the property of Elbert Roosevelt, Esq , Pelham. 

Vol, I. 33 


standing near Westchester path, marked with three notches, and thence hy 
the marked irees of JosP|>h Biuid's purchase stand-ing near Westchester path 
aforesaid, lo an elm tree on the west side of Blind brook, and a white ash on 
the east side of the said brook, marked with three notches, and thence by the 
east side of the said brook, to the head thereof to a chesnut tree marked 
with three notches and the letters E. W. and H. ; thence south lo a white 
wood tree, and thence by marked trees west to Ryeponds ; thence including 
the said Rveponds, south to the head of Mamaroneck river, which runs on the 
west side of Brown's I'oint, and thence by Mamaroneck river and the east 
bounds of Richbell's patent to the place where it began, bounded west by 
Blind brook and vacant lands, north by vacant lands, west by Mamaroneck 
river, and souih by Budd and Jonas W. ('oryan's purchase, which reasonable 
request we being willing to grant, Know ye, of our special grace, certain 
knowledge and mere motion, we have given, granted ratified and confirmed, 
&c., &c., and by these presents do for us, our heirs and successors, give, 
grant, ratify and confirm unto our said sovereign subjects, William Nicolls, 
Ebenezer Williams, David Jameson, John Harrison, and Samuel Haighi, all 
the aforesaid certain tract of land within our said county of Westchester, and 
within the limits and bounds aforesaid together with all and singular the woods, 
underwoods, trees, timber, feedings, pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, 
ponds, pools, \Aaters, water-courses, rivers, rivulets, brooks, streams, fishing, 
hawking, fowling, hunting, and all other profits, benefits, privileges, liberties, 
advantufjes, hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever to the aforesaid re- 
cited certain tract of land, wiiliin the limits and bounds aforementioned l)fe- 
longing or in any ways appertaining, to have and to hold all the aforesaid cer- 
tain tract of land, together with all and singular the woods, underwoods, 
trees, timber, feedings, pastures, meadows, marshes, swamps, ponds, pools, 
waters, water-courses, rivers, rivulets, runs, brooks, streams, fishing, fowling, 
hunting, hawking, and also other profits, benefits, privileges, liberties, advan- 
tages, hereditaments, appurtenances whatsoever, to the aforementioned cer- 
tain tract or tracts of land within the parts and bounds aforesaid belon^nng or 
in any ways appertaining unto ihem, the said William Nicolls, lObenezer 
Williams, David Jameson, John Harrison and Samuel Haight, their heirs 
an J assigns, to the only proper use, benefit and behoof of them, the said 
William Nicolls, Ebenezer Williams, David Jameson, John Harrison and 
Samuel Haight, their heirs and assigns forever, without any let, hindrance, 
or molestation, or right to be had or reserved upon pretence of joint tenancy, 
or survivorship, any thing contained in this our grant lo the contrary or 
anywise notwithstanding, to be holden of us, our heirs and successors, in free 
and common soccage as of our manor of East Greenwich, in our county of 
Kent, within the realm of England, yielding, rendering and paying therefor 
yearly and every year, unto us, our heirs and successors, the annual and 
yearly rent of twenty shillings current money of our said province, at our city 
of New York, on the Feast day of the Annunciation of our Blessed Virgin 
Mary, in lieu and stead of all other rents, dues, duties, services and demands 


whatsoever. In testimony whereof, we have caused the great seal of our said 
province to be hereunto afFised ; \viines5 our trusty and well-beloved Benja- 
min Fletcher, our Captain-general and (ravernor-in-chief of our province of 
New York and territories anfl tracts of land depending thereon in America, 
and Vice-admiral of the same, our Lieutenant and Commander-in-chief of the 
militia of the forces by sea and land within our colony of Connecticut, and of 
all the forts and places of strength within the same. At our fort of New Y^ork 
the 25ih day of June, in the eighth year of our reign, Anno Domini 1696, by 
his Excellency's command.* 

David Jameson. 

Entered upon record in the Book of Patents beginning in 1695, 
by warrant from his Excellency. 

Little is left on record relative to the Harrison family, who 
have given name to this township. In 1655, John Harrison ap- 
pears to have been a freeholder of Newtown, Long Island. ^ This 
individual was the father of John Harrison, the above meiiiioned 
patentee, also of Samuel Harrison. The latter left two daughters, 
co-heiresses. Hannah, the oldest, married Joshua Cornell, father 
of the present Jolin Cornell of North Castle, and Sarah, who 
married Gilbert Palmer. « The descendants of Samuel Haightd 
(another of the patentees) are also very numerous in the county, 
likewise the Williamses. 

In 17d0 occurs a deed of sale from James de Lancey and Lev\'is 
Johnston to Godfrey Haines of Rve, which recites Caleb Heath- 
cote's purchase in a certain patent granted to John Harrison and 
others. Caleb Healhcote appears to have purchased 200 acres 
from David Jameson the patentee in \7\2.^ 

The Crom wells were possessed of estates in this township at a 
very early j)eriod. The old latnily place is sitr.ated on the south- 
east side of Rye pond, on the road leading from the purchase to 

a Alb. Ren. Book of Patents, No. vii, 36, 37, 33. The original document is in 
the possession of Andrew Carpenter of Harrison. The Albany Records say 5th of 
June, 1695, and Capt. Ebenezer Nelson for Williams. 

b Jolin Harrison of Boston, freeman of that place in 1644, had a son John, born 
in 1652 — F<irmpr''s Register. 

c The fatlier of John Palmer. 

d Samuel Haight appears to have been a resident freeholder of Flushino- iu 1684, 

6 Co. Rec, hb. C. 260. 



North Ciistle.a The several branches of the Cromwell family in 
America chiiiii descent from the same parent stock ns that of the 
PiOlector Ohver Cromweli. It is presumed timt the ancestor of 
the American lino was Col. John Cromwell, son of Sir Oliver 
Cromwell, and brother of the protector. 

Tiie following notice of Col. John Cromwell occurs in Noble's 
life of the ])rotector. 

"This gentleman was early in the army. In 1624 he went 
over as a captain in ihe first regiment of foot in the forces sent 
over by King James I. for the recovery of the palatinate ; after 
this he was a colonel of an English regiment in the service of 
the United States. Happening to be in England whilst his sove- 
reign, Kit)g Cliarles I., was a prisoner to the parliament army, 
and hearing his relation, Oliver, (afterwards lord protector) say, 
'I think the king the most injured prince in the world,' and put- 
ling his hand to his sword, continued, -but this shall right him,' 
supposed that his zeal was real, and therefore expressed himself 
satisfied that it was impossible for him to go those lengths which 
many others wished to go. For these reasons when that unfor- 
tunate, misguided monarch was (afier a pretended trial) con- 
demned to die, and the Prince of Orange taking vast jiains to 
save him, or at least to stay the execution, sent over such rela- 
tions of the leading men in the army as ihey thought could in- 
fluence them, applied to this gentleman, he very readily under- 
took the task with the greatest expectation of succeeding in so 
desirable a business; wherefore taking credential letters from the 
Slates; with letters, with the King's and Piince of Wales' sig- 
net, and both confirmed by the States, offering Oliver his own 
terms in case he would prevent the fatal sentence from being 
carried into execution, lie hastened to England. He found his 
cousin Oliver, the lieutenant general, at home. It was with 
difficulty he gained admittance, as he kept his chamber and 
ordered himself to be denied. Upon his introduction to Oliver, 
after the usual compliments between relations, he began to men- 
tion the horrid crime intended to be committed, and after a very 

» This family have conferred tl)eir name upon a small brook in the vicinity of 
Bye pond. 


free harrangue upon its atrocity, the indelible stain it would be 
to thenniion, and in wliat a light it was bthel 1 upon the conti- 
nent, added, 'that, of all men living, he thou2:ht he would never 
have had any hand Id it, who, in his hearing, had protested so 
much to the King.' Oliver replied, it was not hinij but the army ; 
and though he did once say such words, yet now times were 
altered, and Providence seemed to order things otherwise, adding 
that he had prayed and fasted for the King but no return that 
way was yet made to him. Upon which the colonel stepped a 
little back and hastily shut the door, which made Oliver suppose 
he was going to be assassinated ; but the other, taking out his 
papers, said to him, 'Cou-in, this is no time to trifle with words, 
see here, it is now in your own power not only to make yourself, 
but your family, relations, and posterity happy and honorable 
for ever ; otherwise, as they have changed their name before, 
from Williams to Cromwell, so now they must be forced to 
change it again, for this act will bring such an ignominy upon 
the whole o-eneration of them that no lime will be able to deface.' 
After a pause Oliver said, 'Cousin, I desire you will give me 
till night to consider it, and do you go to your own inn and not 
to bed till you hear from me.' 

"The colonel retired, and at one o'clock in the morning he 
received a message that he might go to rest and expect iio other 
answer lo carry to the prince, tor the council of otiicers had been 
seeking God, as he had also done, and it was resolved by them 
all that the king must die. With this unhappy messnge he re- 
turned into Holland again, where he continued in thai service 
for many years, perhaps during the remainder of his life. By a 
letter dated Nov. ^|, 1653, from Jongeshall to William, Earl 
of Nassau, it appears that Col. John Cromwell was then in Hol- 
huid. Through the ill behavior of his wife Abigail, he was from 
the most afliuent circumstances reduced to the brink of ruin, i^y 
his wife (continues Noble,) Col, Cro.nwell had a daughter Joan, 
baptized September 23, 1634, and perhaps other chili rcn,"^ 
In 16S6 we find John Cromwell'^ of the town of W^estchester 

a Noble's Life of Oliver Cromwell, vol. i. 534-8. 

b John Cromwell (.the supposed son of Col. John,) is s:iid to have emigrated from 
Holland during the time the Dutch held the province. 


and Mary his wife, selling lands to Thomas Hunt, sen., of the 
West Farms. These lands v/ere situated upon Long Neck, after- 
wards known as CromweU's Neck.^ 

John Cromwell (the supposed son of Col. John Cromwell,) left 
issue by his wife Mary, John, from whom the present Oliver 
Cromwell and Jeremiah of West Farms are descended, and James 
Cromwell, who was living in 17 17. The latter by his wife Anne 
Godfrey had two sons, John and James. The oldest son John 
Cromwell was residing upon the property in Harrison at the 
commencement of the revolutionary war, for his name occurs in 
General Washington's military map of the county, dated 1778, 
as the occupant of the homestead.^ The present Wilham Crom- 
well of Harrison is the grandson of the above named Jolin Crom- 
well. ^ 

From an early period, the Thomas family have resided in the 
eastern part of this town. The first member who purchased land 
here, was the Hon. John Thomas, son of the Rev. John Thomas, 
for many years Rector of St. George's Church, Hempstead, 
Long Island. Concerning the latter individual, Dr. Carmichael 
in his history of St. George's Church, observes, " that he com- 
menced his ministrations there, in the spring of 1705, under 
the auspices of the society for propagating the gospel in foreign 
parts. In a letter addressed to the secretary of that society, Oct. 
18th, 1724, he says, "Good sir, give my humble duty to the 
Honorable Society, and assure them of my utmost fidelity, as far as 
lame limbs and a decrepid state of health will permit. My heart is 
warm and sounrj, though lodged, God knows, in a crazy, broken 

* SomPtimes styled Castle Hill Xeck. 

b John Cromwell was taken prisoner by the British and conveyed to New York. 

<^ A singular circumstance (illustrative of the strong fainily likeness which still 
exists between the English and American branches,) occurred in tlie village of 
Westchester a few years since. Oliver Cromwell, a resident blacksmith of that 
pldce. was accosted by a friend, who at the same moment presented him a likeness 
of tiie Protector ; the former (unable to read) invohinlarlly exclaimed as he gazed 
upon the portrait, " why there is our old tjlacksm;th himself." For a portrait of 
the Protector see the Hon. John Hunter's collections of painting, Pelham : and for 
A further account of this family see genealogy. 


and Mary his wife, selling lands to Thomas Hunt, sen., of the 
West Farms. These la:ids v/ere situated upon Long Neck, after- 
wards known as Cromwell's Neck.^ 

John Cromwell (the supposed son of Col. John Cromwell,) left 
issue by his wife Mary, John, from whom tiie present Oliver 
Cromwell and Jeremiah of West Farms are descended, and James 
Cromwell, who was living in 17 17. The latter by his wife Anne 
Godfrey had two sons, John and James. The oldest son John 
Cromwell was residing upon the property in Harrison at the 
commencement of the revolutionary war, for his name occurs in 
General Washington's military map of the county, dated 1778, 
as the occupant of the homestead.^ The present Wilh'am Crom- 
well of Harrison is the grandson of the above named John Crom- 
well. ^ 

From an early period, the Thomas family iiave resided in the 
eastern part of this town. The Jirst member who purchased land 
here, was the Hon. John Thomas, son of ihe Rev. Jolin Thomas, 
for many years Rector of St. George's Church, Hempstead, 
Long Island. Concerning the latter individual, Dr. Carmichael 
in his history of St. George's Church, observes. " that he com- 
menced his ministrations there, in the spring of 1705, under 
the auspices of the society for propagating the gospel in foreign 
parts. In a letter addressed to the secretary of that society, Oct. 
18th, 1724, lie says, "Good sir, give my humble duty to the 
Honorable Society, and assure them of my utmost fidelity, as far as 
lame limbs and a decrepid state of health will permit. My heart is 
warm and sound, though lodged, God knows, in a crazy, broken 

"^ SomPtimes styled Castle Hil! N^eck. 

b John Cromwell was taken prisoner by the British and conveyed to New York. 

c A singular circumstance (illustrative of the strong fa:nily likeness which still 
exists between the English and American branches,) occurred in tlie village of 
Westchester a few years since. Oliver Cromwell, a resident blacksmith of that 
place, was accosted by a friend, who at the same moment presented hiin a likeness 
of the Protector ; the former (unable to read) involmitarily exclaimed as he gazed 
upon the portrait, " wliy there is our old blacksmith himself." For a portrait of 
the Protector see the Hon. John Hunter's collections of painting, Peiham ; and for 
ft further account of this family see genealogy. 

Ai'iiis. gu. 

, eliev. or; betw. tlir 


herons az. four barrulets az. Crest, a heron's head erased uz. gorged willi a garland of roses, 

lion. Jiilin Tlionias, First Judge iiC the counly oT Weslcliester and a^Ablgail, da^of Jolln Sands of Sands Point, L. 1., nat. Jan. 1708, 
Represpnialive in Geneiiil Assembly. ob.May2,n77; interred in I mar. 19 Feb. 172^, ob. 14 Aug. 1782 ; buried at Bedford. 
Trinity cburcliyard. 

Major General'Thiiinasi Thomas, a disiinguished^Oatliarine Floyd of " g 
officer of tbe Continental army, and a member Mastic, L. 1., nat. ^ 

uf ihe Legislature of the Slate of New York, 9 Mav, 1746, Ob. 
nat. 17 Jane, 1745, Ob. May 29, 1824, interred J»n. 15, 1825. let. 'g 

on tlie estate. -" • ' 

Kdward— Aime Cap. Jr)bii ^■ 
.^urrufiaie 1 Oakley, ob 6 Jan. 
of West- Ob. Mav 1''35. 

cbester 12,1807, 
CO. ob a u'l. 45. 
M'y, leOfi I 

nat. 1778, 

nat. 9 Dec. 
1778, oil 9 

ob. Feb. 
I, 179.'i, 

Capt Benjamin 

ob. 16 !>ept. 1813, 

in N. Y. 

John of N. Y. 

Sophia=:Deighton, M. D 

Thomas heir ol 
the Thomas pro. 
perty, Harrison. 


carcase ; nay, more, pray (ell them said he, that Epaminondas 
like, I shall fight upon the stimips for that purest and best of 
churches, as long as God indulges me with the least ability to 
do it. " After this (continues Dr. Carmichael) we find no more 
letters from Mr. Tiiomas to the society, whose distinguished 
ornament he was, and presume from oifier circumstances, that 
he died near about tiiattirne; but, in the Society's annual re- 
port printed in London, Feb. 16ih, 1727, we have discovered the 
followirtg touching memento, viz., a gratuity of £50, to Mrs. 
Thomas, is voted, the widow of the late Rev. Mr. Thomas, 
missionary at Hempstead, in New York, in consideration of his 
loi]o and faithful services, upwards of 2U years. "^ 

His eldest son, was the Hon. John Thomas, (already alluded 
to) first Judge of the county of Westchester, and for many years 
a representative in the geiieral assembly of the province. This 
distinguished gentleman was a warm whig, and took an active 

. part in the scenes that preceded the Revolution, on which ac- 
count he was particiilai-ly obnoxious to the enemy. Judge 

.■ Thomas was seizad in his bed by a party of British troops, at 10 

; o'clock on Sunday morning, March 22d, 1777, and conveyed to 
New York, where he was committed to the Provost. Here fie 
lingered until the 2d of May, 1777, when (between four and five 

•' o'clock in the morning of that day.) death released hi;n from his 
sufferings. His remains were interred the following Saturday 
evening between seven and eight o'clock in Trinity Cfiurch 
yard.'^ " The following is a brief summary" (says Dr. Tliatcher) 

_ of the systematic method adopted and practiced for "the destruc- 
tion of American prisoners," as taken from the New London 

- Gazette, from General Washington's letter of complaint to General 
Howe, and from the verbal statement of the ofiicers and soldiers 
who have returned from New York, by exchange. They were 
crowded into the holds of prison ships, wtiere they were almost 
suffocated for want of air, and into churciies, and open sugar 
houses, etc., without covering or a spark of tire. Their allow- 

a Carmicliaers Hist, of St. George's Church, p. 28. 
t Extracted from James FrankUu's Bible. 



mice of provisions and water for three days, was insufficient for 
one, and in some instances, they were four days entirely destitute 
of food. The pork and bread, for they had no other sustenance, 
and even water allowed them were of the worst possible quality, 
and totally unfit for human beirigs. A minute deiail of their 
dreadful sulFerings, would only serve to Iiarrow up the feelings 
of surviving friends. As a gross outrage against the principles 
of hinuanity, suffice it to say. that in consequence of the most 
barbarous treatment, died within a few weeks, not less iJian fif- 
teen hundred Auierican soldiers, brave young men, the pride 
and shield of our country. After deaih had released the sutfer- 
erSj their bodies were dragged out of the prisons and piled up 
without doors, till enough were collected for a cart load, when 
they were carted out and tumbled into a ditch, and slightly cove- 
red witli earth."a 

By his wife Abigail, the Hon. John Thomas left issue, (beside 
fourdaiighlers,) JohnThomas, HighSherift'of Weslchestercounty, 
in 1778,b SVilliam Thomas, and Major General Tliomas Thomas 
of Harris3n. The latter individual was one of the most promi- 
nent whigs of ihe north, a distinguished military ofhcer,^ sheriff 
of the county, (in 1778) and one of the first members of the 
state legislature. The following notice of his capture by the 
Queen's rangers in 1777, is thus re'ated by Lieutenant Col. 

" Before the troops went into winter quarters, it was necessary 
that sufficient boards should be procured to hut those who were 
to remain in the vicinity of King's Bridge, and tlie light troops 
were of the parties who collected them. Lt. Colonel Simcoe pro- 
posed to General Tryon, who commanded the British, to take 
down Ward's hduse,^ and the buildings in its vicinity; and that, 
while a covering party .should halt tiiere, he would attempt to 
surprise Col. Thomas, (a very active partizan of the enemy,) and a 

» James Thatcher's Military Journal, Feb. 1777, page 77. 

b Tliis gentleman was the last High Sheriff of the county before, and the first 
appointed after tlie war. 

^ General Thomas was elected chairman of Public Safety, in 1776. 
«J .*»'ee Fast Chester. 


post of dragoons, nearly twenty miles beyond it. General Tryon 
acquiesced in the proposal, and directed it to be put in execution, 
but seemed v^ry doubtful, whether so wary a person as Thomas 
could be circumvented, lit. Col. Simcoe marched all night, with 
Emmerick's and the (Queen's rangers, and surrounded Thomas' 
house by daybreak. He never lay at home before that night, 
and had done so in consequence of the British troops in general 
being gone into winter quarters, and one of his own spies being 
deceived, and made to believe that the Queen's rangers were to 
march to Long Island. One shot was fired from the window, 
which, unfortunataly killed a man by the side of Lieut. Col. 
Simcoe. The house was inmiediately forced, and, no resistance 
being made, the officers shut the doors of the different rooms, to 
prevent the irritated soldiers from revenging their unfortunate 
comrade. The man who fired, was the only person killed : but 
Thomas, after Lt. Col. Simcoe had personally protected him 
and ensured his safety, jumped out of the window, and, springing 
over some fences, would have certainly escaped, notwithstanding 
most of Emmerick's riflamen fired at him, had not an hussar 
leapt after him and cut at him with his sword, (which he 
crouched from, and luckily escaped,) when he surrendered. 
The cavalry proceeded on to the enemy's picquet, at a mile dis- 
tance. They had been alarmed by the firing, and were formed. 
They fired their carbines (by which Captain Ogden, of Emn}erick's, 
was wounded) and fled ; they were pursued, but to no purpose. 
The troops returned to General Tryon, who was, in person, at 
Ward's house, and who was much pleased at this mischievous 
partizan's being taken. This march was above fifty miles. "^ 

General Tliomas \vas subsequently paroled, and ultimately 
exchanged. Upon his death, which took place in 1824, the 
Thomas property in this town passed by will to the heir of his 
sister, Charity Thomas, who married Jan:ies Ferris of Throck- 
morton's neck. Their grandson Thomas Ferris is the present 

• Simcoe's Military Journal, Barttett & Welford, X. Y. p. 92, 93- 

Vol. L 33 


proprietor. Of this family is the Hon. Charles G. Ferris, late 
member of Congress from the city of New York. 

The remains of the Thomas family are interred within a neat 
inclosure; situated on the west side of the estate. Here are a 
number of memorials inscribed as follows. ^ 


to the memory 


Major General 

t h o m a s t h m a 9, 

who died on the 29th May, 

A. Di 1824, 

in the 79ih year of his age. 

Asa soldier of the Revolution 

of 177&, 

he aided in achieving 

the independence of the 

United States : • 

as a member of the legislature 

ef the State of New York, 

he assisted in laying the 

foundation of those institutions 

that are intended to perpetuate the 


Sacred Sacred 

to the memory of to the memory 

Catharine Thomas, of 

widow of Charles Floyd Thomas, 

Thomas Thomas, son of Thomas Thomas, 

who died the 15lh day of and Catharine Thomas, 

January, A. D. 1825, who died on the 2d of 

in the 79th year of her age. January, A. D. 1802, 

in the 24th year of his age. 

* There are also memorials to Nancy Thomas, daughter of General Thomas and 
Gloriana Thomas. 


The Field family were also among the early settlers of Harri- 
son's purchase, Anthony Field* having removed from Flushing 
to this town in 1725. He was the father of six sons, Thomas, 
Samuel, Benjamin, William, Moses and John,b whose descen- 
dants are very numerous in tiie county. 

The small settlement of Purchase is pleasantly situated in the 
northern corner of the town, on the south-east side of Rye-pond. 
It contains two meeting houses belonging to the Society of 
Friends, a store and a post-office.^ Upon the road from Rye to 
Bedford passing through this place, are several dwellings. 

The first Friends meeting house appears to have been erected 
prior to the Revolutionary war, upon ground given for that pur- 
pose by Anthony Field. 'i The oldest memorial in the grave yard 
contains the following inscription. 

R. -W. 
March 31, 1731. 

During the war the Friends meeting house was occupied as 
an hospital by the American army. 

Within a short distance of the Purchase lies Rye-pond, a 
beautiful sheet of water covering over two hundred and ten acres 
of ground. In this pond vast quantities of pickerel are annually 
taken with hook and line, and pleasant sport is afforded to those 
who are fond of trolling. « Its waters abound also with almost 
every other variety of fresh water fish. The best place for fish- 
ing is said to be a flat rock near the centre of the pond. : ' ■''' 

Rye-pond has an outlet on the west which passes into the little 
pond of the same name, and from thence into Bronx's river.^ 

The principal proprietors of the land bordering the pond, are 

' a Anthouy Field was the sou of Benjamin Field of Flushing. For further particu- 
lars of this family, see pedigree. 

b This individual is the ancestor of the Fields of Yorktown and New York. 

c There is also an African Church and school house in the vicinity, under the 
patronage of the Friends. 

d Anthony Field is buried in the Friends grave yard at Purchase. 

• No fishing is allowed in the ponds with any kind of net or seine. 

t Rye-pond is the principal source of the Bronx. 


Ezra Carpe iter on the south, Thomas Clapp on the eastj and 
Oliver ]\[atthe\vs on the north. 

The late Thomas Clapp of this town left one hundred and 
fifty acres on the west side of the pond for the education of poor 
children at the Purchase. 

A liitle south west of this place is situated the farm and resi- 
dence of the Hon. Joseph H. Anderson, late member of Congress 
for the seventh district. The house commands a very fine and 
extensive prospect of the Sound and surrounding country. Jo- 
sepli H. Anderson is the son of Jeremiah Anderson, Esq., who 
for many years represented this county in Assembly. 

" Uj)on the 23d of October, 1776, Col. Tyler's, Huntington's 
and Throop's regiments of General Parson's brigade, and of Gen. 
Heath's division moved, and took post at the head of King street, 
near Rye-pond."^ * 

" On the 4th of December, 1781, (says General Heath) Captain 
Sackett of the New York levies near Harrison purchase below 
the lines, having gone a small distance from his detachment on 
the morning of the 2d, was taken prisoner by a party of the en- 
f»my. The enemy afterward attacked Lieutenant Mosher to 
whom the command of the detachment fell. Lieutenant Mosher 
and the detachment behaved with great bravery, repulsed the 
enemy, killed one of them and two horses, and wounded eight of 
the enemy, among them a Captain Kipp, said mortally. Colonel 
Holmes and Captain Kipp had their horses killed under them, 
the levies had not a man killed or wounded."^ 

Tlie above engagement took place in the vicinity of Merritt's 
tavern. Moshers command consisted of only eighteen men, 
while the British horse under Colonel Holmes numbered over 

*■ Heath's Mem. 75, 76. From a return of militia officers for Harrison's Pre- 
cinct, February 9ih, 1776, it appears that John Thomas, minor, was chosen cap- 
tain, Gilbert Dusenberry first lieutenant, William Woodward second lieutenant and 
James Miller, jun. ensign. 

b Heath's Mem. p. 324. 

* A full narrative of this memorable event has been published in almost every 
e<*UQtry in Europe, showing what a handful of infantry can do, opposed to a strong 


We believe the whole period of the American war cannot pro- 
duce such another instance, in which the enemy were repulsed 
by so small a force. General Washington himself often spoke 
of this brilliant alfair, and praised the gallantry of the brave Mo- 

The surAice of this town is mostly level ; soil, loam, fertile and 
well cultivated, drained by Blind Brook (Mockquams) and Mam- 
aroneck Riv^er, running south into Long Island Sound, sup- 
plying mill seats in abundance.'^ The south line of the town is 
about one mile from the Sound, and the northeast corner touches 
upon the west line of Connecticut. The growth of wood con- 
sists principally of oak of all kinds, chestnut, much hickory, ash 
and elm, &c. &c. 

The following extracts from the town records relate to the elec- 
tion of town officers at the commencement of the Revolution, and 
immediately subsequent : — 

^'On Tuesday, the 2d of April, 1776, the freeholders, inhabit- 
ants of Harrison's Precinct, met at the place appointed by law, 
and made choice of the following town officers : — 

Samuel Haviland, Supervisor, 

William Miller, Town Clerk, 

Joshua Hunt, ^ ., ^ ^. • 

John Haight, \ Assessors, "" "^ . 

Wellsey Dosenbery, ) - - 

Joseph Carpenter, Highway Master for lower part, 
David Halstead, " -' the middle, 

force of horse. Seven of Mosher's party were from the farm of General Pierre van 
Cortlandt, Cortlandtown. 

» On the east side of the road leading from the Purchase to Rye, lies the grave 
of an old veteran by the name of John Peter Follow, who died at the advanced age 
of 120. He requested that the following epitaph might be inscribed on his tomb 
stone : — 

- . ~ , *' Here lies as good a soldier 

as ever fought in Flanders." 

Also, in the same vicinity, Louis Burling, a colored soldier of the Revolution, who 
served as a private in Col. Samuel Pell's regiment. 

b Upon the Mockquams, or Blind Brook, is situated the grist mill of the late Gen. 


Steplieii Field, Highway Master for die upper, 

William Ascongh, " " Brown's Point, 

William Woodward, " " North street, 

Job Hadden, " " West and Haight 

streets, all to the usual bounds. 

Samuel Haviland, ) r^ a t\ tt- 

mi r> 1 } tence and Damas^e viewers, 

Thomas Park, ) ° ' 

Thomas Park, Pownder." 
At a town meeting held this first day of April, 1783, in Har- 
rison's Precinct, State of New York, the following town officers 
were chosen to serve the ensuing year :— 
'* Isaiah Maynard, Supervisor, 

Stephen Field, Town Clerk. 

James Miller, Constable and Collector. 

Thomas Thomas, ) 

William Woodward, V Assessors, 

Thomas Carpenter, \ 

Henry Dusenbery, Pownder, 

John Cromwell, Overseer of the Highway for the upper 

part of the Precinct, 
Richard Barnes for the middle part, 
Joseph Carpenter for the lower part, 
Roger Purdy for North street, 
Job Haddon, jr., for the west part of the patent, 
Henry Dusenbery, ) ^^ , ,^ ,r. 

Elisha Horton, \ ^^""^^ ^"'^ ^^""^^^ Yi&^ets. 




Lewisborough is 
situated eighteen miles 
north of tlie village of 
White Plains, — distant 
fifty miles from New 
York, and one hundred 
and nineteen from Al- 
bany, — bounded north 

Presbyterian t'hurcli, Lewisb )rough. j^y ]\^orth Salem, eaSt by 

the State of Connecticut, south by Connecticut and the towns of 
Poundridge and Bedford, and west by Somers. 

This town, prior to 180S, was called Salem, and afterward 
South Salem, to distinguish it from the northern town of that 
name.a- In 1840 the name was again changed to Lewisborough, 
in compliment to John Lewis, Esq., a liberal benefactor to its 
common schools. 

The earliest sale of lands in this town is to be found in an In- 
dian deed bearing date 15th of August, 1653, wherein Ponus 
Sagamore, of Toquams, and Onox, his son, (for the value of four 
coats,) conveyed to the people of Stamford all their land, extend- 
ing sixteen miles north of the town plot of Stamford, and ^' two 
miles still further norths for the pasture of their cattle," (fcc.^ 
The above sale clearly embraced a large proportion (perhaps the 
whole) of Lewisborough. Some of these lands must have subse- 
quently reverted to the Indians, for in 1699 the Kitchawan tribe 
again released the same territory to Stephanas van Cortlandt. 
This individual had previously obtained a charter from the 

» Salem was incorporated on the 18th of March, 1791. 
b See page 6. 


Crown, erecting the whole of his possession into the lordship and 
manor of Cortla:id(,a by which means the northern part of this 
town, came to be included in the manor. 

On the Sth of July, 1701, we find Catoonah, Indian Sagamore, 
confirming to the inhabitants of Stamford " all those lands which 
extend westward as far as the west bounds of Bedford purchase 
and marked trees, and by the east bounds of the same, bounded 
north by the south side of Bedford purchase, and by the stone 
hills upon a straight line eastward unto the upper end of the 
Long Pond., and, further, on an east line, until it meets with a 
line drawn north from the upper end of Five Mile River, which 
is the east line of our several purchases."^ 

From this time we hear no more of the aboriginal proprietors 
of Salem. 

Lewisborough includes seven miles in length of the south end 
of a tract of land cal ed the Oblong. This territory was a strip 
of one mile three quarters and twenty rods wide, formed by the 
running of a line parallel with Hudson's River, and twenty miles 
distant therefrom to tlie south line of Massachusetts. The con- 
troversy between tlie two colonies of New York and Connecti- 
cut concerning it lasted nearly a century, during which time the 
disputed ground afforded a sort of sanctuary for the most desper- 
ate kind of outlaws and robbers. Some improvement, however, 
must have taken place prior to the settlement of the bomidary, 
since we find the people living on the Oblong, between the gov- 
ernments of New York and Connecticut, employing the religious 
services of the Rev. Mr. Dibble, Rector of Stamford.*' 

The commissioners appointed for settling the lines, assembled at 

• See Royal Charter of Cortlandt. 
b Trumbull's Ilisl. of Connecticut. 

* Reports of Propagation .Society. 


Greenwich J April 29th, 1725, when they came to the following 
agreement as to the means of ascertaining the lines, viz., " they 
are the westernmost line, called eight miles, the line running 
east northeast thirteen miles and sixty-four rods from the eight 
mile line, the line called parallel with the Hudson's River, and 
twenty miles from it, extending from the end of the line thirteen 
miles and sixty-four rods northward to Massachusetts line ; the 
parallel line ivas in tu'o lines, having" one angle in it. The 
equivalent land they estimated at 61,440 acres, which has to be 
taken from Connecticut on the east side of the parallel line."^ 
; The angle above mentioned (sometimes called Cortlandi's 
Point) was situated near the southwest shore of Lake Wacabuck 
(Long Pond.) Here the commissioners, who surveyed the manor 
of Cortlandt in 1734, erected a monument, which they "deemed 
and esteemed twenty miles distant from Cortlandt's Point, at the 
mouth of the Highlands." 

" The complete settlement of the boundary line (says the his- 
torian Smith) was not made till the 14th of May, 1731, when 
indentures, certifying the execution of the agreement in 1725, 
were mutually signed by the commissioners and surveyors of 
both colonies. "~ •• '. ' / ". ^ 

Upon the establishment of this partition, a tract of land lying 
on the Connecticut side, consisting of above sixty thousand acres, 
from its figure called the Oblong, was ceded to New York, as an 
equivalent for lands near the Sound, surrendered to Coimecti- 
cut> ' '^ . '^ - 

The very day after the surrender made by that colony, a patent 
passed in London to Sir Joseph Eyles and others, intended to 
convey the whole Oblong. A grant posterior to the other was 
also regularly made here, to Hawley and Company, of the great- 
est part of the same tract, which the British patentees brought a 
bill in chancery to repeal. But the defendants jSled an answer 
containing so many objections against the English patent, that 
the suit remains still unprosecuted, and the American proprietors 

» Letters on Boundaries. Hartford ; Letter 117. 

b See Douglas's late Plan of the British Dominions of New England. 

Vol. L 34 


have ever since held the possession. Mr. Harrison, of the coun- 
cil, soliciicd this controversy for Sir Joseph Eyles and his part- 
ners, which contributed, in a great degree, to the troubles so re- 
markable in a succeeding administration. "^ 

Upon the 8th of June, 1731, the following letters patent were 
issued, under the great seal, to Thomas Hawley and his associ- 
ates : — 

" It is hereby certified, that whereas Thomas Hawley, Nathan St. John, 
Samuel Smith, Benjamin Benedict, Richard Olmsted, Thomas Smith, Ebene- 
zer Smith, Daniel Sherwood, Benjamin Burtt, Thomas Hyatt, Benjamin Wil- 
son, Joseph Lee, Joseph Keeler, James Benedict, Richard Osborn, Samuel 
Smith, Daniel Olmsted, Timothy Keeler, Jonah Keeler, Matthew Seymour, 
Joseph Northrup, James Brown, Adam Ireland, John Thomas^ and Benjamin 
Birdsall, inhabitants of the town of Ridgefield, as of the eastern parts of this 
proTince, by their humble petition, presented unto his Excellency in council, 
the third day of September, setting forth that they and their ancestors have for 
a long time been settled upon, cultivated and improved, certain lands near the 
eastern parts of this province, held by patent from the colony of Connecticut ; 
but that, contrary to their expectations, some of the lands to be sold by patent 
from the colony of Connecticut are supposed to be within that part of the 
province of New York, commonly called the Equivalent Lands, and that the 
petitioners, together wiih their associates, would be willing to defray the 
charge and expense of finding out and ascertaining the true partition lines be- 
tween both the said colonies, provided that 50,000 acres of the said lands be 
granted to the petitioners ; and whereas, the partition lines between the said 
colonies tiave been accordingly run out and ascertained by commissioners for 
both the said colonies, being thereunto duly commissioned and appointed, and 
sixty- one thousand four hundred and forty acres of land of the said colony of 
Connecticut were lately, at the settling of the said partition lines, surrendered 
to the said province of New York, for the use of his Majesty ; wherefore the 
petitioners prayed his Excellency would be favorably pleased to grant to them, 
their heirs and assigns, his Majesty's letters patent for 50,000 acres of the 
said land under such quit rent, provisions and restrictions as is and are direct- 
ed in his Excellency's commissions and instructions ; which petition being 
then and there read and considered of, his Majesty's council of this province, 
did afterwards, on the same day, humbly advise and consent that his Excel- 
lency do grant the prayer of the same, &c., given, &c. four several tracts, the 
first of which begins at the monument where the two lines intersect which are 
the eastwardly bounds of the said surrendered lands, and is one mile, three 

» Smith's Hist, of N. Y. p. 177. 


quarters of a mile, and fifty-two rods distant on a line ru-nning north eighty- 
four degrees east from the monument, and the end of the twenty mile line 
from Cortlandt's Point west to the east end of Long Pond, &c., then along 
south side of said pond to the easterly bounds of said surrendered lands. 

The second tract begins at the monument, standing at two m'les from the 
monument, at the end of the twenty miles from Cortlandt's Point. 

The third begins at the eighth mile monument, on the westwardly bounds of 
the said surrendered lands, on the line running north twelve degrees and thirty 
minutes east from the monument, at the end of the twenty miles from Cort- 
landt's Point. 

The fourth tract begins at the thirty-fourth mile from the monument, at the 
end of the twenty miles from Cortlandt's Point, &e. Given, under our hands, 
at New York, this eighth day of June, in the fourth year of his Majesty's 
reign, A. D. 1731.^ J. Montgomerie. 

On the 8th of January, 1752, John Bowton of the East patent, 
granted a tract of land, consisting of eighty acres, to Benjamin 
Rockwell for the snin of £249. 

The same year letters patent were granted to James Brown of 
the county of Westchester, gentleman, for •• four several tracts of 
land within that tract of land called the Equivalent lands, lately 
surrendered by our colony of Connecticut to our colony of New 
York, first beginning on the western bounds of the said Equiva- 
lent, at the south-west corner of a tract of land in or late granted 
to Thomas Hawley and others, known by the name of lot No. 9, 
containing 1100 acres," &c. 22d August, \7o2> 

The folio u'ing receipt appears to have been given for quit- rent 
due on the East patent in 1760. :;.-. 

'• Received of the owners and proprietors of the East patent, to 
wit, Thomas Hawley and others, for a tract of 50,000 acres of 
land in Westchester and Dutchess counties, commonly called the 
Oblong, by the hands of Abraham King, £1382 \s. 5d., proved 
money, being the full balance of quit-rent which was due her 
majesty on the said patent, to the 8th day of June, 1760, old 
style, as witness my hand this 21st day of March, 1760. 

"Richard Nicholls, 

" Deputy Receiver General.^^ 

* Alb. Book of Pat. No. i. 1. 
b Alb. Book of Pat No. xii. 451. 


Upon the partition of Cortlandt's manor in 1734, the lots (in- 
cluded in this town) fell in the following order to the devisees 
and heirs of Stephanus van Cortlandt, viz., one-half of south lot 
No. 7, east of the Croton, to Stephen van Cortlandt ; ditto No. 8, 
Gertrude' Beeckman ; ditto No. 9, Margaret Bayard ; ditto No. 10, 
Mr. Skinner. The above lots have been long since distributed 
among numerous grantees, such as the Meads, Keelers, Rock- 
wells, Ferrises, and Bowtons, &c., <fcc. 

The general surface of Lewisborough is hilly and even moun- 
tainous ; much attention, however, has been paid to the improve- 
ment of the soil, which consists of clay mixed with a sandy loam. 
The whole township is well irrigated. Croton river runs along 
the nort'h-west corner while Cross river (the outlet of Lake Wa- 
cabuck) waters the central portion. Tatomuck river also rises 
within its limits; each of these streams supply numerous mill 

Upon the high hills which rise to the east of Cross river (near 
the eastern border of the town,) is situated the village of South 
Salem. This place contains several scattered dwellings, two 
stores, a post-office, (first established in March, 1813,) and a Pres- 
byterian church. 

The scenery of the neighborhood is uncommonly beautiful, 
aboundii]g in rich woods, deep valleys, and fertile pastures. The 
air also of its mountainous regions is said to be very salubrious. 
An opening through the hills to the south-west affords a fine 
view of the distant stony mountains, and the great valley of Cross 

The Presbyterian church of South Salem occupies a command- 
ing position near the centre of the village. It is a handsome 
wooden structure, sixty feet by forty, surmounted with a tower 
and spire. The latter serves as a beacon to the surrounding 

The first notice of this church occurs on the 19th of May, 1752, 
*• when a convention of ministers assembled at Salem, upon the 
desire of the people." The same year there appear to have been 
eighteen members in connection with this society. The Pres- 
byterian church of Lower Salem was first incorporated on the 
4th of January, 1784. Abijah Gilbert, Jacob Hoit, Matthew Sey- 


moiir, Gideon Seely, Michael Halstead, and Nathaniel Newman, 
trustees. a 

Besides a small parsonage this church possesses an extensive 
glebe, consisting of about thirty acres of improved land and 
seventy of woodland. In the year 1800 the trustees petitioned 
the legislature for an act to enable them to sell certain lands for 
the benefit of the church. The act was passed March, 1800, and 
is entitled an act to authorize the trustees of the Presbyterian 
church and congregation of the town of Salem to sell and dis- 
pose of certain lands for the benefit of the said church and con- 

" Whereas the trustees and society of the Presbyterian church 
and congregation of the town of Salem, in the county of West- 
chester, have by their petition to the legislature, prayed for leave 
to sell, for the benefit of the said church and congregation, cer- 
tain lands belonging to the said church and congregation, in the 
town of Salem aforesaid, thereupon : Be it enacted by the people 
of the state of New York, represented in senate and assembly, 
that full power, good right, and lawful authority shall be and 
hereby is granted to the trustees of the said church and congre- 
gation to sell, alien in fee, all right and title belonging to the said 
church and congregation, vested in them as trustees of and in all 
such lands, situate, lying and being in the town of Salem, in 
W^estchester county, as they from time to time may deem neces- 
sary for the purpose of procuring other lands on which a parson- 
age house may be more conveniently erected, and for erecting 
the same. Provided always that the lands so to be sold by vir- 
tue of this act shall not exceed the quantity of fifty acres. ^ 

Tliis church and congregation are in connection with the 
Bedford Presbytery. 



Instal or call. Ministers. Vacated hy. 

19th May, 1752, Rev. Solomon Mead, Death. 

a Religious Soc. Lib., A. p. 2. 
b Laws of N. Y. 1800, p. 47. 


'' 1S17, " Clark Hart, 

'' 1S19, " 

27th Nov. 1804, *' John Ely, Resig. 

IS 13, " Jacob Burbank, the same. 

Clark Hart, ; ,. 

Abraham Andries, \ ^"PPlies. 

" 1S20, *' Charles F. Butler, Resig. 

1st May, 1S23, " Stephen Saunders, the same. 

9th Oct. 1S34, *' Reuben Frame, present pastor. 

Church Me77ioranda, 
1804, 51 members, 1826, 173 members, 2 baptized. 

1836, 212 ditto 6 baptized. 1846, 226 ditto 7 ditto. 

The grave yard surrounding the church contains memorials 
to the families of the Keelers, Rockv/ells, Ferrises, Gilberts, 
Loundsberrys and Meads, (fcc. &c. 

" Green is the church yard, beautiful and green." 
•' Ridge rising gently by the side of ridge." 

In the south-west corner appears a neat marble slab inscribed 
to the 

M-emory of the 

Rev. Solomon Mead, 

First Pastor of the Presbyterian 

Church in this place, M. 86. 
He had the charge of this people, 
48 years. 
Ob. September, 1812. 
While marble monuments decay 
The righteous live in endless day^ 
And earthly temples turn to dust. 
Blest is the memory of the just. 

Also a monument erected in 

Memory of 

(/APT Joseph Webster, 

who died 

Jan. 16, 1838, 

aged 81 years 

and 12 days. 


A mission of the Church of England was organized in this 
town sometime prior to the Revolutionary war. Its first trustees 
are said to have been Gershom Sellick, Mr. Brown and others. 
Soon after its establishment, Benjamin Brown of Norwalk made 
a liberal benefaction of one hundred acres of land, as a glebe for 
the support of a minister. The first church edifice was erected 
by the inhabitants of Salem, (for the use of the Episcopal mis- 
sion,) at the commencement of the Revolution. The building 
was constructed of the very best timber, and contained three 
hundred and sixty-five braces. It stood upon the land of Jere- 
miah Keeler; near the road-side leading from South Salem to 

Some of the most active members of the mission having joined 
the army, (at the commencement of hostihties,) it was found ab- 
solutely necessary to dispose of the building to satisfy the claims 
of the contractor, Mr. Benjamin Chapman. This individual sub- 
sequently purchased it and converted the same into a tavern. 
For many years it was known as the Churcli tavern. Mr. Chap- 
man afterwards sold the property, with the dwelling house, to 
J. L. Morehouse, from whom it passed to the present Mr. Jere- 
miah Keeler. In 1796, Mr. Keeler dismantled the building and 
removed the materials.^- 

On the 19th of May, 1811, the Episcopal church was in- 
corporated under the style of " the church-wardens and vestry- 
men of the corporation of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Sa- 
lem." At a previous meeting of the members of this church, 
held on the 15th of October, 1810, the following officers had been 
duly elected for the year ensuing, viz: Angus McCarroll, Wil- 
liam Sherwood, church-wardens; Henry Hoyt, Gould Bouton, 
jim., Jesse Jarvis, Samuel B. Isaacs, Samuel Ambler, Joseph 
Nash, Absolom Holmes and James Church, vestrymen. b 

In 1815 this church was visited by the Rev. Theodosius Bar- 
tow of New Rochelle, and the same year Mr. George Weller was 

» Communicated by Henry Keeler and others, 
b Religious Soc- Lib. A. 


licensed as a lay reader for the same.^ Occasional services were 
also performed here by the Rev. Elias Cooper of Yonkers, the 
Rev. Samuel Haskell of Rye, and the Rev. John McVickarj <fcc. 
The first delegate from this church to the diocesan convention, 
in 1811, was Mr. Samuel B. Isaacs. 

Notitia Parochialls. 
1811, communicants 10, baptisms 7, families 15. 

For a number of years no Episcopal services have been per- 
formed in this town. 

The house now occupied by Jacob Gibber, situated a little 
north of the Presbyterian Church, is celebrated as having been 
the temporary prison of Major John Andre, Adjutant General of 
the British army. From this place he penned the letter to 
General Washington, disclosing his true character. " After the 
capture of Andre by the three farmers of Westchester, (says 
Sparks,) the latter resolved to convey their prisoner to the nearest 
military post, which was then stationed at North Castle, under the 
command of Lt. Col. Jameson. From North Castle the prisoner 
was foolishly forwarded by that officer, under the charge of 
Lieut. Allen and a ^uard, to General Arnold. Upon the return 
of Major Tallmadge, (who it seems had been out on duty,) 
to North Castle, and having inspected the papers, he earnestly 
requested, that the prisoner might be brought back, to which 
Jameson at last consented. In the latter's order of countermand 
to Lieutenant Allen, he says, "from some circumstances which 
I have just discovered, 1 have reason to fear, that a party of the 
enemy is above, and as I would not have Anderson retaken, or 
get away, 1 desire that you will proceed to Lower Salem, with 
him, and deliver him to Capt. Hoogland, &c. &c. 

Some mistake appears to have been made in the orders, for 
Andre was returned to North Castle. It was now agreed upon 
by Jameson and Tallmadge, " that it was best to keep Anderson 
in close custody, till something more should be known about him, 
or till orders should be received from General Washington. As 

* This gentleman was subsequently ordrtined in North Salem. 


Lower Salem was farther within the American lines than North Cas- 
tle ; and, as Col. Sheldon's quarters were there, it was thought advi- 
sable for him to be removed to that place. Mnjor Tallmadge com- 
manded the escort, and continued with the prisoner from that lime, 
till he arrived at Tappan. It will be remembered that eight or 
nine days previous to the taking of Andre, a letter had been 
received by J\Iajor Talla.adge from Arnold, in which he requested. 
Tallmadge, if a man by the name of Anderson should come 
witliin the lines, to send him to head quarters with two horse- 
men, and to bear him company in person, if his business would 
permit. This incident, connected with the circumstances of the 
capture of the prisoner, who called himself Anderson, and with the 
obvious disguise he now assumed, confirmed l\allmadge's sus- 
picions, though the nature and extent of the plans in agitation he 
could only conjecture, as Anderson revealed nothing and men- 
tioned no names. On the arrival of Andre at Lower Salem, 
about 8 o'clock in the morning, he was introduced to Mr. Bron- 
son, who was attached to Sheldon's regiment, and who occupied 
a small apartment which he consented to share with the prisoner. 
The room could be easily guarded, as it had but one door and 
one window. Andre appeared much fatigued, and at first was 
little inclined to talk. His clothes were soiled, and he accepted a 
change from Mr. Bronson, while his linen and nankeen under 
dress was sent to the washerwoman. 

■ Becoming refreshed and more at ease, he relaxed into familiar 
conversation, which, with his agreeable and courteous manners, 
excited the interest and secured the good will of his room-mate. 
He resorted to his favorite resource for amusement, and sketched 
with a pencil a group of ludicrous figures, representing himself 
and his escort under march. He presented the sketch to Bronson, 
saying, " this will give you an idea of the style in which I have 
had the honor to be conducted to my present abode." Li di- 
versions of this kind the morning passed away. As it was 
known to Andre that the papers found on his person had been 
transmitted to General Washington, who must soon receive them, 
and it being now evident, that he would not himself be sent to 
- Arnold, he perceived that any further attempts at concealment 
would be unavailing, and resolved to stand forth in his true char- 
Vol/L 35 


acier, seeking no otlier mitigation of his case, than such as 
could be granted on the strict principles of honor and miUtary 
usage. "\Vith this view he wrote in Bronson's room, his first letter 
to General Washington. 

« Salem, 24 September, 1780. 


'• "What J have as yet said concerning myself, was in the jus- 
tifiable attempt to be extricated; lam too little accustomed to 
diiplicily to have succeeded. 

"I beg your excellency will be persuaded, that no alteration in 
the temper of my mind, or apprehension for my safety, induces 
me to take the step of addressing you ; but that it is to rescue 
myself from an imputation of having assumed a mean character 
for treacherous purposes or self interest ; a conduct incompatible 
with the principles that actuate me ; as well as with my conduct 
in life. 

"It is to vindicate my fame that I speak, and not to solicit se- 

" The person in your possession is Major John Andre, Adju- 
tant General to the British Army. 

" The influence of one commander in the army of his adversa- 
ry is an advantage taken in war. A correspondence for this 
purpose I held; as confidential (in the present instance) with his 
Excellency Sir Henry Clinton. 

" To favor it, 1 agreed to meet upon ground not within the 
posts of either army a person, who was to give me intelligence; 
I came up in the Yulture man-of-war for this effect, and was fetched 
by a boat from the ship to the beach. Being there, I was told 
that the approach of day would prevent my return, and that I 
must be concealed until the next night. I was in my regimen- 
tals, and had fairly risked my person. 

"Against my stipulation, my intention, and without my know- 
ledge beforehand, I was conducted within one of your posts. 
Your excellency may conceive my sensation on this occasion, 
and will imagine how much more must I have been affected by 
a refusal to reconduct me back the next night, as I had been 
brought. Thus become a prisoner, I had to concert my escape. 


I quitted my uniform, and was passed another way in the night, 
without the American posts, to neutral ground, and informed I 
was beyond all armed parties, and left to press to New York. , I 
was taken at Tarrytown by some volunteers. 

" TIius, as I have had the honor to relate, was I betrayed (being 
Adjutant General of the British army,) into the vile condition of 
an enemy in disguise within your posts. 

" Having avowed myself a Britisli officer, I have nothing to re- 
veal but what relates to myself, which is true on the honor of an 
officer and a gentleman. 

'' The request I have to make to your excellency, and I am 
conscious I address myself well, is, that in any rigor policy may 
dictate, a decency of conduct towards me may mark, that, though 
unfortunate, I am branded with nothing dishonorable, as no mo- 
tive could be mine but the service of my King, and as I was in- 
voluntarily an impostor. 

" Another request is, that I may be permitted to write an open 
letter to Sir. Henry Clinton, and another to a friend for clothes 
and linen. 

'^ I take the liberty to mention the condition of some gentlemen 
at Charleston, who being either on parole or under protection, 
were engaged in a conspiracy against us. Though their situation 
is not similar, they are objects who may be set in exchange for 
me, or are persons whom the treatment I receive might affect. 

" It is no less, sir, in confidence of the generosity of your mind, 
than on account of your superior station, that I have chosen to 
importune you with this letter. I have the honor to be, with great 
respect, sir, your excellency's most obedient and humble servant, 

'' John Andre. Adjutant GeneraU- 

When he had finished this letter, he handed it open to Major 
Tallmadge, who perused it with astonishment and strong 
amotion ; for, although he believed the writer to be a military 
man, yet he had not supposed him a person of such rank, nor 
dreamed of the dangerous plot in which he had been acting a 
part. The letter was sealed and sent to General Washington. 
From that moment Andre's mind seemed relieved. He became 
cheerful, and his good humor, affable address, and attractive pow» 



ers of conversation, gained npon the hearts of the officers, and 
won from them reciprocal kindness and civiUties.^" As soon as 
General Washington had ascertained the full extent of the trea- 
son, instantaneous preparations were made for the defence of 
West Point, and "an order dispatched to Col. Jameson, directing 
him to send Andre nnder a strong guard to Robinson's house. 
The express arrived about midnight at Lower Salem, and at that 
hour an officer came with the message to Andre. He started up 
quickly from his bed and obeyed the summons. The rain fell in 
torrents, and the night was dark and dismal. Mr. Bronson 
says, that, on taking leave, he expressed a deep sense of the obli- 
gations he was under, for the delicate and courteous treatment he 
had received from the officers of the reg-iment with whom he had 
become acquainted, and declared that, whatever might be his fu- 
ture destiny, he could never meet them as enemies. The guard 
marched all night, and in the morning of the next day, September 
26th, Andre arrived at Robinson's house, in the custody of Major 
Tallmadge."b From whence he was taken the same evening to 
West Point. 

CoJonel Sl;eWon's headquarters nt Lower Salem. The west window on the ground floor be- 
lon;'8 to tlie room in wiixii Andre wrote liis first letter to Washington. 

« Sparks' Life of Arnold, p, 231, 23.), G, 7, 8. 
* .'^parks' Life of Arnold, p. 2r)3. 4. 


The ravages of time have made but little progress upon the 
old quarters of Andre at Salem; the small room still remains, 
with its single door and solitary window looking out upon the 

Between two and three miles north-west of the village of 
South Salem lies Lake VVacabuck, (Long Pond,) a beautiful 
sheet of water, covering over two hundred and twelve acres of 
ground. Near by is another pond connected with the former by 
a small stream. Both are fed and supplied chiefly, (perhaps en- 
tirely,) by springs and rivulets from the great Long Pond moun- 
tain. The northern shore of the lake is bordered with hanging 
woods, and surrounded by rocky mountains of the most picturesque 
form, presenting altogether an interesting scene as the traveller 
approaches from Lower Salem. The hills on the southern shore 
are much lower, but equally attractive ; their bases being pro- 
fusely covered with foliage to the very margin of the water. 
Its shores are also diversified with wooded points. Lake Waca- 
buck was once famous for the abundance of its beavers (castor 
fiber.) It is upwards of fifteen years since, that the last solitary 
hermit was observed upon the edge of the lake. This animal 
had been noticed at different intervals throughout the summer of 
1832. In the fall of that year a laboring man (residing near the 
lake) determined upon securing it if possible. For this purpose 
he took his station early one morning in the vicinity of one of 
the beaver's haunts. It soon made its appearance, and com- 
menced felling a small tree, which it drew to the water's edge ; 
but the man who had refrained from firing, in order to watch 
the motions of the animal, making a slight noise, it became 
alarmed, and suddenly plunged into the water. a 

The numerous rivers of Westchester county must have afford- 
ed (the Indian hunter) an abundant supply of this useful animal. 
Van der Donck, the Patroon of Yonkers, informs us that in 
1656, beavers were found not far from his residence, andlseveral 
were brought in by the Indian hunters ; also that 80,000 of these 
animals were annually killed in this quarter of the country. 

a It is said that the same animal was observed in the fall of 1S37. 



" The Indians (continues the same authority) burn the beaver 
bones and never permit their dogs to gnaw the same ; alleging 
that afterwards tliey will be unlucky in the chase. Among all 
the beaver skins 1 have seen, no more than one was of a differ- 
ent color, and that was white, the outer-wind hairs were golden 
yellow. This skin was shipped on board the Princess with 
Director Kieft, which was lost at sea."=^ 

The deep waters of Lake Wacabuck afford vast quantities of 
fish, as pickerel, large perch, eels, (fcc. The two former are said 
to have been introduced here within a few years. The favorite 
haunts of the pickerel are the Cove and Raven's rock. 

Upon the south ridge of Long Pond mountain (which rises 
abruptly from the northern shore of the lake,) is situated the 
cave of Sarah Bishop, the hermitess. 

The Sarah Bishop Cave, Long Pond Mountain 

Amidst the savage landscape, bleak and bare. 
Stands the chill hermitage, in mountain rock, and air 
Its haunts forsaken, and its feasts forgot, 
A leaf strown, lonely, desolated cot ! 

[White's Selborne. 

" Van der Donek's Hist. New Netherlands. 


The herniitess is reported to have been a resident of Long Isl- 
and at the period of the Revolution, where she saw the destruc- 
tion of her paternal mansion, and suffered great cruelty at the 
hands of a British officer, which finally induced her to abandon 
society altogether, and seek an abode in ihe present cave. 
The following account of a visit to the hermitess is taken from a 
newspaper printed at Poughkeepsie in 1804. 

''Yesterday I went in company of two Captain Smiths of this 
town to the mountain to visit the hermitage. As you pass the 
southern and elevated ridge of the mountain, and begin to des- 
cend the southern sleep, you meet with a perpendicular descent 
of a rock, in the front of which is this cave. At the foot of the 
rock is a gentle descent of rich and fertile ground, extending 
about ten rods, when it instantly forms a frightful precipice, des- 
cending half a mile to the pond called Long Pond. In the front 
of the rock on the north, where the cave is, and level with the 
ground, there appears a large frustum of the rock, of a double 
fathom in size, thrown out by some unkown convulsion of na- 
ture, and lying in front of the cavity from which it was rent, 
pajrtly enclosing the mouth and forming a cover. The rock is left 
entire above and forms the roof of the humble mansion. This 
cavity is the habitation of the hermitess, in which she has 
passed the best of her years, excluded from all society. She 
keeps no domestic animal, not even fowl, cat, or dog. Her little 
plantation, consisting of half an acre, is cleared of its wood and 
reduced to grass, where she has raised a few peach trees, and 
yearly plants a few hills of beans, cucumbers, and potatoes. The 
whole is surrounded by a luxuriant grape vine, which over- 
spreads the surrounding wood, and is very productive. On the 
opposite side of this little tenement, is a fine fountain of excel- 
lent water. At this fountain we found the wonderful woman 
whose appearance it is a little difficult to describe. Indeed, like 
nature in its first state, she was without form, her dress appear- 
' ed little else than one confused and shapeless mass of rags 
patched together without any order, which obscured all human 
shape, excepting her head which was clothed with a luxuriancy 
of lank grey hair, depending on every side as time had formed 
it, without any covering or ornament. When she discovered 
our approach, she exhibited the appearance of a wild and timid 


animal. She started and hastened to her cave which she entered, 
and barricadoed the entrance, with old shells pulled from the 
decayed trees. We approached this humble habitation, and after 
some conversation with its inmate, obtained Irberty to remove 
the palisades and look in, for we were not able to enter, the room 
being only sufficient to accommodate one person. We saw no 
ntensil, either for labor or cookery, save an old pewter basin and 
a gourd shell, no bed but the solid rock, unless it were a few old 
rags scattered here and there, no bed clothes of any kind, not 
the least appearance of food or fire. She had indeed a place in 
one corner of her cell where a fire had at some time been kindled, 
but it did not appear there had been one for some months. To 
confirm this, a gentleman says he passed her cell five or six days 
after the great fall of snow, in the beginning of March ; that she 
had no fire then, and had not been out of her cave since the 
snow had faMen. How she subsists during the severe season is 
yet a mystery. She says, she eats but little flesh of any kind ; 
in the summer she lives on berries, nuts and roots. We con- 
versed with her for some time, found her to be of a sound mind, 
a religious turn of thought and entirely happy in her situation. 
Of this she has given repeated proofs, by refusing to quit this 
dreary abode. She keeps a bible with her, and says she takes 
much satisfaction and spends much time in reading it." Soon 
after her settlement, the hermitess purchased the cave and three 
acres of land adjoining. Here she resided until the winter of 
1810, when she was accidentally killed by falling into a pit. a 

The southern view from the cave aff'ords a splendid prospect 
of forty-five miles in extent, terminated by Long Island. 

From Lake Wacabuck issues the Peppeneghek, or Cross River, 
(one of the numerous tributaries of the Croton,) upon which is 
situated the small settlement of Cross River. This place con- 
tains a post office, two churches, several manufactories, and 
twenty dwellings. The road from Ridgefield, by South Salem, 
to Bedford, passes through it. The Baptist church of Cross 
River was first incorporated on the 28th of March, 1842 ; Lewis 

* The poor-master found in the cave a small sum of money sufficient to defray 
her funeral exjjeusee. 


Holmes. Abijah Reynolds, Lewis Mead, Titus Reynolds, Jerah 
M. Elmore, trustees.^ The Methodist Episcopal church of this 
place (sometimes styled the Herman Chapel) was incorporated 
12th of March, 1S25 ; first trustees, Joseph Wilson, Daniel Silk- 
man, John Silkman, Aaron Silkman, Walter S. Lyons, and John 

The waters of the Cross River are abundantly supplied with 
all kinds of fresh water fish. Near the intersection of the Beaver 
Dam and Cross River are situated the fishing falls. 

Golden's Bridge is a small hamlet (located on the banks of the 
Croton) in the northwest corner of this town. It contains a post 
office and several dwellings. 

Vista is a pretty settlement in the southeast corner of Lewis- 
borough. Here is a post office and several dwellings. This 
portion of the town is drained by the Tatomuck River, which 
eaipties into the Sound at Stamford. 

The following extracts are taken from the town books: — 

'• First Book of Records in Salem, April the 17th, 1747. ' 
At a town meeting in Salem, April 2, 1751 — - ,. 

Justice Gilbert, Moderator, . . ' , 

Jacob Wall, Supervisor, 

Nathaniel Wyatt, Clerk, 

David Webster, Constable, ' '-- ' 

Peter Benedict, Sessor, • , ' 

Benj. Rockwell, Sessor, - ' . 

Nathan'l Wiatt, Sessor, 

David Webster, Servuer, / ,' ; 

Nathan'l Wiatt, Servuer, , * ' . ' _ .' 

Jacob Walley, Servuer." 
^ "At a town meeting in Salem, 10th day of January, 1763, Re- 
solved that the welfare of the town was endangered by one Dr. 
Michael Abbott, of Ridgefield, in the colony of Connecticut, who 
had lately come into the town with sundry other persons, and 
had inoculated with the small pox one Gershom Sillick, by 
means of which the people are greatly exposed, and put in much 
damages of taking the small pox.'^ " - 

^ County Rec. Religious Soc. Lib. B. 70. b Co. Rec Rel. Soc. Lib. A. 186. 

YOL. I. 36 




Mamaroneck is sit- 
uated seven miles south 
of the village of White 
Plains, distant twenty 
miles northeast of New 
York, and about one 
hundred and forty-two 
south of Albany ; — 

St. Thomas's Church, Mamaroneck. boUUdcd nOrth bv 

Scarsdale, east by Harrison and Rye, south by Long Island 
Sound, and west by New Rochelle. Its length, north and 
south, is three miles, and its medial width two and a quar- 
ter.a The etymology of the name of this place (at different 
periods spelt Mammarinikes, Mornoronack, Mamarinck, Merinak, 
and Momoronuck) doubtless refers, like most other Indian words, 
to some object peculiar to its geographical locality. The last 
syllable, " neck," or " uck" (uc,) being the ordinary inflection for 
locality, and one of the striking characteristics of Mohegan names 
east of the Hudson. By some the word is supposed to indicate 
" the place of rolling stones,^^ (boulders,) which abound in the 
romantic environs of Mamaroneck.^ 

The aboriginal name for the southeast corner of the town con- 
stituting De Lancey's Neck was ^- Wanmainuck," while the west 
neck, adjoining New Rochelle, was called by the Indians "Man- 

Mamaroneck, at the time of the Dutch discovery, appears to 

» New York Gazetteer. 

•" In the Indian deed to John Budd, of Rye, 1661, the place is mentioned under 
the name of Merrimack, an Indian term for the sturgeon fish which once frequent- 
ed the waters of the bay in great numbers. 


have been inhabited by one of the numerous sea coast tribes 
termed SuwanoeSj or Sewanoos, by Jolm De Laet, one of tfie 
earliest historians of the New Netherlands, A.D. 1625.^ This 
people he describes " as dwelling along the coast from Norwalk 
to twenty-four miles to the neighborhood of Hellegat." Adriaen 
van der Donck, in his map of 1G56, styles them Siwanoys, 
These Siwanoys constituted a tribe of the mighty Mohegan na- 
tion, originally called Muhhekanew. or the Seven Tribes on the 
sea coast — otherwise called Mohiggans by the English, and Ma- 
hicanders, or River Indians by the Low Dutch> 

The River Sachems, at this early period, paid tribute to Sas- 
sacus, grand sachem of the Mohegans, whose broad territory ex- 
tended from Narragansett to Hudson Riv^er, and over all Long Is- 
land. In 1644, there was an Indian Chief by the name of Mam- 
aranack, living at Kitchawanc,<^ (Croton.) This individual may 
have been one of the grantors of these lands to the Dutch West 
India Company, in 1640, when the latter purchased a large tract 
of country extending as far east as Greenwich. 

The site of the ancient Indian village in this town can still be 
traced upon the projecting rocks, directly opposite the residence 
of Benjamin M. Brown, Esq. This spot was well suited to the 
habits of the aborigines, who subsisted one-half of the year at 
least upon the fish caught in these waters. It must also be borne 
in mind, that all the Indian villages on the sea board were noted 
for the manufacture of seawant, the materials for which were 
found here in great abundance.*^ 

The beautiful scenery of the bay, and adjoining necks, must 
have had peculiar attractions for these roving nomads and hun- 
ters, as they appear always to have selected such places for their 
summer residencs. Early Connecticut coins have been discover- 
ed on the site of these habitations. The remains of several In- 

a De Laet's New World, chap. viii. 

b N. Y. Hist. Soc. New Ser. vol. i. 296-307. ' 

• O'Callaghan's Hist. N. N. 302. 

d Tliere were two kinds of seawant, wampum or Indian money, viz. wampum, 
(white,) and suckaubock, (black.) The white was manufactured from the Mehe- 
aubock Periwinkle. The black of the Quahaug. 


dians were found a few years since, in repairing the road opposite 
Mr. Monmouth Lyons' store. Some of the skeletons were nearly 
entire. They have been since interred in the rear of Dr. Stan- 
ley's residence. Upon the Shubal Lyon property, north-east of 
the village, is situated the Indian burying ground. Remains of 
extensive Indian works exist on the elevated ground, north of 
]\Ir. Benjamin Brown's residence, called Nelson's Hill. They 
consist of four circular pits in the form of a square, having a 
small mound upon the soutli, " The use of these excavations it 
is impossible to imagine, unless we suppose them to have been 
iised by the aborigines in defence, an idea that is rather favored 
by the circular mound on the south, as if made purposely to re- 
ceive the palisade." The site of other Indian habitations are 
very apparent on the west side of Heathcote Hill. We have 
shown, that the lands belonging to this town were originally pur- 
chased of the native Indians by the Dutch West India Company, 
in 1640. Their next proprietor was John Richbell, who obtained 
a confirmation from the Indians, A, D. 1660. The following year, 
we find him thus addressing the Dutch Director and Council : 

In New Netherlands, 24th Dec. 1661. 
To the most noble, great and respectful Lords, the Directors 
General and Council, in New Netherland, solicits most reverent- 
ly, John Richbell, that it may please your honours to grant him 
letters patent for three corners of land, the east corner being 
named "Wanmaimick" corner, the western with the adjacent 
land, by some named Mr. Pell's land, promising that all persons 
who, with the supplicant's permission or order, would settle there 
with him, shall be willing to solicit letters patent for such a par- 
cel of land as they may intend to settle ; in the meantime, he sup- 
plicates that your honours may be pleased to grant him letters 
patent for the whole tract, which he is willing to enforce and in- 
struct them of your honours' government and will, in similar 
manner, on terms and conditions as are allowed to other villages. 
Hoping on your consent, he remains, &c.a 

John Richbell. 

» Albany Rec. vol, xx, 22. 


This petition having been presented to and read by the Direc- 
tor, 19th Jan. 1662, it was returned for answer, that before a 
final decision can be given on this petition, so shall the suppli- 
cant be requested to explain more at large before the Director Ge- 
neral and Council in New Netherlands, the extents of his propo- 
sal as mentioned in the said petition on the day as above. a 

John Richbjll must have replied immediately to this letter, as 
the same year we find the following declaration (of Petrus Stuy- 
V€sant, Govornor General,) in favor of Mr. Rissebel. 

We, the Governor General and Council of estate of the United 
Netherlands, doe declare by these presents, that we, upon the pe- 
tition of Mr. John Rissebel and his associates, that be under the 
protection of the high and subordinate authority of this Province, 
upon terms and conditions as other inhabitants doe enjoy, may 
take up and possess a certain neck and parcel of land called Mam- 
niarinikes, provided that the aforesaid Mr. John Rissebel, his as- 
sociates, and every one that are now hereafter to come in due and 
convenient tim.e, shall present themselves before us to take the 
oath of fidelity and obedience, and also, as other inhabitants are 
used to, procure a land brief of what they possess. Given under 
our hand and seal the 6th of May, 1662^ in the Fort Amsterdam, 
in the New Netherlands. ^ ;- ^ - 

John Richbell appears to have obtained a " ground brief" for his 
land the same year.<^ 

The following documents relate to a dispute between the two 
patentees of Pelham and Mamaroneck, concerning their respec- 
tive boundaries. Upon the 20th of April, 1666, Richard Nicolls, 
Governor of the Province, granted to Thomas MuUinex, " a cer- 
tain neck lying betv/een the east bounds of the town of Westches- 
ter and a certain small river called Stoney River, which is reput- 
ed to be the west bounds of the land in dispute between Mr. Rich- 
bell and Mr. Revell (Pell,) and from thence shooting along by the 
side of the maine westward, containing 220 acres, which said 

ft Albany Rec. vol. xx. 22. . ■^ ■ r- ' 

b Alb. Rec. vol. xx. 127. 

c At a court of assize held in the city of New York, A. D. 1665, it was determin- 
ed that Horseneck doth of right belong to John Richbell an'J his heirs. Alb. Assize 
* Kec. 14. 


neck has been purchased of the Indians." During the year 
1666-7, occurs a trial between Thos. Revell (Pell,) plaintiff, and 
John Richbell, defendant. " The Governor and Council, toge- 
ther with Y^ justices of ye peace, setting in this present court 
of assizes, having been well and sufficiently informed in ye case 
in difference between the plaintiff and defendant, and that ye de- 
fendant, (who in several courts of this government hath heretofore 
been plaintiff in this case relating to a title to a certain parcel of 
land at Mamaronuck, upon ye maine,) did prove his said title in 
those courts to the land in question, and no person now appearing 
for ye plaintiff, either to prosecute or defend his claime and title, or 
those concerned in his pretended right to ye said land, according 
to ye order of ye last general court of assizes, this court doth 
therefore unanimously adjudge and decree, that ye title to ye said 
land in difference doth of right belong to the defendant."^. 

Nov. 166S, " John Richbell of Mamaroneck, accused Thomas 
Pell of gaining in a surreptitious manner, his patent of Governor 
Nicolls, and extending upon his lands, upwards of a mile in 
breaddi from east to west, beside the length thereof north 'and 
south, although John Richbell has sufficiently proved his right 
thereto, both at several courts, and the last court of assizes held 
in New York."b 

Upon the 13th Sept. 1669, we find a special warrant addressed 
to Thomas Pell of Ann-hook's-neck, or elsewhere, citing him to 
appear before the next court of assizes, for unjustly detaining 
and keeping from John Richbell, a certain parcel of meadow 
ground set upon one of the three necks at Mamaroneck."*^ 

An order about ye difference between Mr. Pell and Mr. Rich- 

The report of ye commissioners appointed b}^ ye court of as- 
sizf^, to view ye lands in difference between Mr. John Richbell 
and Mr. John Pell, and having been delivered unto me sealed 

» Alb. Assize Rec. 172. b Alb. Book of Pat. vol. vi. 106. 

c Alb. Assize Rec. p. 204. In January, 1671, a subpoena was sent forth to sum- 
mon Mr. Robert Penoyer of Mamaroneck, and Mr. John Archer, of Fordham, to 
give evidence at said court (of assizes) concerninor the difference between Mr. Pe!l 
and Mr. Richbell. Alb. Rec. General Entries, No. IV. 59. 


np, and now opened and read before me and my council, upon 
very much consideration had thereupon, do find, that two of the 
commissioners have made report, that between two brooks in dis- 
pute called stony and gravelly brook, there is a tree marked on 
ye east side, with J. R., and on the other with T. P., from which 
if there were a line run directly down to the sound, it would di- 
vide ye meadow in difference in the middle, and put an end to 
ye matter in question, but neiiher of the other three commission- 
ers agree amongst themselves as to their opinions of the bounds, 
wherefore, in regard that I am very desirous an amicable com- 
posure of this difierence may be made between both parties, I do 
recommend the report of the two -commissioners to be observed 
as a medium to end all differences ; however, if so the party 
shall not seem satisfied therewith, they have still liberty to pro- 
ceed to a trial before a special court, according to ye order of ye 
last general court of assize. Of the resolutions, hereupon, a 
speedy answer is expected, that order may be taken accordingly. 
Given under my hand, at Fort James, in New York, the ISth 
day of January^ 1671.^ 

Francis Lovelace. 

Upon the 20th of January, 1671, a commission was appointed, 
consisting of Captain Dudley Lovelace, Captain Jacques Cortel- 
yau, Mr. Elias Doughty, Captain Richard Ponton and Mr. John 
duinby, to view ye bounds in difference between Mr. Pell and 
Mr. Richbell.b 

On the 25lh day of January, 1671, occurs the following order 
(addressed to Capt. Jacques Cortelyau, Surveyor General) about 
Mr. Pell and Mr. Richbell, made after their agreement and com- 
posure, &c." 

" Whereas, there is an amicable composure of ye difference 
between Mr. John Richbell, and Mr. John Pell,<^ concerning the 
neck of land lying between stony and gravelly brook, to the 
eastward of Annhook's neck, ye which is agreed upon to be di- 
vided equally between them both, meadow and upland quantity 

»■ Alb. Rec. General Entries No. IV. 92. 

b Alb. Rec. Gen. Entries, No. IV. 59. 

c Mr. John Pell succeeded his uncle Thomas PpU. 


and quality alike, which agreement I very well approve of. 
These are to require you, that sometime next week, or with your 
first convenience, you repair hither, where you shall receive fur- 
ther directions concerning the copy act, on the said neck of land, 
soe to put a final end and determination to that dispute of which 
at your return you are to render me an account, and for soe do- 
ing, this shall be your warrant. Given under my hand, at Fort 
James, in New York, this 25lh day of January, 1671."^ 

Francis Lovelace. 
■ This dispute was finally arranged by Mr. John Richbell, ex- 
changing a portion of the west neck for a much greater quan- 
tity and value of other lands belonging to Mr. Pell, adjoining 
the west neck in lieu thereof, which land never was within the 
bounds of Mr. Richbell's patent.^ 

Upon the 16th of October, 1668, Governor Lovelace issued the 
following letters patentj under the great seal of the province. 

Francis Lovelace, Esq., Governor General, under his Royal Highness, 
James, Duke of York and Albany, &c. &c., of all his territories in America, 
to all to whom these presents shall corne, sendeth greeting. Whereas, there 
is a certain parcel or tract of land within this government, upon the main, con- 
tained in three necks, of which the eastermost is bounded with a small river, called 
Mamaroneck river, being also the east bounds or limits of this government 
upon the main, and the westermost with ihe gravelly or stony brook or river, 
which makes the east limits of the land known by the name of Mr. Pell's 
purchase. Having to the south, the sound, and running northward from the 
marked trees upon the said neck, twenty miles into the woods, which said 
parcel or tract of land hath been lawfully purchased of the Indian proprietors, 
by John Richbell of Mamaroneck, gentleman, in whose possession now it is, 
and his title thereunto sufficiently proved, both at several courts of sessions, 
as also at the general courts of assizes, now for a confirmation unto him the 
said John Richbell, in his possession and enjoyment of the premises : Know 
ye, that by virtue of the commission and authority unto me given by his Roya} 
Highness, 1 have given, ratified, and confirmed and granted, and by these pre- 
sents do give and ratify, confirm and grant, unto the said John Richbell, his 
heirs and assigns, all the aforecited parcel or tract of land as aforesaid, to- 

» Albany Records, General Entries, No. IV. 95. 

b See Complaint of Obadiah Palmer and others, to his Excellency William Bur- 
net. The original docnment is in the possession of the Mimro family. 


gether with all woods, beaches, maiches, pastures, creeks, waters, lakes, fish- 
ing, hawking, hunting and fowling, and all other profits, immunities and emolu- 
ments to the said parcel or tract of land belonging, annexed, or appertaining 
with their and every of their appurtenances, and every part and parcel thereof, 
and in regard to the distance of the plantations already settled, or to be settled 
upon the said necks of land, from any town, the persons inhabiting, or that 
shall inhabit thereupon, shall have a petty constable chosen amongst them- 
selves yearly, for preserving of the peace, and decision of small differences un- 
der the value of forty sliiiiings, and they shall be excused from all common at- 
tendance at training or other ordinary duties at Westchester. But in matters 
of assessment and public rates, they are to be assessed by the ofricers of that 
town to which they do properly belong, being the nearest unto them, to have 
and to hold the said parcel and tract of land in the said three necks contained, 
and premises with all and singular the privileges and appurtenances to the said 
John Richbell, his heirs and assigns, to the proper use and behoof of the said 
John Richbell, his heirs and assignees forever, as free land of inheritance, ren- 
dering and paying as a quit rent for the same yearly, and every year, the value 
of eight bushels of winter wheat, upon the five and twentieth day of March, 
if demanded, unto his Royal Highness and his heirs, or to such governor or 
governors as shall from time to time be appointed and set over them. Given 
under my hand and seal, at Fort James, in New York, on Manhattans Island, 
the 16th day of October, in the twentieth year of the reign of our sovereign, 
Lord Charles the second, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France 
and Ireland, king, defender of the faith, &c. &c., Anno Domini, 1668. 

Francis Lovelace. 

In 1669 we find John Richbell, and Anne liis wife, conveying 
a certain portion of land in Mumaroneck to ^largaret Parsons.^- 

On the 4th of March, 1669, John Richbell of Mamaroneck, in 
New Yorkshire, gentleman, with Anne his wife, conveys land in 
this town to John Bassett. 

By a deed bearing date the 23d of April, 1669, Jolni Richbell, 
proprietor of Mamaroneck, settles the following jointnre npon his 
wife, Anne Richbell, viz.: "all that certain parcell or tract of 
land where he now lives, called the East Neck, and to begin at 
the westward part thereof at a certain creek lying, being, and ad- 
jacent by and betwixt the neck of land commonly called the 
Great Neck, and the said East Neck, and so to run eastward as 
far as Mamaroneck river, including therein betwixt the two lines 
all the land as well north into the woods above Westchester patli, 

^ . » Co Uec. Lib. A. 

ToL. I. 37 


twenty miles, as the lands below ye path, south and towards ye 
river,'' etc., tfcc.^ 

The following year we find the patentee investing his son-in- 
law, James Mott. in a small portion of the Maraaroneck lands, for 
which the latter paid to the crown the annual quit rent of one 
bushel of wheat. James Mott subsequently assigned all his right, 
title and interest in the same to John Wescot. 

The following warrant "for ye fetching Mr. John Richbell to 
town a prfsoner," occurs in the assize records. 

These are in his majesties name to authorize and impower you to seize 
upon ye person of John Richbell of Mamaroneck, in what place soever he 
shall be found within this government, he being a prisoner under arrest for 
debt in this city, from which place he hath absented himself contrary to his 
engagement and that you cause him to be brought back hither to answer ye 
several suites of his creditors, and to abide the judgment of court therein ac- 
cording to law, and all officers or others whom this may concerne are to be 
ayding and assisting herein as occasion shall require, for the doing whereof 
this my special warrant shall be to you and them a sufficient discharge. 
Given under my hand and seal at Fort James in New Yorke, this 30th day of 

June, 1671. 

Francis Lovelace. 

To Mr. Allard Anthony, sheriff of the city of New Y^ork, or his deputy. i> 

Upon the 30ih of July, 1673^ the province of New York sur- 
rendered to the Dutch. On Ihh occasion Anthony Colve assumed 
the reins of government. His commission defined the eastern 
boundary of the colony to be the town of Greenwich and so run- 
nii]g northerly, provided such line does not come within twenty 
miles of Hudson's river, conformable to the treaty of 1650. which 
was ratified by the States General February 22d, 1656, Mamar- 
oneck river having been heretofore considered the boundary line, 
as settled the 5th of December, 1664, viz. : "a line beginning on 
the east side of Mamaroneck river or creek, at the place where 
the salt water meets the fresh, at high water, and thence north- 
west to the line of Massachusetts.''^ 

The Dutch governor now required the submission of the in- 

• Co. Rec. Lib. A. 238. This conveyance was to John Ryder, 
b Alb. Assize Rec. p. 391. 
c Webster's Letters. 


habitants, and oaths of allegiance to the States General. Where- 
upon the people of Mamaroneck submitted themselves through 
their deputies, and were ordered to nominate by a majority of votes 
four persons who were to be presented the first opportunity, from 
which the Lords Commanders shall elect two for magistrates. 
By order of the Lords Commanders and military tribunal as- 
sembled in Fort William Hendrick, on the 23d day of August, 
A. D. 1673.^ 

Peace took place between the belligerent powers, in Februa- 
ry, 1674, by which x\ew York was again restored to the English. 

2()th of November, 1763, John Richbell of Mamaroneck mort- 
gaged the westernmost neck to one Cornelius Stenwyck, " bound- 
ing on the Gravelly or Stony river, having on the south the 
Sound, and so running from the marked trees, standing on the 
aforesaid neck, northerly twenty English miles into the woods. b 

Upon the 2d of February, 16S3, a dispute arose between Mr. 
John Richbell (about the limits of his land) with the inhabitants 
of the town of Rye, whereupon the latter were ordered to attend 
the council. c 

The following order is extracted from the council minutes. 

At a council held at Fort James, on March 17th, 1653, upon the petition 
and complaint of Mr. John Richbell of Mamaroneck, gentleman, against the 
inhabitants of Rye, concerning some lands, it was thought fit by the governor 
and council that the inhabitants of Rye, or some deputed by them for that pur- 
pose, do show cause at the next court of assize to be held in the county of 
Westchester, why the said land do not of right belong and appertain to Mr. 
John Richbell. c 

The patentee must have been subsequently confirmed in his 
rights, as further grants were made by himself and wife the same 
year to John Nelson, and in 16S4 to James and Mary Mott. Iq 
16S5 Anne Richbell conveys property in this town to Henry Dis- 
brow, Richard Ward, John Rider, John Emerson and others. 

«^ Alb. Rec. III. 276. 

b A second mortgage from the patentee to Stenwyck occurs on the 6th of August, 
1678. Upon the 12th May, 1675, the patentee mortgaged to Robert Richbell, jr. 
of Southampton, England, one of the three necks called the great or middle neck ; 
this was afterwards assigned to Samuel Palmer, July 7, 1676. 

c Council Min. Alb. No. V. 47. 

d Council Minutes, Alb. No. V. 58. 


A, D. 1G9G. Aline Riclibell orders that the lot formerly belong- 
ing to tlie Blackiuns, containing two acres and thirty-lwo rods, 
be laid out for my son John Emerson. ^ 

The death of the patentee, John Richbell, appears to have taken 
place so.netime in January, 16S4, as we find Mr. John Timan 
petitioning the o^overnor and council for administration on the 
estate of John Richbell, January IGth, 1084.^ 

The following extracts are taken from the will of Mrs. Anne 
Richbell, his wile, which bears date 1st of April, A. D. 1700. 

"In the name of God, amen. I, x\nn Richbell, of the lown of Mamaroneck, 
in the county of Westchester, in the province of New York, gentlewoman, 
being sick and weak in body, but of good and perfect memory, (blessed be the 
Lord for it.) who hath now put it info my heart to set my house in order, by 
making this my last will and testament, in rnanner as followeth : Imprimis, I 
give and bequeath my soul into the hands of Alnr.ighty God, my creator, and 
my body to the earth fiom whence it came, to a decent and comely burial at 
ihe direction of Colonel Caleb Ileaihcote. 

*']Mr. Richbell Mott and Lt. John Horton, I make my executors of this my 
last will and testament, and for this worldly estate which it hath pleased the 
I^)rd to endow me withal, &c. Imprimis, to my daughter Elizabeth the sum 
of Bo/, and my gold ring with the emerald stone in it and my little bible. To 
my daughter Anne tlie sum of 60/, and also my gold chain. To my grand- 
daughter, Anna Gedney, Mary \Ailliams and Mary Mott, each 40/. and to my 
said grandd;iughter Mary, my biggest gold ring. I give and bequeath to my 
son-in-law James Mott 14/. and to my grandson James Mott, the son of Capt. 
James Mutt, 15/," &c. &c . 

Elizabeth and Anno, tlie two devisees mentioned in the above 
will, were the sole issue of the patentee. Elizabeth, the eldest, 
n:arried Captain James Mott, (son of Adam Mott.) H'heir des- 
cendants still reside in the town. Anne married John Emerson. 
The patentee left one brother, Robert Richbell of Southampton, 
in Encrland, father of Robert Richbell, who succeeded his uncle 
in a portion of the Mamaroneck estates. ^ 

» Town Rec. 

t Council Min. A!b. No. V. ]04. 

< .^nrrogalp's Off. N. Y. Hec. Wille, No. ii. O-?. 

<J For a cojil!uualioii oftliis family, sec pedigree. 


A, D. 1700, Ihe Hon. Caleb Heathcote became legtilly seized in 
fee of the greatest portion of tlie eastermost neck, together with 
other lands, having in 1696 obtained a patent right from Mrs. 
Anne Richbell to purchase lands which were already included in 
her husband's sale of 1660. 

On the 21st day of March, 1701, King William III. by letters 
patent, granted and confirmed inito Caleb Heathcote 

" All that tract of land in Westchester county, beginning at a marked tree 
by Mamaroneck river, which is the eastermost side of the nori hern bounds of 
]\Iamaroneck township, being about two miles from the country road and to run 
along the said river to the head thereof, and thence on a northern line, until 
eighteen miles from the said marked trees is completed westerdly, at the said 
marked tree or a great rock ; being the westernmost part of the said northern 
bounds of the aforesaid township, being about two miles from the said country 
road, and thence run southerly eighteen miles as the line on the eastermost 
side of the said land runneth, including therein his eighth part of the two 
miles laid out from the town of Mamaroneck, with the lot he then lived on, 
and the lot bought of Alice Hatfield with the land and meadow below, wester- 
ly to a path to him belonging by virtue of his deeds and conveyances, part of 
^ which lands within the bounds aforesaid was purchased by John Richbell from 
the native Indian proprietors, which said John Richbell had a grant and con- 
firmation for the same from Colonel Francis Lovelace, Esq.'' 

Tlie Hon. Caleb Heathcote subsequently enlarged his estates 
by further purchases and confirmations from the Indians. 

One of these indentures bears date 26ili May, 1701, betwixt 
the Indian proprietors, Patthunk, Beopoa, Wapetuck, Kohawaes 
and Racheshund, on the one part, and Colonel Caleb Heathcote 
of Mamaroneck, gentleman, on the oiher part, wherein the for- 
mer in consideration of a good and hiwful sum of money, to them 
in hand paid by the said Caleb Heathcote, &c.. 

Sell, alien, enfeofFe and confirm, &c. a certain tract of land lying and be- 
ing in the county of Westchester, bounded as follows : to begin on the east 
side of the country road, going over at Mamaroneck river, and so to run as the 
road goes, as far as a creek or brook, known by the name of Pipin's brook, 
adjoining the neck known by tlie name of the great neck, including therein 
all the land and meadow below the said road southward to the Sound, and to 
begin at the bridge which lyes over the swamp, known by the name of the 
Dirty swamp, on the New York road, on the east side, and at the going over 
of Pipin's brook, as the New York road goes, on the west side, and so to rua 



as high into ihe woods as the marked trees on the southermost end of Rich- 
bell's or Horse ridge, having one hundred rods in breadth between the said 
lines, to have and to hold, &c. the said bargained premises with all of their 
appurtenances thereunto belonging, to the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and 
assignees for ever, &c. 

The mark of 
Patt O hunke. 
The mark of 

The mark of 


Sig. sealed and delivered 
in presence of 
Anne Millington, 
Hugh Farquhar. 
The mark of 

The mark of 

The mark of 


The mark of 




10 June, 1701. Patthunek, Brope, Wepetuck, Indian proprietors sell to 
Colonel Caleb Heathcote, Captain James Mott, William Pennoyer, John 
Williams, Henry Disbrow, Oliver Hatfield, John Disbrough and Benjamin 
Disbrough a lot or parcel of land bounded as followelh, " To begin at West- 
chester path by Mamaroneck river and runs as the river doth to the marked 
trees at the eastermost side of the two mile bounds, from thence as was laid 
out to the marked trees on the southermost end of Richbell's ridge, from 
thence to Dirty swamp ridge in a direct line, and from said ridge as the road 
goeth to Mamaroneck river, each party above mentioned to have and to hold 
their allotments and divisions as already laid out, and according to their deeds 
of John and Mrs. Richbell. 

Sig. sealed and delivered Patthunek. 

in the presence of us, Wapetuck. 

Joseph Hiatt, 

Joseph Purdy. 

In the year 1700, Sa:nuel Palmer of Mamaroneck obtained an 
assignment of the great neck from Robert Richbell, former mort- 
gagee under his uncle John Richbell. 

Upon the 5th of November, 1701, Ann Hook, Indian sachem, 
released to Samuel Palmer, 

" All that my parcel of land formerly called Mangopson neck, now called 
by the name of the great neck, &c., bounded easterdly by a brook, called by 
name Pipin's brook, which runs into the salt water creek, and so running 
round along by the Sound, and so running up to a brook called by the name of 
Cedar or Pine tree brook, together with a parcel of land running up said brook 
by a range of marked trees until this meet with the marked trees of Colonel 


Caleb Heathcote, and from thence running by the aforesaid range of marked 
trees, down to the said Pipings brook, to the aforesaid salt water creek, with 
all and singular the members, rights, privileges and appurtenances thereunto 
belonging, &c. 

The mark of Ann Hook, 
Signed, sealed and delivered 
in presence of us, 
Benj. Collier. 

The heirs of Samuel Palmer, viz. Obadiah, Solomon, Nehc- 
miah, and Sylvanus subsequently sold the great neck, (contain- 
ing three hundred and twenty acres,) to Josiah Quinby. It ap- 
pears that Adolph Philipse and Jacobus van Cortlandt purchased 
(in the lifetime of John Richbell,) the fee simple of certain lands 
in Mamaroneck, embracing one full and equal half moiety of the 
west neck ; the whole of which afterwards became vested in the 
person of Frederick Philipse. This individual eventually claim- 
ed the whole territory north of Westchester path lying above 
the great neck, so that when the surveyor general, on the ISth 
of November, 1724, commenced the survey of the great neck, he 
was stopped by Philipse, when he came above Westchester path. 
The surveyor however continued the original line until he came 
to Bronx's river, here again he was opposed by Philipse who for- 
bad and warned him at his peril to proceed any further, as he 
claimed all the land beyond Bronx's river by a different title. 
The twenty mile line north of the great neck would have carried 
the Richbell patent nearly to the Croton river. The whole 
matter ultimately came before the court of chancery, on the 
2d of May, 1727.^ 

On the 8th of December, 1708, William and Thomas Pennoyer 
did grant unto Caleb Heathcote their home lot, laid out to them 
by the inhabitants of Mamaroneck ; also certain lands situated on 
the west neck. 

In 1724, Henry Pennoyer sold certain lands in the village to 
Polycarpus Nelson. 

In the field book belonging to the Secretary of States office, oc- 

• Chancery Rec, Albany. 


curs a map containing tlie survey and division of all the certain 
tracts and parcels of land lying on Mamaroneck, Scarsdale and 
Harrison purchase, in the county of Westchester, the property of 
Caleb Heathcote, Esq., in his lifetime, and which remain unsold 
by him or his descendants since his death whereof we the sub- 
scribers were appointed commissioners by virtue of an act of the 
Lieutenant Governor, the Council and the General Assembly of 
the colony of New York, entitled an act for the more effectual 
collecting of his majesty's quit rents in the colony of New York, 
and for partition of lands in order thereto, which said lands we 
have laid out into three divisions, viz.: Division No. 1 or north 
division; division No. 2 or middle division; division No. 3 or 
south division ; north division laid out into 21 lots, two small 
lots in the possession of William Barker ; lots No. 16 and 17 con- 
troverted lands in his division. Division No. 2 divided into 9 
lots for the proprietors ; division No. 3 or south division laid out 
into 11 lots; immbers 4, 5, 6 and Tare controverted; the re- 
maining lots uncontroverted. Lots No. 13 and 18, and 2 small 
lots in the possession of William Barker ; the first lot, north di- 
vision, and lot No. 7 in the middle or second division, distin- 
guished on the map by a certain red line, which together contains 
320 acres, 2 roods, 10 rods, are set apart for sale in order to defray 
expenses of division, 6cc., &.c. In witness whereof, as well the 
said commissioners as the surveyor by us appointed, have here- 
unto set their hands at Mamaroneck, in the county of Westches- 
ter, the sixteenth day of August, in the year of our Lord, 1724. 

Philip Pell, ^ 

Jacobus Bleecker, > Co7nmissioners. 

William Sutton, ) 

Charles Webb, — ^^urveyor. 

The following is a receipt for quit-rent due the crown on the 
Richbell Patent : 

*' Received of Nehemiah Palmer and Co., 70 bushels and 3 
pecks of uheat in full of the proprietors for quit-rent, (being 3 
bushels and 30 quarts per annum,) due on the tract of land in 
Westchester County, granted to John Richbell, the 16th of Octo- 

To ^e« pBg« 2^7, roL t. 


Arms borue by the Huguenot, D'or a uii aigle de sable, ayant les 
A l£ince in pale with a flag its point in chief, debruised a 

Etienne de Lancey, 

Hon. James de l.ancey^Anneda. of 

nat. 1693, ob. 30 July, 

Col. Caleb 

Brig. G 
Briiisl] 1 

1 Capt. JameSz=Margaret da. 
of Bath, So- of Ch. Jusiice 

3 John Peter of=ElizabPth da. 

mer?et, Eng. 
of Gen Ab- 
ercrombie at 

Allen of Allen- 
town, Peiiu. 



an officer 

lieut. col. 

in the 

in the l8t 



navy, ob. 


6. p. 

eldest heir 

male of the 

De Lancey 


hill, nat. 15 
July, 1753. ob 
31 Jan. I82d. 


of Col. Rich rd 
Floyd, twt. Aug 
1758, ob. 7 May, 

2 Stephen 
of North 

Thomas James=Mary Jane 

nat. 12 Aug 
1789, ob 28 
Dec. 1822. 

da. of 




nat. 18 

ob. 29 


Thomas James 

proprietor of 

De Lancey neck, 


John de Lane 

EIizabeth=Gov. falea 


ber 166S, bcini,M>om tbe25ili of Marcb, 178-1 tollic 25ih of March 
last, as witnobs rny band ibis I2ib of jmie, 1752. 
Wheat reckoned at 4s. Od. a biisbcL 

lliciTAiiD NicoLL, Deprdy General Receiver, 

A subsequent parlUioii of Colonel lleafbcote's estates took 
place between bis two daughters and co-heiresses, Anne and 
Martha. Anne lieathcote married the Hon. James de Lancey, 
son of Etienne de Lancey. 

The De Lanceys, of Mamaroneck, are a branch of tlic ancient 
and honorable house of De Lanci, in France,*'^ springing froni 
Jean de Lanci. Ecuyer, Vjcomte of Laval and Nouvian, who was 
born in the latter part of the fifteentli ceritury, and died ^lay, 
1525. The De Lancies were decreed to belong to the ancient no- 
bility of France in the fourteenth century. Under Louis do 
Bourbon, Bishop and Duke of Laon, they held the hereditary fief 
of the Four banier of Laval;'^ they were also the lords of other 
lands^ such as Rarai, Nouvian, DLIaramont, Ribecoupt, Pimpre, 
St. Germain et Ruy, and hereditary castellans of the castle and 
domains of Bdthizv and V^erberie.= 

t The French members of this family spelt llie last syliable of the surname with 
an i, in place of the ey. 

b This fief was probably holden by the feudal service of the banner or lance — 
hence the surname De Lanci. The ancient coat armor (borne by the Huguenot in 
1687) was a shield of gold, bearing thereon a black eagle with its wings expanded, 
charged upon the breast with a blue escutcheon, containing three lances in pale. 
This coat was subsequently changed by tlie second English branch. 

= L'armorial general d'France ; 2d Register, 2 vol. : King's Library, Paris. In 
front of the altar at the Church of Verberie, (department of Oise, P>ance,) thera 
is a tombstone erected to a member of this family, inscribed 

D. O. M. 

Ici repose 

Haute et puissante Dame 

Madame Frantoise de Lanci Rarai, uuine 

des Terres et Seigueurits, d'Haramont, Ribecoupt, 

Pimpre, St. (iermain ct Ruy, en partie Chatelaine 

Hereditaire et engagisie des Domaines de Bothizy 

ct Verberie, possidrs par ses pores depuis plus 

decent aus veuve dc ]\Iessire Barihclemi de 

Vol. 1. ">S 

To tU90 pag<! itdT, vvt i. 


Arms boriio by the Huguenot. D'or a un aigle de sable, ayant les ailes etendueset charge sur Testomac d'un eousson d*azure, a trois lances rangees eu pale ; les poiutes ea hant Present Arms, azure. 
A lance in pale with a flag its point iii chief, debruised nf a bar or. Crest, a sinister arm in armour embowed, holding a standard, with flag. Motto, certum voto pete fluem. 

Etienne de Lancey, a native of Caen, Normandy=Anne, da. of Hon. Stephanas van Corllandt, nal. 13 Feb. 1676. 

sde l.ancey=Anneda. of 

Oliver deLnncey_.Phl(a Franks 
Brig. Ihe I 

Peler de Lancey^AUce da. of Cad- 
I wullader Ojiden, 
Gov. of N. Y. 

Susan:=Adniital Sir Peter Warren 

Anne=Jolm Walts 

1 Capt. Janie8=Mnr(!or«!t da, 
nf Biith, So- nfCli. JuBilct 

3 John Peler of^EllznbPth da. 

inerfet, Eng. 
o( Gen Ab 
ercronibie ut 

Alien of All. 
town, Peiiti. 



an officer 

lieut. col. 

In the 

In llic Int 




s. p. 

elilesl hi'lr 


De Lancey 

family . 

hill, nnt. IS 
:U Jan. 182d. 

of Col. Richrd 
Floyd, 1^at. Aug 
n5B, Ob. 7 May, 

2 Stephen lUaria=William Walton 

of North father of Rear 

Salem, Admiral Jacob 


Lt Col. Stephen:;=Misa Barclay 
of the Rev 
of the British Henry, rector 
W. Indian Isl- of Trinity Ch. 
ands. N. Y. 

Capt. Oliver of Che 17th 
Lt Dragoons, Major and 
Jjt. Col suci^eeded Maj. 
Andre as Adjutant Gen. 
Pitt made Iiiin Barrack- 
Mr. Gen of the British 
Empire.Col.of 17tii Lan- 
cers, M.P. ob. 1825. 

Left one son, Capt. Oliver 


Thomas James^Mary Jane 
nat. 12 Aug I da. of 

1789, ob 28 Thomas 

Thomas Jamea 

proprietor of 

De Laiicey neck, 


Edward Floyd 

nat. 18 J line. 

ob. 29 Oct. 


William Heaihcote— Frances 
Bishop of iheDio- da. of 
cese of Western peter Jay 
N. Y. proprietor Munro 
uf Heaihcote hill, 

Sir William Heathcote=:Magdnlen Sarah=CoI. William Johtison 

aiiarter Master General, da of Sir snn of Sir John John, 

fell at WaierliKi, aid to Jai. Hull, son, ob. 1811. 
the Duke of Wellint; on. 

Jobnde Lancey= Dorothy Ludlnm 

I ob. 27 0ct 1773. 

=2 Miss Morgan 

Ollver=RacheI Hunt 
ob. Sep. I ob. Jan. 6, 
4, 182tl, 1827, tEl. 60. 

Warren coI.=l Mary Lawrence 
17lhLt. Ura- | 2 Ann Taylor 
goons in I7e0 3 Rt^becca Law- 

Elizabeth=Gov. Yaiei 




of N. 






S 2 S. 5 = i 

3. E 


ber 1668, being from the 25th of March, 1784 to the 25ih of March 
last, as witness my hand this 12th of June, 1752, 
Wheat reckoned at 4s. 6d. a bushel. 

Richard Nicoll, Deputy General Receiver, 

A subsequent partition of Colonel Heathcote's estates took 
place between his two daughters and co-heiresses, Anne and 
Martha. Anne Heathcote married the Hon. James de Lancey, 
son of Etienne de Lancey. 

The De Lanceys, of Mamaroneck, are a branch of the ancient 
and honorable house of De Lanci, in France, ^^ springing from 
Jean de Lanci, Ecuyer, Vicomte of Laval and Nouvian, who was 
born in the latter part of the fifteenth century, and died May, 
1525. The De Lancies were decreed to belong to the ancient no- 
bility of France in the fourteenth century. Under Louis do 
Bourbon, Bishop and Duke of Laon, they held the hereditary fief 
of the Four banier of Laval ;•* they were also the lords of other 
lands, such as Rarai, Nouvian, D'Haramont, Ribecoupt, Pimpre, 
St. Germain et Ruy, and hereditary castellans of the castle and 
domains of Bothizv and Verberie.^ 

* The French members of this family spelt the last syllable of the surname with 
an i, in place of the ey. 

b This fief was probably holden by the feudal service of the banner or lance — 
hence the surname De Lanci. The ancient coat armor (borne by the Huguenot in 
1687) was a shield of gold, bearing thereon a black eagle with its wings expanded, 
charged upon the breast with a blue escutcheon, containing three lances in pale. 
This coat was subsequently changed by the second English branch. 

« L'armorial general d'France ; 2d Register, 2 vol. : King's Library, Paris. In 
front of the altar at the Church of Verberie, (department of Oise, France,) ther^ 
is a tombstone erected to a member of this family, inscribed 

D. O. M. 

Ici repose 

Haute et puissante Dame 

Madame FRANqoisE de Lanci Rarai, dame 

des Terres et Seigneuries, d'Haramont, Ribecoupt, 

Pimpre, St. Germain et Ruy, en partie Chatelaine 

Hereditaire et engagiste des Domaines de Bothizy 

et Verberie, possides par ses peres depuis plus 

decent aus veuve de Messire Barth61emi de 

Vol. 1. 38 


The only son of Jean de Lanci, Vicomte of Laval and Nou- 
vian, was Charles de Lanci, Ecuyer,^ also Yicomte of Laval, (fcc. 
This individual (who held the fief of the Fonr banier of Laval) 
married Marie Yilliers, by whom he left issue two sons, Charles 
de Lanci, Ecuyer, Yicomte of Laval, living in 1534, and Chris- 
topher de Lanci, ancestor of the Lords of Rarai.b From a branch 
of this family came Elienne or Stephen De Lancey, a native of 
Caen, in Normandy. 

During the troublesome times which preceded the edict of 
NantZj the De Lancies of Caen appear to have suffered severe- 
ly for their devotion to the Hugnenot cause. In 1681 Stephen 
de Lancey was one of those who fled from France, " to escape 
the tyranny and bigotry of Louis XIV. He appears to have 
been aided in his flight by a Protestant mother, who not only 
gave him the passports of education for his safety, but jewels, 
which enabled him in Holland to procure what was necessary to 
appear in New York as a wealthy merchant." *' In the year 
1724 (says the historian Dunlap) Governor Burnet was involved 
in a dispute with Mr. Etienne de Lancey, who is represented as 
a rich man, and the principal benefactor of the French Church 
established in New York by the refugees who fled from the Re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantz. 

The governor took part with Monsieur Le Ronx, in opposi- 
tion to the clergymen upheld by De Lancey and a majority of 
the congregation ; and M. de Lancey, being returned as a mem- 
ber of Assembly, Burnet refused to administer the oath to him, 
upon the ground that he was not a subject of the crown. De 
Lancey replied that he was made a denizen in England, " in a 
patent of denization granted in the reign of James II., and under 

Flahant Chevalier seigneur de la Billarderie Maitre 

de camp de Cavalerie, exempt des gardes du corps 

du Roi iu6 a la bataille de Mai plaquet. La dite 

Dame de la Bellarderie est decedee le 25 Juin, 1724, 

agee de 61 ans 

Priez pour sou ame. 

» The French Ecuyer denotes a gentleman who possesses coat armor. 

t L'armorial General du France, 2 Register, 2 vols. King's Lib. Paris. 


the seal of this province in 1686." The house decided in favor 
of De Lancey, but a feud existed between him and many of the 
Protestants against Burnet. The Assembly claimed the right of 
judging of their own members ; and although the governor still 
held a majority, his conduct in this case was considered uncon- 
stitutional ! and his opposition to De Lancey to have originated 
in the latter's espousing the French trade, in opposition to Bur- 
net's plan of trade by Oswego."^. Soon after De Lancey's arri- 
val in New York, he entered into partnership with his brother-in- 
law, Monsieur Barbarie, and the latter's son-in-law, Mr. Moore. 
In 1691 we find him assistant alderman of the south ward ; in 1711 
alderman, and in 1727 member of Assembly. He v/as also for 
many years a vestryman of Trinity Church. By his wife, Anne 
van Cortlandt, Stephen de Lancey left issue James, Oliver, Peter, 
Susan and Anne. The eldest son, James de Lancey, was a man 
of great talents. This individual received his education at the 
University of Cambridge, and was called, whilst at college,^ the 
handsome American. He afterwards returned to his native land, 
and held the first honors which the country could bestow — first 
as a member of the governor's council, chief justice in 1744,c and 
lieutenant-governor of the State of New York in 1717.^ In 1754 
Governor De Lancey gave his sanction to the act of incorporating 
King's, now Columbia College. He is praised for his political skill 
in successfully preserving to the Assembly the right of annual ap- 
propriation, and evading the prohibition of the crown to issuing 
bills of credit. The historian Smith, his political enemy, allows 
him genius, a retentive memory, and ready elocution. 

The Hon. James de Lancey married Anne, daughter and co- 
heiress of the Hon. Caleb Heathcote, lord of the manor of Scars- 
dale. "His death, which took place 30th of July, 1760, was an 
event which had a great influence on the affairs of this province. 
He was found expiring upon that morning, seated in his chair, 

» Dunlap's Hist, of N. Y. vol. i. 288. 

b Corpus Christi College. 

« The date of his commission as chief justice occurs Sept. 14, 1744 

«3 The date of his commission as Lieut. Governor, Oct. 27, 1747, 



too late for medical aid. His funeral took place on the evening 
of the 31st of July, 1760. The body was deposited in the mid- 
dle aisle of Trinity Uhurch, the funeral service being performed 
by the Rev. Mr. Barclay in great magnificence : the building was 
splendidly illuminated. The order of the funeral procession from 
his house in the Bowery to the church, fills columns of the papers 
of the day."a 


Seal and Signature of the Hon. James <ic Lancey. 

The following particulars (relating to this distinguished man,) 
are copied from a memorandum written by John Watts, Esq., of 
New York, in 1787. 

"James de Lancey was a man of uncommon abilities in 
every view, from the law, to agriculture, and an elegant pleasant 
cgmpanion, what rarely unites in one person. It seemed doubt- 
ful which excelled, his quick penetration, or his solid judgment ; 
the first seemed an instant guide to the last. He was born in 
1704, married while young, Anne, eldest daughter of Caleb 
Heathcote, was appointed by Governor Montgomerie, a member 
of the council, by Governor Cosby, Chief Justice, in the room of 
Lewis Morris. Upon the death of Sir Darius Osborn, about 
1754, he succeeded to th^ administration as Lieutenant Governor. 

No man in either office had more the love and confidence of 
the people, nor any man before nor since, half the influence. 

• Pai^Ker's Post Boy, I5i'nlap'« Hist, of N. Y. vol. i. 402, 


He was unfortunately taken from us in July, 1760, so suddenly, 
that his very family suspected no danger. He had spent very 
agreeably the day before on Staten Island ; after ten at night he 
left my house perfectly well : in the morning he was as usual ; 
but, about nine, a servant was despatched to tell me his master 
was very ill. 1 mounted instantly, and hurried to his house in 
Bowery lane ; but, on the way was alarmed by a call, " that all 
was over," and too true 1 found it, he sat reclined in his chair one 
leg drawn in, the other extended, his arms over the elbows, so 
naturally, that had I not been apprized of it, I certainly should 
have spoken as 1 entered the room. No body but his youngest 
daughter, a child, was present at the time. So little did the fam- 
ily apprehend the least danger. Never did these eyes behold such 
a spectacle, or did my spirits feel such an impression ; the idea 
aifects me whenever I think of it, to lose such a companion, such 
a counsellor, such a friend. This accomplished person and or- 
nament to his country, left three sons and three daughters, viz. 
Captain James, Stephen, John Peter, Maria, Anne and Susan.'^^ 
Soon after the demise of his brother, John Peter de Lancey 
became possessed of the Mamaroneck estates ^' which formerly 
belonged to his grandfather, Col. Caleb Heathcote." Upon the 
28th of January, 1823, John Peter de Lancey devised his property 
in this town to Thomas James de Lancey, ^ the only child of his 
deceased son Thomas James, and his son William Heathcote de 
Lancey,c (Bishop of the diocese of Western New York,) the pre- 
sent proprietors. 

a Copied from a memorandum written by John Watts of New York, in 1787, 
found among the papers of his daughter, the late Mrs. Leake. 

b A portion of the property came to the present Thomas James de Lancey from 
his father, who held by conveyance from John Peter de Lancey. 

<= In the spring of 1847, when Bishop De Lancey was in New York, a package 
was handed to the servant at the door, on opening which, the Bishop found an 
anonymous letter directed to him. The writer stated, that being in England be- 
tween thirty and forty years ago, he found some papers relating to the De Lancey 
family, among some waste paper in the house where he was staying, that he had 
preserved them, and seeing by the newspapers that the Bishop was in the city, 
he now enclosed them to him. These the Bishop found to be ; 1st, the commission 
of James de Lancey as Lieut. Governor of the colony : 2d, his commission as Chief 
Justice of the colony ; 3d, the freedom of the city of New York, voted to pne of ths 


Martha Heathcote, the second surviving daughter of Col, Caleb 
Heathcoie, married Lewis Johnston of Perth Amboy.a In the 
year 1771, the above Martha, conveyed all her right and title to 
her husband. 

There is a deed recorded in the town books, between Anne 
de Lancc}^, daughter of Col. Caleb Heathcote, widow of the 
Hon. James de Lancey, deceased, and Lewns Johnston of Perth 
Amboy, physician, of the one part, and William Sutton of Mama- 
roneck, on the other part. 


Anne de Lancey. 
John Johnston, Heathcote Lewis Johnston, 

Johnston by Anne de Lancey. 

In presence of, John Johnston and Susannah de Lancey. 
John Johnston the eldest son and heir at law of Lewis John- 
ston and Martha Heathcote, died in 1782, leaving issue by his 
wife Margaret Barbaric, five sons and two daughters. Heath- 
cote the third son, is the father of Susannah Snowhill Ward, 
wife of the Rev. John M. Ward, Rector of the parish. 

This lady is the only representative of the Johnston family, 
resident in Mamaroneck. 

In the town clerk's office is a small manuscript volume en- 
titled : 

" This is the book of records for Mamaroneck." 
The first entry commences April 2d, 1697. 

Lieutenant Samuel Palmer, Supervisor. 
Captain James Mott, Assessor. 
Henry Disbrow, Collector. 

Henry Disbrow, Surveyor of the highways. 

Lt. William Palmer, Constable and also clerk. 
At a meeting held by the freeholders of Mamaroneck, on the 18th 
day of April, in the year 1702, the following officers were chosen : 

family, in 1730 ; 4th, a map of the lands owned by them in Westchester county 
and on New York Island, prepared by the Bishop's grandfather. 

a The father of Lewis, was John Johnston, M. D., of Edinburgh, who married 
Euphemia Scot, on the 18th of April, 1686. John Johnston died at Perth Amboy, 
6 Sept. 1732, aetat 73. The brother of T^ewis, Andrew Johnston, married Catha- 
rine van Corllandt. 


Captain James Mott, Supervisor. 

Nehemiah Palmer, Constable. 

Obadiah Palmer, Clerk, 

John Nelson, Assessor. 

John Disbrow, Collector. 

Henry Disbrow, Surveyor of highways. 
Samuel Palmer and William Penoyer, chosen fence viewers. 
Col. Caleb Heathcote and Samuel Palmer, chosen to lay out high- 
ways by John Wems, as they shall see most convenient. 

The village of Mamaroneck is very pleasantly situated at the 
head of a fine bay near its confluence with the Mamaroneck 
river. The channel of the former admits at hiorh water, vessels 
carrying one hundred tons to the landing. Indian creek, the 
northwest channel of the bay, leads to the old ship yard which 
formerly stood near the western entrance of the village ; the site 
was presented to the town by the Johnston family. Vast quan- 
tities of flounders are frequently taken by means of fykes, in this 
channel. Black fish, sheeps head and striped bass abound in 
the waters of the bay. The Mamaroneck river above men- 
tioned, forms the eastern boundary of the town, and derives its 
source from Horton's pond. This stream is more remarkable for 
the romantic valleys it forms, and the rich country it winds 
through, than for its extent, being generally buried within deep 
banks. Near its junction with the Sheldrake, (directly north of 
the village) it forms a beautiful valley between high rolling hills, 
upon the sides of which, are boulders of enormous size. 

In the immediate vicinity of the bridge, the waters become 
merged in an extensive mill pond, which discharges a stream 
sufiicient to propel several manufactories. 

The Sheldrake rises from two springs in Scarsdale.^ The gene- 
ral surface of the surrounding country is hilly, and abounds in 
wild and romantic scenery. 

Mamaroneck, is one of the most ancient villages in the county 
having been laid out soon after the purchase in 1660. It now 

» The Sheldrake Springs are situated on the laud of John Hatfield. 


contains fwo chnrcIieSj two cotton factories, several stores and 
about 50 dwellings. a 

The former divisions of the high ridge, originally called *'good 
snccess ridge," (facing the bay and post road) are still distinguished 
by the names of their original propi ietors, viz., Heathcote, Nelson 
and Bndds' hills. Near the entrance of the village from the west 
is situated Heathcote hill, the property of the Rt. Rev. William 
Heathcote de Lancey, whose family formerly resided here. At 
present occupied by Mrs. Ludlow. 

The De Lancey residence stands upon the site of a stately 
brick edifice, erected by Colonel Caleb Heathcote, sometime pri- 
or to 1704, and destroyed by fire during the revolution. 

Heatbeote Hill, Mamaroneck. 

Madame Knight in her journey to Boston, A. D., 1704, thus de- 
scribes the place. 

" From N. Rochelle we travelled through Merrinack, a neat 

though little place, with a navigable river before it, the pleasant- 

est [ ever see. There are good buildings, especially one, a very 

fine seat^ which they told me ivas Col. Heathcote's^ who I heard 

was a very fine gentleman.^ The grounds around the present 

• The Westchester and New Haven rail road depot is situated immediately 
north of the village. 

t Journal of Madame Knight, N. Y. edition, 1825. 


mansion are not extensive, but the views of the bay, adjacent 
necks and distant sound scenery, present a charming landscape. 
Fine rows of willows and locusts border the property on the 
south and east. A short distance from the dwelling house, sur- 
rounded by orchards, is the family cemetery of the De Lanceys. 
This spot was appropriated by John Peter de Lancey as a 
cemetery for the remains of the De Lancey family, and for that 
purpose devised to his son William Heathcote de Lancey in 
trust forever, &c. <fcc. 

Here repose the mortal remains of 

John Peter de Lancey, Elizabeth de Lancey, 

born in the city of New York wife of 

15 July, 1753, John Peter de Lancey, 

died at Mamaroneck born 

31 January, 1828. " 8 August, 1758, 

7 May, 1820. 

Thomas James de Lancey, 


August 12, 1789, 

DecV 28th, 1822. , ■ 

Besides other memorials to various members of the family. 

The adjoining estate upon the east is Nelson hill. This pro- 
perty formerly belonged to the Nelson family ; Polycarpus Nel- 
son having purchased it of Henry Penoyer, in 1725. 

Polycarpus died in 1738, leaving three sons, Polycarpus, Ed- 
ward and Maharshnlabar. The name of the latter is supposed to 
have been derived from his maternal ancestor Akabashka, one of 
the Indian witnesses to the sale of John Harrison in 1695. 

The two younger brothers devised their rights to Polycarpus. 
The property has since passed through the Horton, Ryer, Bailey, 
and Stanley families, to the present proprietor, Benjamin M. 
Brown, Esq. 

The house occupies a beautiful situation on the slope of the 

Vol. L 39 


hill overlooking the sound and Mamaroneck bay. This place is 
remnrkable for a very distinct echo, the true object of which ap- 
pears to be the opposite residence on Heathcote hill. In the still 
dewy evenings of summer, when the air is very elastic, and a 
dead stillness prevails, every word spoken in the neighboring 
house is plainly re-echoed from the northern bank. " Echo (says 
"White) has always been so amusing to the imagination that 
the poets have personified her; and, in their hands she has 
been the occasion of many a beautiful fiction. Nor need the 
gravest man be ashamed to appear taken with such a phenome- 
non, since it may become the subject of philosophical or mathe- 
matical inquiries.''^ 

Several members of the Nelson family are interred north of Mr. 
Brown^s residence. Upon the only tombstone remaining, are 
chiselled two open hands pointing to a heart, with the following 





A • CLOCK • IN • THE • MO 


1688 • I • FINNIST • MY • CORS 

AND • aVIT • THE • LAND • IN . 




The neighboring property was formerly vested in the Budd 
family, whose surname it still retains. The last member that 
occupied the estate was Col. Gilbert Budd, who served with great 
distinction in the continental army during the Revolution. This 
gentleman was the son of Underbill Budd of Budd's neck. Rye. 
The family cemetery is situated on that portion of the estate 
whicfi borders the Sheldrake, to the north of the village. 

* White's Selborne. 


Here repose the remains of 

Gilbert Budd,* 

who died Oct. 14th, 1805, 

aged 87 years. 

Whoe'er thou art, with silent footsteps tread 
The hollow mould where he reclines his head; 
Let not thoughtless mirth one dear deny. 
But pensive, pause, where truth and honour he. 
His the gay wit that fond attention drew, 
Oft heard delighted by the friendly few.; 
The heart, that melted at another's grief ; 
The hand, in secret, that bestowed relief. 
Perhaps e'en now, from yonder realm of day.» 
To his lov^'d relatives he sends a ray : 
Pleased to behold affections like his own. 
With filial duty raised this votive stone. 

Colonel Gilbert Budd, Jane Barker, 

who departed this life dec'd December, 

Sept. 7, 1808, 1754, aged 42. 

aged 69 years. 
There are also memorials to members of the Horton, Miller and 
Seaman families. 

The Episcopal church occupies a very pleasant position directly 
north of the main street. The building is a neat wooden struc- 
ture, valued at $5000. The foundation of the present edifice 
was laid A. D. 1823, and the church consecrated to the service of 
Almighty God on the 17th of June, 1823, under the name and 
title of St. Thomas's Church., Mamaroneck, by the Right Rev. J. 
H. Hobart, bishop of the diocese. Previous to the Revolution 
Mamaroneck constituted one of the appropriated towns of Rye 
parish, having been annexed thereto by acts of assembly, passed 
in 1693-7. In 1725 Mamaroneck contributed towards the rec- 
tors' tax £18, and in 1767, £19 2^. 6d. The name of John Dis- 
brow (vestryman from Mamaroneck) occurs in the church records 
of Rye, A. D. 1710. The parochial clergy appear to have offi- 

» Gilbert Budd, M. D., a distinguished surgeon, educated at Edinburgb, sou of 
John Budd. See Genealogy. 


ciated here at a very early period, as Madame Knight incidentally 
mentions in 1701, '^ that one Church of England parson officiated 
in all these three towns," viz. Rye, Mamaroneck and Horseneck, 
" once every Sunday in turns throughout the year."* The French 
clergy of New Rochelle also performed occasional services here; 
this we learn from the records of Trinity Church. 

Upon the 12th of April, 1814, the present parish was organized, 
and incorporated in accordance with the act passed on the 17th of 
March, 1795. At the first meeting of the congregation, held on 
Tuesday in Easter week, 1814, tne following gentlemen were 
chosen ofiicers for the ensuing year, viz. John Peter de Lancey 
and Peter Jay Munro, churchwardens. William Gray, Benj. 
Hadden, Henry Gedney, Samuel Deal, Abraham Guion, and Mat- 
thias G. Yalentine, vestrymen. ^ 

To this church is attached a handsome parsonage and glebe, 
the whole real estate being valued at $8000. The communion 
silver consists of a flaggon and a double set of chalices and pat- 
tens, inscribed 

St. Thomas's Church, Mamaroneck, New York, 1837. 

Besides a smaller set for the private administration of the holy 
eucharist. During the incumbency of the present rector the 
church has undergone considerable repairs ; the parsonage has 
also been purchased and greatly improved. In 1835-6, Trinity 
Church, New York, liberally endowed this church with the sum 
of $800. The first delegate from this parish to the diocesan 
convention was Guy C. Bayley, Esq. 


Institution or call. Incumbents. by resig. 

4 June, 1821, VVm. Heathcote de Lancey, Deacon, ditto. 

27 Sept. 1823, Lewis P. Bayard, Presb. ditto. 

• Madame Knight's Journal, p 59. 

b Religious Soc. Co. Rec, lib. A., 145. A second incorporation of this church 
took place oa the 9th of June, 18J7, when John Peter de Lancey and Peter Jay 
Munro were elected wardens; Jacob Mott, Guy C. Bayley, Monmouth Lyon, Ed- 
ward Floyd de Lancey, Benjamin Hadden, Henry Gedney, Benjamin Croker, and 
Thomas James de Lancey, vestrymen. Religious Soc. Lib. A. 159. 



24 Mar. 
21 Sept. 
24 Mar. 

2 Oct. 
11 Feb. 
17 Nov. 

8 Sept, 
14 July, 

5 July, 



William C. Mead, 
Lewis P. Bayard, 
Alexander H. Crosby, 
John M. Forbes, 
William M. Carmichael, 
Peter S. Chauncey, 
Robert W. Harris, 
William A. Curtis, 
John M. Ward, present inc 


















Notilia Parochialis. 
1847, communicants, 53, baptisms, 10. 

The Methodist society of this town was organized upon the 
8th of April, 1813, when the following gentlemen were elected 
trustees : Absalom Tompkins, John Bonnet, William Ward, Eli- 
slia Budd, Ransome Burtis, and William Ally.*^ The meeting 
house is a chaste edifice of wood located upon the highest sum- 
mit of Good Success ridge. 

^_^^g^ij^^^^^^^. _ Near the western en- 

' ^__ trance of the village 

"^ stands the ancient re- 

sidence of the Disbrow 
family, erected A. D. 
1677. Mrs. Sanford, 
the present occupant, 
being the eighth gen- 
eration that has resid- 
I ed upon this spot. The 
Disbrows were origin- 
ally from the county 
of Essex, t» England? 
and related to, if not 
immediately descended from Major General John Disborough or 
Disbrow, who married Anna Cromwell, sister of the Protector. By 


Disbrow House, Mamaroreck. 

» Co. Rec. Religious Soc. Lib. A. 14o. -,,..' 

b Mr. Moraut, in his history of Essex, gives the arms of the Disboroughs, argent 
a fesse, between three bears' heads muzzled, erased sable. 


this lady John Disboroiigh had seven sons, the youngest was Ben- 
jamin DisboroLigh, Esq. Samuel Disborough, Lord Keeper of Scot- 
land, a near relation of the Major General, was one of the first sett- 
lers of Guildford, Connecticut, A. D. 1650. "The town of Guildford, 
says Mr. Lambert, being from the first a component part of New 
Haven government, was allowed an assistant or magistrate. Mr. 
Samuel Disborough, who, next to Mr. VVhitefield, was esteemed 
the first and richest of the planters, was the first magistrate. 
After serving the colony in this capacity about twelve years, he 
returned to England in company with Mr. Whitefield. After the 
restoration of King Charles IL, he was a subject of royal favor 
and political distinction, and at one time was a member of the 
privy council."^ 

Peter Dishrow was one of the first and principal proprietors 
of Ryp, in 1660. John Disbrow, son of Peter, purchased lands of 
John Richbell in 1674. A second sale occurs in 1685. 

A. D. 168S. Henry Disbrow, son of John, conveys half 
his lands situated in Mamaroneck to his son Henry Disbrow. ^ 
Henry Disbrow of Mamaroneck, in 1690, releases a lot of 
ground lying in the town of Rye, which he formerly bought of 
John Wascot.c The Disbrow estate in this town originally 
consisted of 700 acres, including a valuable tract of wood-land, 
called the Hickory grove. 

The family relate the following tradition ; that in the early 
part of the last century, the Indians came in a large body to the 
present house and demanded immediate possession of the pro- 
perty. Fortunately the original title deeds had been carefully 
secured. They were now opened and shown to the Indians, Avho 
upon seeing their own signatures appeared perfectly satisfied, 
and instantly marched ofi', leaving the Disbrows in undisturbed 

* Lambert's Hif.t. of New Haven, p. 167. 
b Co. Rec. Lib. B. 21. 
^ Co Rec. Lib. B. G5. 

«i The old family bible, edited by Basket of London, A. D. 175G, contains the 
book of comtnjii prayer, and numerous fanoily entries. There is also preserved a 

To face page 310, vol i. 

Peter Disbrow of Rye, 16K 

Henry Disbrow, 1701, purchased lands in Mamaronecl 

Henry Disbrow of Mamaroneck^; .... 

Henry Disbrow_l Elizabeth Pell, Joseph, will 

uat. 1732 nat. May, n:i2 1756, No. 21, 

2 Anne Davis 

3 Martha Sands 

Henry Disbrow, nat. 25 Feb. 1755^AbigaiI Fowler, nat. Aug 3, 1750 
ob. Jan. 24, 1825, a?t. 69. m. 19 Jan. 1779, ob. 19 May, 1811 


Henry of N. RocheJIe John nat.= 
nat. 15 Jan. 17S0, ob. April 1786 
Aug. 1847 ob 28 Jan 


Henry of 
Sf. Jersey 

William of N. YGrk=Anne James Henry= 

nat. 25 Mar. 1794 

Robin- nat. 13 May 

sou iim 


Elizabeth^Gilbert Eebecca=Robert William H. David E G Adelaide 

UnderhiJI Mathieson 


this ladv John Disboroiigh had seven sons, the youngest was Ben- 
jamin Disboroiigh, Esq. Samuel Disborougli, Lord Keeper of Scot- 
land, a near relation of the Major General, was one of the first sett- 
lersofGuildfordjConnecticut, A.D. 1650. "The town of Guildford, 
says Mr. Lambert, being from the first a component part of New 
Haven government, was allowed an assistant or magistrate. Mr. 
Samuel Disborough, who, next to Mr. Whitefield, was esteemed 
the first and richest of the planters, was the first magistrate. 
After serving the colony in this capacity about twelve years, he 
returned to England in company with Mr. Whitefield. After the 
restoration of King Charles XL, he was a subject of royal favor 
and political distinction, and at one time was a member of the 
privy council."* 

Peter Disbrow was one of the first and principal proprietors 
of Rye, in 1660, John Disbrow, son of Peter, purchased lands of 
John Richbell in 1674. A second sale occurs in 1685. 

A. D. 1688. Henry Disbrow, son of John, conveys half 
his lands situated in Mamaroneck to his son Henry Disbrow.^ 
Henry Disbrow of Mamaroneck, in 1690, releases a lot of 
ground lying in the town of Rye, which he formerly bought of 
John Wascot.c The Disbrow estate in this town originally 
consisted of 700 acres, including a valuable tract of wood-land, 
called the Hickory grove. 

The family relate the following tradition ; that in the early- 
part of the last century, the Indians came in a large body to the 
present house and demanded immediate possession of the pro- 
perty. Fortunately the original title deeds had been carefully 
secured. They were now opened and shown to the Indians, who 
upon seeing their own signatures appeared perfectly satisfied, 
and instantly marched ofl', leaving the Disbrows in undisturbed 

* Lambert's Hif.t. of New Haven, p. 167. 
b Co. Rec. Lib. B. 21. 
' Co Roc. Lib. 13. G5. 

<i The old family bible, edited by Basket of London, A. D. 1150, contains the 
book of commjn prayer, and numerous family entries. There is also preserved a 

To face page 310, vol !. 

Arms, arg. a fesse between three boars' heads muzzled erased sa. 

Peter Disbrow, one of (he first and principal proprietors of Rye, in 1660, ob. 16. .:=Sarnh 


Peter Disbrow of Rye, 1693 

Jolin of Bye, J693, bought lands of Richbell in Mamaroiieck, A D 1674= 

Leda, 1693 Mary, 1693 

Henry Disbrow of Mamaroneclc, leSS^Margaret, 1701 

Henry Disbrow, 1701, purchased lands in Mamaroneclc of ihe lodiaas— . 

Hen^ Disbrow of Mamarooeck^ 

Jolin will dat. Sarah 
1751, Sur Rec I 
No. iviii, 13 

I da =neDry GrllTen 

Henry Disbrow—I Elizabeih Pell, Joseph, will dat. 

nat. 1732 l nal. May, n:)3 175G, No. 31, p. 396 

2 Anne Davis 

3 Martha Saads 

Jofan, W25=. 

Henry of N. R_ochelle John nat.= William of S. York=Anne James Henry=Marta tlerijamin^Clarifsa ElizabPlh=l John Coles Sarah, nat=Nicholas Polly nat. Jane nst. Thomas of Susi 

. 15 Jan ITBO, ob. April 1788 
Aug. im7 oil iSJJan 


Apr. 2Isaac Wilklns 18 Sep 1783 Morrill 17 ?ep 1791 Oct 13 Mamaroneck Barrel 

18j;ej 3 K I. Mnlhi.-son ob. 19 Sep 1795 

4 Rev. Mr Sandtbrd 1807 

Henry of Elizabeth=Gilbert Rebec<;a=Robcrt William H. David B George, ob. Edward Reginald H John van Buskiark Adelade Anne Maria Emily Ellii Caroline R EUzabelh Isabella E 

V. Jersey Uiideitlill Mathie«)n 


There are mimeroiis historical events in connection with Ma- 
maroneck, which deserve to be recorded here. 

The day previous to the battle of White Plains, Colonel 
Small wood of the American army surprised and cut off a large 
body of the enemy, under the command of Major Rogers, sta- 
tioned upon Nelson hill and its vicinity. The event is thus re- 
lated by General Heath: "Lord Sterling, who was before in this 
vicinity with his brigade, had formed an enterprise against Maj. 
Rogers's corps. The old Indian hunter of the last war, who had 
engaged in the British service, with his corps, now lay on the 
out-posts of the British army, near Mamaroneck, The enterprise 
was conducted with good address ; and if the Americans had 
known exactly how Rogers's corps lay, they would probably have 
killed or taken the whole. As it was, thirty-six prisoners, sixty 
muskets, and some other articles, were taken. The Major, con- 
formably to his former general conduct, escaped with the rest of 
his corps. This was a pretty affair ; and if the writer could re- 
collect the name of the commanding officer, with pride and plea- 
sure he w^ould insert it. He belonged to one of the southern 
lines of the army; and the whole of the party were southern 

On the 31st of January, 1777, a cordon of troops was ordered 
to be formed, to extend from Dobb's Ferry to Mamaroneck. 
" February 1, 1777. Foraging being now the object, a large 
number of teams were sent out towards Mamaroneck, and up- 
wards of eighty loads of forage were brought ofF."'^ 

The following letter of Gen. Samuel Parsons, dated at Mama- 
roneck, Nov. 21st, 1777, to Governor Tryon, with his answer, is 
copied from a newspaper printed at the time : — '' ^ 

" Sir : — Adding to the natural horrors of war the most wanton destruction 
of property, is an act of cruelty unknown to civilized nations, and unaccustomed 

silver headed walking-stick inscribed " Henry Disbrow, 1697." The above heir- 
looms are in the possession of WiUiam Disbrow of New York. 

»■ Heath's Mem. 74. Holt's Gazette. The dead who fell upon this occasioa 
were buried on the south east side of Nelson's hill. 

b Heath's Mem. 114. 


in war, until the servants of the King of Great Britain have convinced the 
impartial world, no act of inhumanity, no stretch of despotism, are too great 
to exercise toward those they term rebels. 

" Had any apparent advantage been derived from burning the house on 
Philips' manor, last Monday, there vrould have been some reason to justify the 
measure ; but when no benefit whatever can be proposed, by burning those 
buildings and stripping the women and children of necessary apparel, to cover 
them from the severity of a cold night, and captivating and leading in triumph 
to your lines, in the most ignominious manner, the heads of those families, I 
know not what justifiable cause to assign for those acts of cruelty ; nor can I 
conceive a necessity for your further order to destroy Tarrytown. 

" You cannot be insensible it is every day in my power to destroy the houses 
and buildings of Col. Philips, and those belonging to the family of De Lan- 
cey, each as near your lines as those buildings were to my guards; and not- 
withstanding your utmost diligence, you cannot prevent the destruction of ev- 
ery house this side of King's Bridge. It is not fear, it is not want of oppor- 
tunity that has preserved those buildings ; but a sense of the injustice and 
savageness of such a line of conduct has saved them ; and nothing but neces- 
sity will induce me to copy examples of this sort, so often set by your troops. 

" It is not my inclination, sir, to war in this manner, against the inhabitants 
within your lines, who suppose themselves within your king's protection. But 
necessity will oblige me to retaliate in kind upon your friends, to procure the 
exercise of that justice which humanity used to dictate, unless your explicit 
disavowal of your two captains, Emmerick and Barns, shall convince me these 
houses were burned without your knowledge and against your order. 
" I am, sir, your humble servant, 

" Samuel H. Parsons." 

Governor TryorCs answer, dated - ,.■:—<■ .^.- 

" King's Bridge Camp, Nov. 23dj 1777. 
" Sir : — Could I possibly conceive myself accountable to any revolted sub- 
ject of the king of Great Britain, I might answer your letter, received by the 
flag of truce yesterday, respecting the conduct of the party under Capt. Em- ■ 
merick's command upon the taking of Peter and Cornelius van Tassell ; I 
have, however, candor enough to assure you, as much as I abhor every princi- 
ple of inhumanity or ungenerous conduct, I should, were I in more authority, 
burn every committee man's house within my reach, as I deem those agents 
the wicked instruments of the continued calamities of this country ; and in 
order sooner to purge the country of them, I am willing to give twenty-five 
dollars for every acting committee man, who shall be delivered up to the king's 
troops : I guess, before the end of next campaign, they will be torn in pieces 
by their own countrymen, whom they have forcibly dragged in opposition to 
their principles and duty (after fining them to the extent of their property) to 


take up arms against their lawful sovereign, and compelling them to exchange 
their happy constitution for paper, rags, anarchy and distress. 

" The ruins from the conflagration of New York, hy the emissaries of your 
party last year, remain a memorial of their tender regard for their fellow be- 
ings exposed to the ' severity of a cold night.' 

"This is the first correspondence I have held with the king's enemies, on 
my part in America, and as I am immediately under the command of Sir 
Henjy Clinton, your future letters, dictated with decency, would be more prop- 
erly directed to his Excellency. 

" I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

"To Gen. Parsons.'' "William Tryon, Major General. 

This came on Sunday, the 23d inst., and by some means or 
other Gen. De Lancey's house at Bioomingdale, on York island, 
took fire on the 2oth, at night. f^ 

"The army marched on the 8th of July, 1778, in two col- 
umns to Mamaroneck ; the Queen's Rangers were, in front of 
that, on tlie right. On the 9th, the commander-in-chief marched 
with the army to Byram's Bridge : on leaving this camp, to re- 
turn to Mamaroneck, the next day, the Queen's Rangers formed 
the rear guard. Upon this march, three soldiers, straggling at a 
small distance from their huts, were taken by some militia ; Lieu- 
tenant Colonel iSimcoe expressed, in orders, "that he is the most 
sensibly affected at the loss of the three men, who straggled from 
their posts during the last march. He feels himself but ill repaid 
for the confidence he has placed in the regiment, and his inclina- 
tion to ease their duty, by never posting an unnecessary sentinel ; 
at the same time, he trusts, that, as this has been the first instance 
of the kind during the time he has had the honor of command- 
ing the Queen's Rangers, it will be the last ; and that the soldiers 
will reflect what they must suffer by a long imprisonment, from 
a mean and despicable enemy, who never has, or can gain, any 
advantage over them, but what arises frorn their own disobedience 
of orders."^ 

It was in the vicinity of ?,Iamaroneck that Lieut. Hickford, of 
the Refugee corps, overtook Col. White, of the Continental 

"^ Barber's Hist. Col. St. N. Y. p. 591, 59-2. 
b Simcoe's Mil. Jour. p. 102, 103. 

VoT . I, . > . 40 


army, upon his retreat from Morrisania. Some thirty strag- 
glers, who had taken refuge on the ice, were killed by the British 

De Lancey Neck, commonly called the Great or Middle Neck, 
lies immediately southwest of the village, upon the east side of 
which is situated Seaman's Point or Neck, the ancient Wanmai- 
nnck of the aborigines. This point obtained its present name 
from Giles Seaman, former proprietor, who married Lydia Mott, 
a lineal descendant of John Richbell, the patentee. The dwell- 
ing house and old Mott flirm are now owned by Mr. Isaac Hall. 
The former, a fine wooden structure, occupies a commanding 
position, overlooking the Bay and opposite shores of Bndd's Neck. 
Indeed, from this spot, the best view is obtained of the village. 

Upon the extremity of the Point there is a small cemetery, con- 
taining several memorials to members of the Bain, Disbrow, and 
Vanderbilt families. From the old Boston post-road a picturesque 
lane leads to the northwest extremity of De Lancey Neck, some- 
times called Long Beach Point. Extensive woods ornament 
the shores of the Neck, and add greatly to the beauty of the sce- 
nery. The present proprietors of the Great Neck are the Right 
Rev. William Heathcote de Lancey, and his nephew, Thomas 
James de Lancey, Esq. The former individual holds some four 
or five hundred acres on the east side, at present leased to Mr. 
William Doby. 

Next in order, we have the Prickly Pear Creek, Eagle Ham- 
mock, Barker's Hammock, and Munro's Gut, which constitutes 
the division line between the Great Neck proper and the Western 
Neck, now called Munro's Neck. Munro's Neck formerly be- 
longed to the Palmer family. Samuel Palmer, having obtained 
a confirmation for the same, under the hand of the Indian sa- 
chem Ann Hook, in the year 1700-L From the heirs of Samuel 
Palmer it passed by purchase to the late Peter Jay Munro in 
1798. From the Munros it was purchased by the present pro- 
prietor, Edward K. Collins, Esq., in 1845. 

The mansion erected by Peter Jay Munro occupies a de- 
lightful situation near the river, on the highest grounds of the 
Neck, commanding, on the south and east, extensive prospects of 
the Sound. A grateful air of seclusion has been studied in the 


arrangement of the grounds and the grouping of trees. The 
view from the road is tastefully concealed by a fine plantation 
of pine, which adds much to the beauty of the place. The 
late owner, Peter Jay Munro, Esq., was the son of the Rev. 
Harry Munro, M. A., (for several years rector of St. John's 
Church Yonkers,^-) by his wife Eva Jay. 

Peter Jay Munro was a distinguished member of the bar, and 
one of the framers of the late constitution of this state. By his 
Avife Margaret White, Mr. Munro left two sons, Henry and John, 
besides several daughters. Mott's neck adjoins Munro's on the 
west, upon which is situated the farm and residence of William 
Scott, Esq. This delightful spot commands pleasing views of the 
neighboring neck and sound scenery. Mr. Scott is the son of James 
Scott, whose father, Walter Scott, ^ took an active part in tlie politi- 
cal drama of 1745, in favor of Prince Charles ; father and son sub- 
sequently emigrated to this country, and during the war of the 
revolution, distinguished themselves as brave and zealous patriots. 

Upon the Flandreau hammock is placed the Premium Mills, the 
property of William P. Kellogg, Esq. In this vicinity are the es- 
tates of James I. Roosevelt, Esq., (late member of congress,) and 
Mrs. Susan Daubeny ; the latter adjoins the Palmer burying 
ground on the west.c 

We have previously shown that the town is well watered by 
numerous streams, some of which have one or more mills stand- 
ing on them. - 

The growth of wood is of the usual various sorts On the high 
lands, oak, hickory, walnut and chesnut are the chief. The lower 
grounds are covered generally with maple, birch and elm, &c. 

The principal minerals of the town, are quartz, drusy, calcedo- 
ny, agate and jasper. Serpentine of almost every variety, and 
cromate of iron ; veins of the dolomitic marble also occur in vari- 
ous localities. -- - 

a This family is a branch of the INIunros of Foulis, Scotland, 
b The first Walter of this family was the famous " Auld Wat," the renowned 
freebooter of the Scottish border. 

' Near the Palmer bnrvinsf ffronnd stood the old Friends meeting house. 


jM O U IS T P L E A S A xN T . 

TiJE naiiie of this town justly denotes its pleasant location up- 
on high hills. Mount Pleasant lias been recently separated from 
the old town of the same name, and erected into a distinct town- 
ship ;a both having been formerly included in the Manor of Phil- 
ipsburgh. It is situated six miles north-west of the village of 
"W'liite Plains, distant thirty three miles from New York and one 
hundred and nineteen from Albany ; bounded north by Ossin- 
ing and Newcastlcj east by Northcastle, south by Greenburgh, 
and west by Ossin-ing and the Hudson river. 

This tract of land must originally have formed a portion of 
the ancient domains of VVeckquaskeck, as we find Weskora, sa- 
chem of tliat place, and Ghoharius, his brother, (a chief residing 
here,) conjointly selling lands, bordering the Pocanteco, to Fre- 
derick Philipse in the year 1680. 

Upon the district situated near the mouth of the Pocanteco 
river, (called by the English Mill river,) the Indians conferred 
the name of Pockerhoe. Pocanteco, the Indian name for the 
beautiful Mill river, is clearly a derivative from the Algonquin, 
Pockohantes,^ a term expressive of a '' run between two hills." 
The local term Pockerhoe also points to the saniie root for its ori- 
gin. Be this as it may, however, no signification could be more 
descriptive of this wizard stream, which pours its swift current 
through the foldings of a hundred hills. The Dutch styled it 
the Sleepy haven kili,c hence the origin of the present term 
Sleepy Hollow, as applied to the valley. 

• Mount Pleasant was originally organized on the 7th oi' March, 1788. Rev. 
Slat. The present town on the 20th of May, 1845. 

k Tlie Indian name of the illustrious princess of Virginia. 
-^ Van der Donck's Hist. N.N. 


In the rear of the Dutch church, (situated near the entrance of 
the Hollow,) there formerly stood an Indian fort, the remains of 
which, together with several mounds, have long since been lev- 
elled with the surrounding ground. For the erection of these 
forts or strong-holds, Van der Donck informs us. '-that the In- 
dians usually selected a situation on the side of a steep hill, near 
a stream or river, which is difficult of access except from the wa- 
ter, and inaccessible on every other side ; with a level plain on 
the crown of the hill, which they enclose with a strong stockade 
work in a singular manner." Near their plantations they also 
frequently erect small works to secure their wives and children, 
against the sudden irruption of the small marauding parties of 
their enemies. When their castles and forts are constructed ac- 
cording to their rude custom, they consider the same very safe 
and secure places.^ 

The vestiges of a military redoubt at present occupy the sum- 
mit of the adjoining hill, commonly called Jones's hill. This 
elevated spot commands the valley of Sleepy Hollow, Tarry- 
town, and splendid prospects of the Hudson river. 

In 1680, the Indian sachem Glioharius, with the consent of his 
brother Weskora, for a certain sum of wampum and other goods, 
released unto Frederick Philipse a large strip of land, lying on 
each side of the Pocanteco river, for which they acknowledged 
to have received full satisfaction. This sale was ratified before 
the governor of the province, at Fort James, in New York, and 
subsequently confirmed to Frederick Philipse by royal patent, 
the same year. 

Sir Edmund Andros, Knight, &c. Whereas Frederick Philipse of this 
city, merchant, hath made apphcation unto me for a grant of a certain creek 
or viver, called by the Indians, Pocantico, (whereon to set a mill,) with a pro- 
portion of land on each side adjoining thereunto ; the same lying within the 
bounds of the Indians' land at Wickers creek, "^ on the east side of Hudson's 
river ; and by my leave and approbation hath made purchase thereof from the 
native Indian proprietors, the which they have acknowledged before me, as 

& Van der Donck's Hist. N, N. N. Y. Hist. Soc. N. Ser. vol. i. p. 197. 
b A corruption of the Indian name Weckquaskeck. 


likewise to have received full satisfaction for the same, from the said Freder- 
ick Philipse. Tlie said land adjoining to the creek or river aforesaid lying on 
each side thereof, north and south 1600 treads or steps, which at twelve feet 
to the rod makes 400 rods ; and runs up into the country as far as the said 
creek or river goeth, provided always, that if the said creek or river, called 
by the Indians Neppera, and by the Christians the Yonckers creek or kill, 
shall come within that space of land of 400 rods on the south side of the afore- 
said creek or river, that it shall extend no further than the said creek or river 
of Neppera, but the rest to bee so fai^e up into the country on each side as 
the said creek or river called Pocantico runs, being about north-east. Know ye 
that by virtue of the commission and authority unto me given under his Royal 
Highness, I have given and granted, and by these presents do hereby give, 
ratify, confirm and grant unto said Frederick Philipse, his heirs and assignees, 
the afore-recited creek or river, parcels of land and premises hereinbefore 
expressed and set forth, together with all the woodlands, meadows, pastures, 
inarches, fishing, hawking, hunting and fowling, as also the privilege of erect- 
ing and building a mill, making a dam, or whatsoever else shall be necessary 
and requisite thereunto, with all profits, commodities and emoluments unto the 
said creek, river and land belonging, or in any wise appertaining, to have and 
to hold the said creek or river and land with their and every of their appur- 
tenances to the said Frederick Philipse, his heirs and assignees unto the proper 
use and behoof of him the said Frederick Philipse, his heirs and assignees for 
ever, he making improvement thereon according to law, and yielding and paying 
therefor yearly and every year unto his Royal Highness, a quit rent, one bush- 
el of winter wheat in New York, unto such officer or officers as shall be em- 
powered to receive the same. Given under my hand and sealed with the seal 
of the Province, m New York, the first day of April, in the thirty-second year 
of his Majesty's reign. Anno Domini, 1680. 

From this period we find the Indians gradually yielding their 
terriiory to ihe above patentee. Upon the 5th of June, 1684, (the 
royal patent says 7th of May,) the Indians, Sepham, Ghoharim, 
(Ghoharius,) Kakinsigh, Enhoak,^ Arradppanint, Kewanghis, a 
squaw, Niepack, Kewightakem, and Teatangoom, sell to Freder- 
ick Philipse, 

All that tract or parcel of land situate, lying, and being to the eastward of 
llie land of Frederick Philipse, between the creek called Neppierha, or the 

» Thf real name of this rliit-f was AVnmpnge, tlie place of his residence Ann 
hook's UP rk. (V,A])am Point.j 


Yoncker's Kill and Broncks's River, beginning on the south side at the north- 
erly bounds of the Voncker's land, and from thence along the aforesaid creek 
Nippierha, however it runs, till you come to the most northerly bounds of the 
said Frederick Philipse's land, and from thence northeast into the woods unto 
Broncks's river, so as it runs southerly to the eastward of the Yoncker's land 
aforesaid, and from thence, with a westerly line, to the aforesaid Yoncker's 
Kill, or Nippierha, &c. &c. The goods paid by the grantee were as fol- 
lows : — a 

130 fathoms of white Wampum, 2 Knives, 

12 Guns, ..12 pair of Stockings, 

M fathoms of Duffels, ' - 15 Hatchets, 

12 Blankets, . ' ,, \ 10 Hoes, 

8 Coats, ♦ 10 earthen Jugs, 

6 Kettles, 10 iron Pots, 

6 fathoms of Stroudwater, 4 ^ fats of Beer, 

16 Shirts, ' ■ 2 ankers of Rum, 

25 lbs. of Powder, . , - ' 2 rolls of Tobacco. 

20 bars of Lead, ^ . ■ " . 
10 Spoons, 

The above purchase, (together with other sales, from the In- 
dians,) was confirmed to PhiHpse by his Excellency, Thomas 
Dongan, Governor of the province, on the 23d of December, 1684, 
The whole were subsequently included within the Royal Patent of 
Philipsburgh. From the Indian grants and royal patents, wc 
proceed to give our readers a brief account of the Philipse fam- 
ily, collected from the best authorities and original manuscripts 
still extant. ' • -..- 

Frederick Philipse, or, (as the name was spelt at that early peri- 
od,) Vreedryk or Vrederyck Felypsen,b father of the before men- 
tioned grantee of this town, was a native of Bolswaert, in Fast 
Friesland, and son of the Hon. Viscount Felyps, of Bohemia, who 
sprang from the ancient Viscounts of that name and country. 
The early members of this family took an active part in favor of 
the Reformers, John Huss, and Jerome of Prague, for which 
they suifered severely both in person and property, being finally 

» See Yonkers. '-^ - . • 

b Vrederyck Felypsen is equivalent to Frcderyk Flypsen. 


compelled to fly, for better security, to East Friesland.'^ The 
Christian name Vreedryk is of Dutch origin, and means literally 
y^ -peace rich^'^ or rich in peace,b in allusion probably to the bitter 
snifv3rings of former days, as well as the present enjoyment of re- 
ligious peace. The surname Felypsen is a patronymic from 
Philip — the F for the PH, and the ij for the single Y ; hence the 
English substitute, Frederick Philipse, which at an early period 
became the adopted name of the family, — the Dutch termination 
se or sen, meaning in English son. Vrederyck therefore the son 
of Felyp.c Besides their high rank as nobles, they appear also 
to have held the office of Grand Veneurs, or keepers of the deer 
forests in Bohemia.<i In the year 1658, Frederick Philipse, (hav- 
ing previously obtained the consent of the Stadiholder and States 
General,) emigrated from East Friesland to the New Netherlands, 
carrying" with him money, plate and jewels. « Upon his arrival 
in the city of New Amsterdam, (as New York was then called,) 
he purchased a large estate, and soon became one of its wealthiest 
merchants. On the 9th of February, 1653, Governor Stuyve- 
sant granted certain lots within the city of New Amsterdam to 
Frederick Philipse, which were subsequently confirmed to him 
by the English governor, on the 12th of April, 1667. 

In the general tax list of 1674, raised by the Dutch, on their 
reconquest of the city and province, we find the estate of Fred- 
erick Philipse assessed at 80,000 guilders. f By his wife Marga- 
ret Dacres, he left one son, Frederick, born at Bolswaert, East 
Friesland, A.D. 1656. 

Frederick Philipse, jun., was the first lord of the manor of 

» Burke's Hist, of tlie Landed Gent, of Great Britain. 

b In German, peace is friede, and rich is reich : the compound, therefore, in that 
language would be Friedreich. 

c Extracts from a note of Egbert Benson to Captain Phillips, in 1820. 

d The collar and badge of office, consisting of a gold chain set with amethysts, 
diamonds, rubies and emeralds, is still preserved in the family. It was last in pos, 
session of Miss Susan Kobinson, sister of Col. Beverly Robinson. 

• The original passport, written upon vellum, is also preserved in the Robinson 

t y. Y. Hist. S'oc. 1 Ser. vol. i. p. 387. 



Philipsburghj founder of the Dutch church at Sleepy Hollow ; 
and for many years a leading member of the governor's council. 

Upon the arrival of Henry Sloughter as governor of the prov- 
ince, on the 19th of March, 169 J, we find the following mem- 
bers present at a council meeting, holden the same day, viz. Jo- 
seph Dudley, Frederick Philipse, Stephen van Cortlandt, Gabriel 
Monville, Chiidley Brooke, Thomas Willet, and William Pin- 
borne. a 

In the assize records at Albany, occurs '"a pass to Frederick 
Philipse, to put on board the sloop called ye Cock 250 schepels of 
Wheat, to be carried to Milford Mill to be ground, (fee. 

Permit and suffer Frederick Philipse to land on board the sloop 
ye Cock 250 schepels of Wheat, to be carryed to ye Mill at Mil- 
ford for his conveniency of having it ye sooner ground for his 
occasions, he engaging that the floure and meale thereof shall be 
brought back to this place. Given under my hand at Fort James, 
in New Yorke, the 22d day of April, 1671. 

To ye officers of ye- customs, >_ ."• ' " . 

or whom else this may concern." 

The annexed items, are taken from the family ledger of the 
Philipse's : — 

1680, John Reyder is debett, 
According to accounte de- ] 
lijwered, £3956:2 yn 1 n^qi 
wampum. Com in hoi- \ 
lans, J 


To the Sherryf, a byll of 

Exchang yn hollans, 1500 :— 

Apoyt 20 Toyn Sylver, ■ ..,,^_ , 

payd £5:0:0 Com'r, ' ' 
Hollans, " •' 50 — 

To 110 pieces of fryer ' - 

woed wyth Cartyng 3 : 4 

Pr Contra is Credytt 
To a house and 

lot yn hollans. 
To som petyoy- 

ans, left yn the 




Rest due To me 
pr ballins, 

2290 : 00 


£2344 : 00 

' " .' a Duulap'a Hist, of N. Y. vol. i. p. 202. 

Vol. I. 41 



Nyew Yorck, thys the 21 £2344 : 00 
day of September, Anno. 
16S0. Fredryck Flypsen. 

The following note occurs among some old documents endorsed 
Tan Fredrich Philipse : — 

Net Bockmaster, N. York the 3 Agust, 1694, 

I have sacket to pay you'n de sume 

Of sich pount twellef shilling voor 

partt of Elyas Pndington ^ 

fogge £6 — 12 — 0. Fredryck Flypse. 

Frederick Philipse married, first. Margaret Hardenbroch, wid- 
ow of Peter Rudolphus ; this lady died A.D. 1662: secondly, 
Catharine, daughter of the Hon. Oloflf Stevensen van Cortlandt. 


Coat of Arms and Signatures of the Founders of Sleepy Hollow Church. 

To face page 322, vol. i. 

Arms. az. a demi lion rampant, rising out of a ducal coronet ar, si 

Hon. Vrederyck Fe 
Holland, emigrati 
4and to New Ami 

""lillp French. 

PliWip Philipse, proprietor of the=Maria S 
Springhead estate Island of Sparkf 

Baiuadoes, nat. 1676, ob. 1700 mar. 1 


Col. Fredericli Philipse,=Elizabeth Wiilia 

last Lord of the Ma 
nor of Phiiipsbnrough 
ob. cir. May. 1785, at 
Chester, England. 

widow of } 

gers, da. of Cha 
Wiliiaais, Esq. 

"Frederick Philipse^^Harriet Charles Phil- 
GrifEth lipse, drown- 
of ed in cross- 

Rhent, ing the Bay 
N.Wales ofFundy. 

Philip, ob. John, killed at Susan, marri 
s. p. the battle of ed Ri^htHon 

Trafalgar, Viscount 
1H05. Strangford. 

ob. s. p 

Frederick Chi 

Frederick, of R'h-ent, 
N. Wales, nat 18^9. 

Edwin Will. nat. 
8th April, 1830. 



Nyew Yorck, thys the 21 £2344 : 00 
day of September, Anno. 
16S0. Fredryck Flypsen. 

The following note occurs among some old documents endorsed 
Tan Fredrich Phiiipse : — 

Net Bockmaster, N. York the 3 Agust, 1694, 

I have sacket to pay you'n de sume 

Of sich pount twellef shilling voor 

partt of Elyas Padington ^ 

foa:2:e £6 — 12 — 0. Fredryck Flypse. 


Frederick Phiiipse married, first. Margaret Hardenbroch, wid- 
ow of Peter Rudolphus ; this lady died A.D. 1662: secondly, 
Catharine, daughter of the Hon. Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt. 

-Uir^ ^ f-'V( ^yjjK/iUc^ 

Coat of Arms and Signatures of the Founders of SJeepy Hollow Church. 

To face page 3K, vol. 


Arms. Bz. a demi lion rampttnt, rising out of a ducal coronet ar, surmounted by a ducal coronet, or. Crest, a demi lion rampant rising out of a Viscount's coronet ar, surmounted by a ducal coronet, or. 

Motto. — Quod tibi vis fieri facias. 

East Friesland. 

Hon. Vrederyck Felypsen, of Bolswaert,=Margaret Dacrea, descended of the noble family of 
Holland, emigrated from East Fries- I Dacre, of Dacre. 
land to New Amsteidam, la 165b. | 

■Hon. Vrederjxk Felypsen, or PI]illpse,=l. Margaret Hardenbroch, widow of Peter Rodolphus, ob. 1662. 
first Lord of ihe Manor of Phitipsbo- =2. Catharine van Conlamlt, da of ihe Right Hon. Oloff Stevens 
rou^h, nat. 1656, cb. 1702. Willdat, t van Cortlaodt, nat. 25ih Oct. 1652. Will dated 7ih January, 
■ffthDec. 17U2, fol. 12, p. 98, 99. tfur. 173U. Interred at Sltepy Hollow. 

PhiJip Philipse, proprietor of the=Maria Sparkes, da, of Gov. 
Springhead estate Island of I tfparkfs, of Baibadoea, 
eaibadoes, nat. 1616, ob- 1700 mar. 1697, ob. 1700. 

AdolphuB Phitipse, proprietor of the Highland 
Upper Patent "nd the northern part of Phil- 
ipsborough, nat. 1657, ob. s. p. 1749. Buri- 
ed at Sleepy Hollow. 

Eva Phitipse, nat. 6th July, 1658=Jaco'jus van Cortlandt. Annetje Philipae— Philip French, 

Hon. Frederick Philipse, second Lord of the Manor of Phllipsboroodh, heir to^Joanna, da 
his grandfather Vrederyck, and hia uncle Adolphus, born at Uarbadnes A. I lady was 
D. 1698; died of consumption, 1751 ; founder of Si. John's Church, Yonk- from her 
era. Will dated 6th June, 1751, No. 18, p. 3. Bur. Rec. N. Y. Married J 

of Anthfjny Brockholea Thi3 
unfortunately killed by a fall 
uniage on the Highland estate. 

Col. Frederick Philipse, 
last Lord of ihe Ma- 
nor of Philipsbnrough 
ob. cir. May. 1785, at 
Chester, England. 

Elizabeth Williams, Philip Philipse, proprietor— Margaret 

widow of 

gers. da- of Charles 

Williams, Esq. 

of the Highland Upper. 
Patent ; bapt. in Dutch 
Ch, N. Y. 1724. Will 
dated 1768, No. 26, p. 
326. Sur. Rec. N. Y. 

Susannah, devisee with=xCol. Beverley 
her brother Philip, Robinson, 

of the Upper Patent, 
nat. 27 Sept. 1727, 
ob. Nov. 1822. 

Mary, nat. 3d JuIy=Col. Roger 
1730, mar. 19 Ja- Morris, member of 
uary, 1758. ob. , the Gov. Council. 
laJuly, I8i5 

Frederick PhiUpsP=Harriet 

Charles Phil- Philip, ob. John, killed at Susan, marri- Sarah, mar- Elizab'h, Charlotte, 

lipse, drown- s. p. the battle of ed Right Hon. ried Mungo nb. married 

ed in cross- Trafalgar, Viscount Noble. March, Captain 

1^05. Strangford. I82d. Webber. 

Adolph, E. p. 1785. Frederick, an oflicer=l. Mary Marston, da. of Nathaniel 
in the I3riti>h ser- [ Murston. 

vice, ob. 1829. 2. Maria, niece nf the Hon. Vis- 


N.Wales ofFundy. 

Mary Phllipse=9amuel Goiivemeur. 


In his last will, which bears date 9th of December, 1702, he 
orders his body to be 

" interred at my burial place at ye upper ?nills, with such charges and in such 
decent manner as to my executors, hereinafter named, shall seem convenient. 
To Frederick Philipse, my grandson, born in Barbadoes, ye only son of Philip 
my eldest son, I will and dtvise my houses in New York, and also the lands 
in Westchester, the island called Papirineman, with the meadows and bridge 
toll, and all my lands and meadow called ye Yonkers plantation together with 
all houses, mills, mill-dams, &c., &c., as also a piece of land in the Mile Square 
by me late bought of Michael Hawdon, and all that tract or piece of land ex- 
tending from the Yonckers patent or plantation to a creek called by ye Indians 
Wysquaqua, and by the Christians William Portugue's creek, and thence ac- 
cording to ye course of that creek unto ye woods to ye head of the same ; from 
thence on an east line to the creek called Yonckers creek, and then to continue 
on the same course to Bronck's river and as far as my right extends as also 
all that ye equal half of my meadow? lying at Tappan, &c., &c., to have and 
to hold all ye said real estate, tenements and hereditaments, with ye appurte- 
nances herein before given, &c., to ye said Frederick Philipse, my grandson, 
and ye heirs male of his body lawfully begotten ; and for lack of such issue ye 
remainder thereof to my son Adolphus Philipse, and ye heirs male of his body, 
and for lack of such issue to ye next right heirs of me, ye said Frederick 
Philipse, ye grandfather, forever. 

Also he devises to his grandson, Frederick Philipse, the negroes at ye 
Yonckers plantation, a negro man called Harry, and wife and child, a negro 
called Peter, &c., and ye boat Yoncker, with her furniture, apparel and appur- 
tenances, and ye equal half of all ye cattle, horses and sheep upon and belong- 
ing to ye plantation at ye upper mills, &c., &c. Provided always and I do 
hereby declare my will, mind, and true intention, that 1 give ye lands, heredi- 
taments and their appurtenances, extending from ye Yonckers plantation to 
William Portugue's creek, and so to Broncks's river, to my said grandson with 
this restriction and condition that it is in lieu of a tract of land called Cinque- 
singte, purchased long since and intended to be given to his father, my eldest 
son, soe that if att any time hereafter ye said Frederick Philipse, my grandson 
shall claim or recover this tract of land called Cinquesingte, that it is my will 
and desire that ye tract of land and appurtenances extending from ye Yonckers 
plantation to William Portugue's creek before described, shall devolve unto, and 
be vested in my said son Adolphus, his heirs, &c., &c. 

To his son Adolphus he bequeathes the rest of his houses and the lands, 
tenements and hereditaments in ye county of Westchester, (to wit) all that 
tract of land lying at ye upper mills, beginning at a creek called by ye Indians 
Wysquaqua, and by ye Christians, WiUiam Portugue's creek, being ye bounds 


of ye lands hereby given to my grandson, and so running up Hudson's river 
to ye creek called Wegheandagb, where is built two grist mills, and from 
thence along ye said river to a creek called Keghtawan, or Croton river, or 
along that river or creek according to ye patent, then on an east line into ye 
woods as far as Bronck's river according to its course to ye lands herein be- 
fore discribed to my grandson aforesaid, as also ye moyety or equal half of a 
saw-mill with its appurtenances att Mamaroneck, late by me purchased of Dr. 
Selinus, &c., &c. To his daughter Eva, wife of Jacobus van Cortlandt, 
a house and ground in the city of New York, &c., also a mortgage of 
Dr. Henricus Selynus upon ye lands of John Richbell, deceased, 20 
miles into ye country and to his daughter Annetje, ye wife of Philip French, 
a house and ground in the city of New York, and an estate in Berghen, New 
Jersey, Ac, &c.^ Dated 26th October, 1700, 

Adolphus Philipse, > ^ 

T ^ > Executors. 

Jacobus van Lortlandt. ^ 

By this will all that portion of the manor north of Dobb's Ferry, 
including the present town became vested in Adolphus or Adolph 
Philipse, second son of the devisee. This individual was also pro- 
prietor of the great Highland patent, situated north of St. Anthony's 
Nose, granted on the 1 7th of June, 1697, and the executor of his bro- 
ther, Philip Philipse's estate, letters of administration having been 
granted to him in that capacity on the 22dof Dec, 1714.^ Adolph 
Philipse died without issue A.D. 1749. The following inventory 
of money, plate, jewels, and household furniture, &c., &c., be- 
longing to the manor house, which was taken in 1752 (after the 
death of Adolph Philipse,) affords a curious specimen of the habits 
and tastes of a gentleman at that early period. It is transcribed 
from the original, preserved among the family papers at Philips- 
town, Putnam county, entitled 

A old acc't by Jos. Read, Administrator of Adolph Philipse. 

Dr, the estate of Fred. Philipse^ Esq,, dec. to Jos. Read, against 
estate of Fred. Philipse. 

174'9, Jan'y 25.— 

To I Boston shilling and 1 lead meddal, . . jCO 1 2 

• Pvec. of Wills, Surrogate's Off. N. Y. vii. lOi. 
^ Surrogate's Off. N. Y. No. vii 28CL 


1 cask of apples, ..... 060 

1-3 of a ps. broad cloth qt. 10 yards a 20s. 10 

1 steel or iron tobacco box, . . . 2 10 9 2 

1750, April 6.— 

To l-8th pt. of cloth, &c., divided among the re- 
lations, . . . . . .400 

11 bottles of wine, &c., &c., a small jug with 

ink, 13 6 

./' ' . ;, ' 5 3 6 
1750, May 8.— ' c ■ > 

To the picture of Mr. Adolph,* . . . 6 
1750, May 20 — 

To a razor strap with silver, .... 060 

1 silver tankard, wt. 26o^. lOp. Ogr. at 9s. 6d. 

pr. ounce, . , . . . . 12 11 9 

1 ditto, wt. 23oz. lip. Ugr. at 10^. 6^. 12 9 1^ 
• 1 ditto shaving basin and box, wt. 21oz. I5p. 

at 105. 6d. pr. oz. • . . . 11 8 4^ 

' 1 ditto tooth case pick, . . . - 13 3 
12 ditto spoons, wt. 23oz. lip. I2gr. at 10^. 36?. 

per ounce, . . . . . . 12 3 2 

6 ditto, wt. 9oz. I5p. at 9s. Zd. , . 4 10 2i 

3 ditto, " 3 10 " " " . . 1 12 4i 

1 ditto beker, wt. 7oz 8p. at 9^. 9^. pr. oz, 3 12 1| 

1 ditto cup, wt. 2oz 13p. I2gr. at 9^. 9c?. pr. oz. 16 1 

6 ditto tea spoons, wt. loz. 19p, at 12^. 3c?. " 13 10| 

1 reading glass with a silver rim, .■ . 14 

1 deers foot tipt with gold, . . . 113 

1 black box with a ps. gold and a ps. silver, 3 15 
Aparcellof gold beads and pearl, wt. 2oz lip. 

at 61. is 16 14 10 

2 trunks, . .' . . . . ^ 6 
h pt. of a parcell homspun and parcell linnen, 113 
I pt. of a parcell wampum valued at jC40, 6 6 6 
I pt. of 236o^. 9p. I2gr. silver pigs, valued by 

A. B. . . f . . . . ' 11 11 6 

^ This picture is still preserved at Philipstown. 


4 Arabmn ps. gold, , . . . . 2 16 106 7 Hi 

85 11 5 

To sundrvs bought at public vendue in March, 
1749-30, as per acct. .... 

To ditto at the manor of Philipsburgh in April, 

1750, as per acct 5.?4 16 11 620 8 4 

November 25. — 

To John Chambers, Esq., pr. assignn for a sadle 
and bridle 545. 8d., a pr. pistols capt with sil- 
ver 825., bo't at vendue and paid s'd Philipse, 6 16 

1752, July 16.— 

To Jas. Read for sundreys bo't in co. at vendue 

as per acct. here enclosed, . . . 10 7 2 

17 3 2 

I pt. of a parcell whetstones divided among 

the relations, supposed to be worth 20*. 2 6 

Philip Philipse, pr. assignm't, for 2 ps. linnen 

bo't at vendue 23 March, 1749-50, . 117 6 

492 bushels wheat rec'd by Elbert Aartsen for 

rent due to Adolph Philipse, which ball. 

Philipse sold to Johanis Schank at 4^. per 

bushel 98 8 

a field of green wheat of ab't 8 bushels sowing 

which by the opinion of Mr. Wm. Curray, 

belonged to the personal estate of Adolph 

Philipse 8 

a bolting box reel and bolting cloath valued by 

E. Byvanck, .... 

6 10 

112 18 




rrors E. 
J.^s. Read, 

Estate of Mr. 

By the death of Adolph Philipse the whole manor ot Phihps- 
burgh became vested in his nephew the Hon Frederick Philipse, 
as the nearest male heir of his grandfather Frederick. Tliis dis- 
tinguished personage was born upon the Springhead estate, island 
of Barbadoes, A. D. 1698. From 1721 to 1728 he filled the office 
of speaker to the house of Assembly in the province of New York, 
and ill 1733 was Baron of the Exchequer, and second judge of 


the same. He also erected St. John's Church, Yonkers, and liber- 
ally endowed it with a farm and parsonage. The Hon. Frederick 
Philipse died in 1751. His last will bears date the 6th of June of 
that year. His two sons, by Joanna Brockholes, daughter of gover- 
nor Brockholes, were Frederick Philipse and Philips Philipse ; also 
three daughters, Susannah. Mary and Margaret. The eldest 
son, Frederick, being heir of his father, became devisee in tail 
male of the manor of Philipsburgh, tenant for life, under the will 
of his father, with remainder in tail male, while the upper high- 
land patent of Philipstown passed to the second son, Philip, devi- 
see in tail of those lands among whose descendants it still re- 

In 1779 the lands in this town together with the rest of the 
manor of Philipsburgh, became by the attainder of Colonel Fred- 
erick Philipse, vested in the state of New York. After having 
been in possession of the Philipse family nearly a century. In 
the year 17S4, the state by commission parcelled out these lands 
to various individuals. One of the principal grantees was Gerard 
G. Beeckman, Esq., v/ho purchased one thousand six hundred 
acres in the vicinity of Tarry town, upon which is situated the 
old manor house. Mr. Beeckman married Cornelia van Cort- 
landt ; thus after the forfeiture of the Philipses a portion of the 
manor again reverted to a connection of that ancient family ; Ja- 
cobus van Cortlandt, having married Eva Philipse, daughter of 
the Hon. Frederick Philipse. 

In the south-west corner of Mount Pleasant, between the Andre 
brook and the Mill river, (Pocanteco.) is situated Beeckmantown, 
commonly called the Pocanteco suburb of Tarry town. This 
place derives its name from the family of the Beeckmans. The 
residence of Stephen D. Beeckman, M. D., son of the for- 
mer proprietor stands upon the highest ground of the village im- 
mediately west of the Irving Institute. 

To the north of Beeckmantown lies the romantic region of 
Sleepy Hollow. 

A pleasing land of drowsy head it was, 

Of dreams that wave before the half-shut eye ; 


And of gay castles in the clouds that pass, 
For ever flushing round a summer sky. 

[Casile of Indolence. 

Castle Phil ipse, the ancient residence of the Lords of Philips- 
burgh, occupies a pleasant position on the west side of the mill 
pond, nearly facing the old Dutch church ; having acquired the 
appellation from the fact, that in the early days of the colony, it was 
strongly fortified with cannon. A necessary precaution against 
any sudden attack of the Indians. The embrasures or port holes 
can yet be traced on the cellar walls. 

The western end of the building is evidently the remains of a 
much older edifice, probably coeval with the erection of the mill 
in 1683. 

The mansion is seen to the best advantage from the Sleepy 
Hollow bridge. The principal entrance is through a porch on 
the north east front. 

Here within the compass of a broad territory, the Philipses 
enjoyed every distinction, feudal and ecclesiastic, which the Co- 
lonial Government could bestow. The manor, baronial courts, 
hunting, fishing, advowson, and family sepulture, together with 
all the blessings which the retirement of a country life and reli- 
gion could afibrd. 

The old mill adjoining the mansion is quite in unison with the 
scenery of the Hollow. In the palmy days of the manor, the 
tenants brought hither their grain to be ground, and from 
hence the lords of the manor shipped their flour for the metrop- 

The keel of the famous Roebuck that so often navigated the 
neighboring waters with her cargo to and from the city, quietly 
reposes in the muddy bed of the Pocanteco creek. The old miller 
(who lived to the advanced age of 94,) was in the habit of calling 
It his iron mine, as the keel actually furnished him with bolts 
and nails for his lifetime. 

The manor house was for many years the residence of the late 
Mrs. Cornelia Beeckman, widow of Gerard G. Beeckmun, Esq. 



I «..L 'If/',, .Kji ;i I'l 


We are indebted to the Evening Gazette for the subjoined notice 
of this remarkable lady. "Cornelia Beeckman was the second 
daughter of Lt. Gov. Pierre Van Cortlandt, by liis wife Joanna 
Livingston, whose birth took place in the old manor house, by 
the banks of the Croton, on the 2d of August, 1753. Here her 
infancy and youth glided av/ay, and but a short time before the 
war, she left its scenes for a life in New York, whither she re- 
moved upon her marriage with Gerard Becckman. When the Re- 
volutionary troubles ran high, she came back to the old house at 
Peekskill, where part of her family resided. Exposed, of course, 
to all manner of insult and aggression, well-known herself, and 
in connection with her father, subsequently lieutenant-governor 
of this state, under Clinton, (but at that time, president of the 
Committee of Public Safety.) with her brother serving in the 
army, and many relatives and intimates, all zealous whigs and 
devoted Americans, her unconquerable will and high spirit bore 
her safely and uncompromisingly through those trying scenes. 
We copy from a graphic sketch, by an able and we fancy well- 
known pen, the following notice of her life during this disastrous 

" One little incident we recollect to have read in a letter writ- 
ten by herself, in 1777. A party of royalists, under Colonels Bay- 
ard and Fanning, came to the Peekskill house, and commencing 
their customary course of treatment, one insultingly asked her, 
'Are you not the daughter of that old rebel Pierre van Cort- 
landt ?' She replied, ' I am the daughter of Pierre van Cortlandt, 
but it becomes not such as you to call my father a rebel.' The 
tory raised his musket, v/hen she, with great calmness, reproved 
him for his insolence and bade him begone. The coward turned 
away abashed, and she remained uninjured. The narrative 
thus continues: — 'Her letters written about this time, many of 
which are now in existence, abound in patriotic spirit. Excited 
by personal wrongs and the aggressions she witnessed all around 
her, she gave vent to her feelings in most severe reproaches up- 
on the enemy, and in fervent prayers for the American success. 
But although thus exposed, she refused to leave her home, and 
continued to reside in the same place until the close of the war. 
Mrs. Beeckman possessed a powerful memory, and to the close 

Vol. I. 42 



of her life could relate with exact minuteness, the interesting 
events of which she was cognizant ; and the recital of those in- 
cidents abounded in interest, as all who know her can well bear 

"A number of years after the war, Mrs. Beeckman removed 
to the old manor house, on Philips' manor, situated in what is 
now known as Beeckmantown, where she continued 16 reside 
to the day of her death. 

" Mrs. Beeckman was a lady of the old school, possessed of a 
high wsense of honor, exact principles and an unconquerable wilt, 
with a vigorous mind and a powerful memory. She retained 
her faculties unimpaired to the day of her death. She lived be- 
yond the allotted period of life, and could almost gaze upon the 
face of a second century of existence. The scenes of her child- 
hood were ever before her ; but of the friends of her childhood, 
how few remained. Her destiny was fulfilled, and on the four- 
teenth of March, 1847, a Sabbath morning, she gave a farewell 
glance o'er the scenes of her eventful life, and without a sigh re- 
signed her spirit to the God who gave it." 

Col. Watson Webb is the present occupant of the manor 

The ancient Dutch Church is agreeably situated a short dis- 
tance from the manor house, near the northern edge of the hol- 

Dutch Reformed Church, Sleepy Hollow. 



l&w. This venerable edifice, believed to be the oldest chnrch 
now standing in the state, is built of stone nnd brick, the latter 
having been imported from Holland for the express purpose. 
Its antique belfry and hipped roof, present quite a picturesque 
appearance. Tlxe entrance was formerly through a porch on the 
south side ; this has been recently changed to the western end 
facing the road. 

On the north side of the doorway is inserted a stone tablet 
inscribed as follows : 



HIS WIFE, IN 1699. 

The interior of the building has undergone considerable re- 
pairs and alterations^ semi Gothic lights having supplanted the old 
fashioned square headed windows. The pulpit and Heilig Avond- 
maal (holy communion table) were like the bricks originally im- 
ported from Holland. The former being a capacious affair, sur- 
mounted by a sounding board. Like the church itself, we are sorry 
to say, the pulpit and canopy have not escaped the hands of 
modern innovation ; we believe they are now spread piece meal 
throughout the country ; but thanks to a few generous spirits, 
the communion table still remains unchanged, a venerable relic 
of a by-gone age. . . 

Communion Table. 

The bell of this church was cast to order in Holland, and pre- 



seated by Frederick Philips. It is richly ornamentedj and bears 
the following inscription. 

^^TlyET JS^^rSO -J^QBIS - gUIS ' C QNTBA- I^T Q S ' 1 685 

The western end of the building is surmounted by a curious 
vane, in the shape of a flag bearing the initials of the illustrious 
founder, Vrederick Felypsen. 

At an early date, Mr. Felypsen of the city of New York, records 
the brand mark for himself and all his plantation in the county 
of Westchester, viz.^ z'^^^^^^s^ 

The communion service presented by the Philipse family, con- 
sists of two silver bekers, the first richly engraved with floriated 
tracery, bears the name of Fredrych Flypse, and stands about 
seven inches high. The second is also richly engraved whh an- 
tique figures, representing angels, birds, fruits and flowers, be- 
side, three ovals containing emblematic figures of Faith, Hope 
and Charity, near the top is engraved the name of Catharina van 
Cortlandt, this cup stands nearly six inches and a half high. 

The Bekers and Baptismal Bowl. 

« Co. Rec. Lib. A. 221. 


There is likewise a baptismal bowl composed of solid silver, 
eight inches and half in diameter, bearing the name of Fredrych 

These articles are rendered extremely valuable by the distin- 
guished characters who gave them, and well deserve the stran- 
ger's notice ; they are at present under the care of the sexton who 
resides at Tarrytown. Catharine Philipse the liberal benefac- 
tress of this church, by her last will dated on the 7th of Jan. 1730, 
bequeathes one of the bekers, the damask tablecloth and commu- 
niontable to her son-in-law Adolph Philipse, and to his heirs 
forever in trust for the church, in the following manner. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto my son-in-law Adolph Philipse and to his 
heirs forever, a large silver beaker, on which my name is engraved, a 
damask table cloth, five Dutch ells and three quarters long^ and two and a 
half broad, with a long table, in trust to and for the congregation of the Dutch 
Church erected and built at Philipsburgh, by my late husband Frederick Phil- 
ipse deceased, according to the discipline of Dort, which beker and cloth I 
•will and direct shall be always kept at the mansion house of the said Adolph 
Philipse and his heirs, in that part of the manor of Philipsburgh, where- 
on the said church is erected, to and for the use of the said Church and 
congregation, and to and for no other use or purpose whatsoever, &c. Item, 
I give and bequeath unto the children of Paules Vanderhiders, the sum 
of £25 current money, &c. Item, I will and direct, that Matty and Sarah, 
ray Indians or muster slaves, shall be manumitted and set at full freedom.^ 
Item, all the residue and remainder of my whole estate, both real and personal 
whatsoever and wheresoever, I do give, devise and bequeath, to my brother 
Jacobus van Cortlandt, one-fifth, and to all the children of his deceased brother 
Stephanus, and the daughters of his eldest son Johannes, a fifth part, share and 
share alike, another fifth part to the children of my deceased sister, Marietje van 
Renssalear, &c., another fifth part of my said estate to the three grand child- 
ren of my deceased sister Sophia Teller, to be divided between her grandson 
Andrew, and the children of her son Oliver, deceased, the remaining fifth part 

» It is a well known fact, that slavery existed in this county at an early pe- 
riod of its settlement, of which abundant evidence can be produced, but no re- 
cord appears that native Indians were enslaved until 1705, when we find the 
following deed of gift executed by Elizabeth Legget, of Westchester, in favor of 
her daughter Mary : " I hereby give, grant and confirm, unto the said Mary, her 
heirs and assigns forever, my two negro children, born of the body of Hannah, my 
necrro woman, of the issue of the body of Robin, my Indian slave. There are also 
several bills of sale recorded of Indian squaws being furnished by a dealer in New 
York, named Jacob Decay. Westchester Rec 


and residue, unto the children of Philip Schuyler deceased, eldest son of my 
sister, Cornelia Schuyler deceased, and Oliver Schuyler, &c.=^ 

Tradition asserts that Catharine Philipse was in the habit of 
riding up from the city of New Yorlv on horseback, mounted on 
a pillion behind her favorite brother, Jacobus van Cortlandt, for 
the purpose of superintending the erection of this church; her 
husband was at this time a merchant in the cit^r. These jour- 
neys were generally performed during moonlight nights. Who 
could relate the interesting conversations that must have passed 
between the affectionate brother and sister, as they thus sat 
on horseback pursuing their lonely route from the metrop- 
olis, and the joy of the latter when the glorious work was com- 
pleted ? This illustrious lady must certainly havejaken a very 
active part, not only in the building, but in the procuring and 
subsequent settlement of the ministry therein, which plainly ap- 
pears from the ancient records of the Dutch church, where her 
name occurs, as first on the list of its members, in 1697. 

"First and before all the right honorable, God-fearing, very 
wise and prudent, my lady Catharina Philipse, widow of the 
lord Frederick Philipse of blessed memory, who have promoted 
down service here in the highest praiseworthy manner." The 
Dutch church and its vicinity is tluis described in the well known 
legend of Sleepy Hollow. " The sequestered situation of this 
church," says the author of the legend, " seems always to have 
made it a favorite haunt of troubled spirits. It stands on a knoll 
surrounded by locust trees and lofty elms, from among which its 
decent white washed walls shine modestly forth, like chris- 
tian purity, beaming through the shades of retirement. A gentle 
slope descends from it to a silver sheet of water bordered by high 
trees, between which peeps may be caught at the blue hills of the 
Hudson. To look upon its grass-grown yard where the sunbeams 
seem to sleep so quietly, one would think tliat there at least the 
dead might rest in peace. On one side of the church extends a 
wide woody dell, along which laves a large brook among broken 
rocks and trunks of fallen trees. Over a deep black part of the 

» Surro'iate's office N. Y. No. XI. 85. 


stream, not far from the church, was formerly thrown a wooden 
bridge ; the road that led to it and the bridge itself were thickly- 
shaded by overhanging trees which cast a gloom about it even in 
the day time, but occasioned a fearful darkness at night."^ 

" It was in this church that the never-to-be-forgotten yankee 
pedagogue, Ichabod Crane, in rivalry of the old dominie, led off 
the choir, making the welkin ring with the notes of his nasal 
psalmody. It was too in the ravine, just back of the church, 
that this redoubtable hero, Ichabod, had his fearful midnight en- 
counter with the headless horseman and forever disappeared from 
the sight of the goodly inhabitants of Sleepy Hollow."^ 

The grave yard is delightfully situated on the north side of the 
church, upon a gentle acclivity. " Some of the tomb-stones are 
of the rudest sculpture; upon many of them are inscribed, in 
Dutch, the names and virtues of the deceased, with their por- 
traitures curiously carved in the similitude of cherubs." 

Ileer legt Begraven Heer legt Begraven 

Het Lechaam van Het Lechaam van Jochum van 

Hendrick van I'assel, Wert overleeden den 18 

Gebooren den 7 Aug. 1704. van Aug. 1770, out 

zynde omtrent 72 yaaren. 

Mors vincit omnia. 

Te Geduchtenis van 

Catriena Ecker, wedue van 

Petrus van Tessel, geboren 

Nov. 10, 1736, overleeden 

de 10 van Jan'y, 1793, out zynde 

56 yaaren en i rnaanden, (fee. 

* Legend of Sleepy Hollow, by Washington Irving, 
b Barber's Hist. Col. 


Peter Paulding, an officer Sacred 

in the Revolutionary army, to the memory 

who died March 3, 1S42, of Colonel 

in the 73d year of Barnardus Swartwout, jim., 

his age. a soldier of the Revolution, 

born Sept. 26th .1761. 
deceased Oct. 8th, 1824. 


Memory of Captain 
John Buckhout who departed 
this life April the lOih, 1785, 

aged 103 years, and left 

behind him when he died, 

124 children and grandchildren. 

There are vaults in the yard belonging to the Paulding, Brown, 
Beeckman and Brush families. 

The Dutch church at Sleepy Hollow appears to have been 
first organized in 1697, for the ancient books are still extant, con- 
taining the names of members at that early date. We have pre- 
viously shown that the present edifice was erected in 1699. 

Prior to the year 1771, this society (like the rest of the Dutch 
churches in the colony of New York,) was under the supervision 
of the Classis of Amsterdam, the latter body being subordinate to 
the Synod of North Holland. In the contest concerning the sub- 
stitution of the English for the Dutch preaching cir. 1764, the 
members of this church took an active part, some supposing that 
by the suppression of the last it would necessarily involve in 
course of time the loss of the doctrines, the mode of worship, the 
government, nay even the very name of the church itself. The 
Rev. Mr. Johannes Ritzema, at this time the stated supply at 
Sleepy Hollow, uniformly acted throughout this trying period, 
as the friend of the English party. Upon the formation of the 
General Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church in North Amer- 
ica, in 177], this church was decreed to belong to the Assembly 


of New York, now called the Classis of New York. The arti- 
cles of union agreed upon by the Synod of 1771 were subscribed 
(among others) by Johannes Ritzema and Pierre van Cortlandt of 
Westchester county. The Dutch Reformed Church at Tarry- 
town is attached to the mother church, its pastor having the 
charge of both congregations. The first minister of the church, 
A. D. 1697, was the Rev. AVilliam Barthoti', styled in the church 
records, the well learned and Godly Dominus Guilliaume Bar- 

This individual resided at Hackinsack, New Jersey, but per- 
formed services here three or four times a year ; he continued liis 
ministrations with great acceptance until tjie year 1715. 

The following item occurs in the church books, (relating to the 
expense of bringing and returning the abovesaid minister.) " We 
have paid Thomas van Houtten, who has fetched said minister 
and brought him over and taken him back again, whom we have 
satisfied according to our bounden duty, and with that, it may 
please the Almighty and merciful God to grant him to come for 
a long time." 

The successor of Mr. BarthofF was the Rev. Johannes Ritzema, 
styled in the church records " verge doctrinae minister," (minis- 
ter of the true doctrine.) This gentleman continued to supply 
the church until the commencement of the Revolution. »• 

From this general account of the church, we proceed to give 
a few extracts from its original records. The oldest book is thus 
entitled, '* Het notitie boeck der Christeutycke Kerck op de Manner 
op Philipsburgh ;" that is. the memorandum book of the Christian 
Church of the Manor of Philipsburgh. Upon the back of this 
volume is the following motto. ■ ' 

" Endraght maakt magt, maar twist verquist.'* 
''' Unity makes might, but discord squanders," 

The first line of the above was originally adopted as the na^ 

» One of the sons of the Rev. Mr. Ritzema was a commissioned officer in the 

British service ; this gentleman prior to the Revolution kept a military school at 

Vol. I. 43 


tional motto of the United Netherlands, in 1578, " when the 
seven northern provinces united for mutual interest and defence, 
which union actualh^ proved the precursor of their deliverance 
and esfablishmenl as a natio n.'^- 

The preface of tlie original book runs thus, viz. 

" To give the kind reader a right idea why, and at what time, 
this church book, or particular memorandum according to Chris- 
tian church order, is made, to be for the satisfaction of every one. 
Also, first with regard to his Royal Majesty of England, Scot- 
land, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. has pleased 
towards the year of our Lord Jesas Christ, 1680, by prerogative, 
consent and license to give to the Hon. Lord Frederick Phillips 
to purchase freely as or for hereditary purchase, a parcel of land 
or valley, so, and as it is situated in the county of Westchester in 
America, beginning at the river of Spyten Devil's kill, running 
north along the river, until the kill of Kitchawong, &c., &c., as 
in the license and patent is contained, which is called Philips- 
burgh ; to indicate further in what manner and good affection 
these first Christian inhabitants have shown in the middle of 
heathenism, and with and about heathens to live, as true Chris- 
tians, having first thought good and highly necessary, on the 
Lord's day, to gatiier together, and in a place for that purpose fit* 
to pray together, God the Lord with their whole heart to praise, 
and thank him with psalms and hymns, <Scc. 

" Furthermore it was also thought very necessary to look for a 
reformed preacher, and to want him to preach three or four 
times in the year, and to administer the holy sacraments, and 
that the congregation might become participant thereby, and so 
much the better by the grace of God, with the covenants of his 
holy sacraments, according to the true Christian reformed re- 

" And as the Hon. servants of the church experience that up to 
this time, being the 3d day of November, in the year of our Lord 
1715, there are no church memorandum, it has appeared neces- 

» Pro. N. Y. Hist. Soc. p. 56. 


sary and ^ood to us for what is past, forasmuch as we can find 
out according to the upright proof to put it down, also first and 
successively to put down the annotations in this book by one of 
our members of Jesus Christ, whom we judge to be able and to 
possess tire knowledge thereto, to put rightly and successively 
what will come to our knowledge and experience, that which 
we can find out with truth as will follow. 

The volume itself is divided into eight special books, the last 
of which contains the previous memoranda abbreviated and con- 
cluded for the accommodation of the kind reader. 

The first hook contains the first memorandum of the yearly 
ministry of the word of God and the holy sacraments, as also the 
salary for each journey, per year and date as noted. 

In the second book is registered the names of the members of 
Jesus Christ, who after Christian examination and exhortation 
have disposed themselves to receive the Lord's holy communion. 
In the third book of the church memorandum are also re- 
gistered the names from year to year of the election of elders 
and deacons to be accepted and confirmed thereto, the year and 
date, with the addition of the resigning elders and deacons after 
they will have served two years. 

The fourth book contains the names of the baptized children, 
together with the names of their respective parents, also the names 
of the witnesses, and in what year and month, <fcc. 

The fifth book contains the names of those who in the s\^\n 
of God and his communion; after three previous solemn proclama- 
tions, have let themselves been confirmed in the lawful matri- 
monial state, and in what year and month. / ■ 

The sixth book in which is notified the receipt and the expendi- 
ture of the deacons, according to the list thereof, &c., in order to 
see the settlement of accounts. 

The seventh book in which is noted the expenditure and re- 
ceipt of the chest of the poor, with additipn to whom and where- 

The eighth and last hook being the conclusion of all the pre- 
vious books. 

In the first booh occiu's the following entry. 


"Finding out from the meniovandum of Mr. Abraham de Ri- 
viere that the well-learned, godly Do niniis Guilliaume BarthoiF 
has accepted according to request of the first inhabitants and re- 
spective congregation of Philipsburgh, in the year of onr Lord, 
1697, to come to preach here three or four times God's holy 
\vord, and to teach and to serve the holy sacraments, which 
through God's particular grace he has continued to do laudably 
up to this present date, the 2d November, 1715, and have given 
the said minister, according to our bounden duty, his content- 
ment and satisfaction ; as also to Theunis van Houtten who has 
fetched said minister from Hackinsack, &c., for which we are 
particularly and gratefully obliged, to show for the usual benefi- 
cence of the High, Hon. and very prudent my lady Mrs. Catha- 
rine Philipse." 

" In the second book is registered all the names of the Hon. per- 
sons, who after Christian examination and exhortation, have dis- 
posed themselves to have been accepted members of Jesus Christ, 
and worthy to appear at the table of the Lord, and to receive 
the holy sacrament of communion, A. D. 1697. First and before 
all the Right Honorable God-fearing, very wise and prudent my 
Lady Catharine Philipse, widow of the Lord Frederic Philipse 
of blessed memory, who have promoted divine service here in 
the highest praiseworthy manner." 

" The continuation of the congregation of Philipsburgh. 

Abraham de Reviere, 

Dirck Storm and Maria his wife, 

Isaac Sie, the elder, and Esther his wife, 

Isaac Sie, junr. 

Jacob van Texel and Aeltje his wife, 

Joacham van Weert and Christyntje his wife, 

Sebastiaen Michgielze and Galanti, 

Sybouwt Kranckheyt and Marytje his wife, 

Gregoris Storm and Engeltje his wife, 

Ryck Abranise and Tryntje his wife, 

Powlus Reetan and Angelica his wife, 

Albret Gardenier and Mariije his wife, 

Peter Sie and Pizcn lla his wife, 

J'ln lacker and Alagilaleentje his \v'i(\ 


Jacobus Sie and Catharina his wife, 

Jan Fowseer and Eva his wife, 

Jan Louwrenzs and Marytje his wife, 

Andries van Dyck and Gessje his wife, 

Jan van Texel and Catharina his wife, 

Isaac van Dyck and Barbera his wife, 

Abram de Vauw and Marytje his wife, 

Abram de Reviere, jun., and Weijntje his wife, 

Geertje wife of Pieter Breys, 

Gerridit van Weert and Cathalijna his wife, 

Annetje Branckert wife of Hendrick Krankheyt, 

Jan Hart from Switzerland, 

BeelUtje wife of Jacob van Weert, 

David Storm and Esther his wife, 

Louwrens Mathysie Banckert and Neitje de Groot his wife. 

Barent Duytsen and Maritje, 

Lodewyck Ackerman and Hillegenda, 

Margarietje wife of Joseph Escoth, 

Rachel the wife of Thos. Hyert, 

William Artzen, his daughter above named, 

Abram van Dyck and Elizabetli, 

Herman Jurckze and Maria, . _ 

Antje van Weert wife of Samuel Canckle, : ' 

Antje Sybouwt wife of Jan Beesly, -- • ^' 

Peter Storm and Margarietje, -. - 

Antje wife of Henderick Kranckheyt, ■ ~ • 

Antje van Lent wife of Corel Davidson, ; ■ 

Cornelis van Texel and Antje his wife, 

Antje Keninck wife of Lowies Bowie." - 

The sixth church book commences with the following preface : 
*' In this book is noted from the existing notes the receipt and 
expenditure of each outgoing deacon, since the year of our Lord, 
A. D. 1697. Being intended to note said accounts uprightly, as 
per contents of the notes in this book, as much as will be possible 
according to truth, but as it is very dangerous for a good pilot to 
arrive safely in a strange harbor without falling on a bar or rock, 
principally in dark weather, I request accordingly very earnestly 


and in a friendly manner, from the kind reader, to please to take 
in good part if any obscure notes might come in my way as ac- 
cording- to our opinion, we find some somewhat obscure ; it is; 
however, my intention, with the help of God, according to the 
best of my knowledge to close the following accounts according 
to truth and to make a beginning firstly outgoing deacon as 
follows : 

1697, the 30th October, Jan Ecker received in his deaconship 
for£S5 Is. 

1699, the 6th of August, Jan Ecker having finished his time, 
as appears by his delivered notice of his service as deacon, shows 
his receipt of the communion money to be £54 16. Further I 
find a notice dated 25d August, 1702, in which Jan Ecker ac- 
knowledges when he was deacon to remain of his receipts above 
the expenditure up to £149 in money. By which it would ap- 
pear as said above. The receipt at two periods of the deaconship 
by said Jan Ecker has been and will amount to £288 17 0. 

The receipts of Jacobus Sie, deacon in 1701, were £254 1^. 
Credit expenditure for the church for bread and wine for com- 
munion to the sum of £61 10 
and the present moneys are found to be 192 11 

which have been put in the box of the church." 

£254 1 
Upon the 24th of August, 1787, Isaac Stoutenburgh and Philip 
van Cortlandt (commissioners of forfeitures for the southern dis- 
trict of New York,) conveyed to the trustees of this church and 
their successors, &c., "all that certain church and two acres o 
land adjoining thereto, including the burial ground situated near 
the upper mills in the said manor, bounded southerly and west 
by the post road or highway, and north and eastward ly by the 
land of Gerardus G. I^eeckman ; and also that certain farm of 
land situate and lying and being in the said manor of Philips- 
burgh, &-C., bounded westward! y by Hudson's river, northerly 
by laud now or late belonging to John van Wart, easterly by land 
now or late belonging to Jacob Buckhout, and southerly by land 
now or late Gloud Requa's containing 100 acres more or less," (fec.^ 

• From the original document in possession of the trustees. 



The first incorporation of the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Church in Philips manor took place on the 24ih of January, 

Predikanten van de Kerk op Puilipsburg. 
Tyd vaji Bevestegiiig. Predikanten. 

1697, Dom. Guliehnus BartliolfT, vcrae doctrina3 minister. 
Dom. Johannes Ritzema, V. D. M. 
Dom. Stephen van Vorhees, V. 
Dom. John F. Jackson. V. 
Dom. Thomas Smith, Y. 



Dom. George Dubois, 











Jan. 28th, 1845, Dom. Joseph Wilson, V. 

Kerkelyk Aanteken. 
A.D. 1697. Communicants, 73, Baptisms,'^ 11, 
A.D. 1707. " '^ 13, 

A.D. 1760. , « • " 48, 

A.D. 1845. > '" ' 218, " 3. 








Abram de Reviere, 

.Tan Ecker, 


Ryck Abramse, 

Woltiert Ecker, • .:- 


Joachim Wouters, 

David Storms, 


Sybout Herriksen, 

Abram de Reviere, jr. 


Jan Hart, 

Jacobus Sie, 


David Storm, 

Jan Ecker, 


David Storm, 

Andries van Dyck, 


Jan Ecker, 

Abram de Reviere, 


Jan Hart, 

Gerrit van Weert, 


Wolffert Ecker, 

Barent Duytser, 


David Storm, 

Isaac van Dyck, 

a This church was again incorporated on the 20th of June, 1792. Religious Soc. 
Lib. A. 99. 

b The first child baptized in this church was Rebecca, daughter of Jan and 
Maria Heyert, Ryck Abramse and Clyntje, his wife, witnesses. 



A.D. OuderUn;^e7i. 

170S. Abram de Reviere, 

1709. David Storm, 

1710. David Storm, 

1715. Jan Harmse, 
Jan Hart, 

1716. David Storm, 

1717. Cornelius van Texel, 

1718. Sybout Harckse, 
Barent Duytser, 

1719. Gerrit van AVeert, 

1720. Abram van Dyck, 

1722. Barent Duytser, 

1723. David Storm, 

1724. Abram de Vouw, 

1725. Jeremias Henniff, 

1726. David Storm, 

1727. Jan van Tessel, 

1728. Abram Martelingh, 

1729. David Storm, 

1730. Abram Martelingh, 
Thomas Storm, 

1731. Gerrit van Weert, 

1732. Jacobus Stoutenburgli 

1733. David Storm, 

1734. Jan Bouckhout, 

1735. William Kemmen, 

1736. Jan van Tessel, 
Thomas Storn^, 

3 737. Barent Duytser, 
Peter Buys, 

1738. Jacobus Stoutenbursfh 
Jan van Texel, 

1739. David Storm, 
Jan Bouckhout, 

1742. Johannis Cle.Vians, 
Thomas Storm, 

1743. Peter Buys, 


Abram de Vouw, 
Cornel is van Texel, 
Gerrit van Weert, 
Jacob Sie, 

Jan van Texel, 
Thomas Storm, 
Deliefferius Concklin, 
Abram Martelingh, 
Jan Bouckhout, 
Thomas Storm, 
Peter Buys, 
Hendrick Kranckheyt, 
Deliefferius Concklin, 
Willem Kemmen, 
Jan Bouckhout, 
Jacobus Stoutenburgh, 
Matthes Canckely, 
Jacobus Stoutenburgh, 

Jonas Juel, 
Joannes Clemens, 
Jan Belyce, 
Joachim van Weert, 
Deliefferius Concklin, 
Joannes de Vouw, 
Adolph Banckert, 
Stephen Ecker, 
David Ackerman, 
Hendrick van Texel, 
Adolph Banckert, 
Jacob van Weert, 
Harmanis Gardenier, 
Johanis Syffer, 
Jan Storm, 
William Davidson, 



A.D. Ouderlingen. 

Jonas Juel, 

1744. Johannes Clemans, 
Johannes de Youw, 

1745. Jan Bockhout, 
Hendrick van Tessel, 

1746. Jooris Juel, 
Thomas Storm, 

1748. William Davids, 
Johannes Seyfer, 

1749. Abraham Martlingh, 
Hendrick van Tessel, 

1750. Thomas Storm, 
Hendrick van Tessel, 

1751. William Davids, 
Jan Bolye, 

1753. William Hemman, 
Joris Juell, 

1754. Hendrick van Tessel, 
Jan Bockhout, 

1756. Joris Juell, 
Hendrick Storm, 

1757. Thomas Storm, 
Johannes Siffer, 

1758. William Aertse, • 
David Storm, 

1760. Hendrick Storm, 
Johannes Duytser, 

1762. Hendrick van Tessel, 
Benjamin Brown, 


1764. Thomas Storm, 
Jan En tens, 

1766. William van Wert, 
William Arse, 

1767. Dirck van Tessel, 
Hendrick Storm, 

1769. William van Noorstrand, 
Vol. I. 44 

Dirck van Texej, 

Everett Bruyn, 

Hendericus Storm, 

Johannes Duytser, 

Jacob Buys, 

Harmen Jurckso, 

Jan Balye, 

JMatthys Cancklingh, 

Barent Duytser, 

William van Weart, 

David Storm, 

Hendiicus Storm, 

Harman Turckse, 

Hendrick Storm, 

Joachim van Waert, 

William Brit, 

Jeremias Mevie, 

Barent Duytser, 

Harman Davids, 

Dirck Storm, 

Abraham Martlinghs, jr. 

Johannes van Tessel, 

William van Noostrand, 

Jan Eiitens, 

Johannes van Tessel, • 

David Sie, 

Johannes van Tessel, 

William Turckse, 

Henry van Wormer, 

Isaac He mm en. 

Nicklass Storm, 

William Breis, 
Arie van Wormer, 
Abram Bruin, 
Jan Hem men, 
Abraham Storm, 


A.D. OnderUngen. Diakenen. 

1769. William Aerse, Thomas Sampewa, 

1770. Claes Storm, Marteines van Wert, 
William Turckse, Jacob van Tessel, 

1771. William van Wait, . Jacobus Davids, 
Abraham Bruyn, Jacobus Sie, 

1773. Jan Enters, Barent Lemetter, 
Abraham Storm, Jacob Bockhout, 

1774. William Aarse, Peter Hick, 
Martynis van Wart, Jan Storm, 

1776. Hendrick Storm, Jacob van Wart, 

David Sie, Peter Sic, 

1790. Isaac Johnson, William van Wart, 

Hendrick Storm, Jan van Tessel. 

Thomas Buys, 

The Pocanteco river has a two fold source, the first being on the 
lands of Isaac Lounsberry, in the vicinity of the Chappequa 
hills : and the other, a short distance from it. 

After a progress of four miles, these streams unite and become 
a beautiful river, which is subsequently strengthened and aug- 
mented by numerous tributaries flowing from an extensive dis- 
trict of hills and valleys. 

The whole course of this river from its spring heads to its 
outlet in the Hudson, is fraught with scenes of picturesque and 
romantic beauty. " Far in the foldings of the hills, (says the 
author of the Sketch Book) winds this wizard stream, sometimes 
silently and daikly through solemn woodlands, sometimes spark- 
ling between grassy borders or fresh green meadows, sometimes 
stealing along the feet of rugged heights under tlie balancing 
sprays of beech and chesnut trees. A thousand chrysial springs 
with which this neighborhood abounds, sent down from the hill 
sides their whimpering rills, as if to pay tribute to tlie Pocante- 
co."a In the neighborhood of the acqueduct, is a deep ravine, 
which forms the dreamy region of sleepy hollow. A narrow and 
broken path which sweeps along the south east bank of the hol- 
low, leads to the foot of the redoubted hill where once stood the 

• Kuickerbocker Magazine for 1839. 


school house, in which the celebrated Ichabod Crane " tarned," 
for the purpose of instructing the youth of this vicinity. *• The 
whole of the neighborhood (observes the author of the Sketch 
Book) abounds with local tales, haunted spots and twilightsupersti- 
tions." " The dominant spirit, however, that haunts this enchanted 
region, and seems to be commander-in-chief of all the powers of 
the air, is the apparition of a figure on horseback without a head. 
It is said by some, to be the ghost of a Hessian trooper, whose 
head had been carried away by a cannon ball in some nameless 
battle during the revolutionary war, and who is ever and anon 
seen by the country folks, hurrying along in the gloom of night, 
as if on the wings of the wind." 

" It is alleged that the body of the trooper having been buried 
in the church yard, the ghost rides forth to the scene of battle, in 
nightly quest of his head, and that the rushing speed with which 
he sometimes passes along the hollow, like a midnight blast, is 
owing to his being belated and in a hurry to get back to the 
church yard before daybreak." 

iSuch is the general purport of this legendary superstition. 
The spectre is known by the name of the " Headless Horseman 
of Sleepy Hollow.''^ 

The bridge so famous in goblin story, crossed the hollow, a 
few yards east of the present structure, the road having been al- 
tered within a few years. 

A little north of Sleepy Hollow church, lies the Beeckman 
forest, an extensive tract of woodland, ranging principally east 
and west of the Albany post road. These woods formerly cove- 
red a much larger district of country, and abounded in fine tim- 
ber; while the thickets and glades, served as a favorite haunt for 
large herds of wild deer. The perpetual harassing of this noble 
game, in spite of fines and imprisonment, has long ago extermi- 
nated the whole race in this county, in the year 1705, (to prevent 
if possible, their entire destruction,) it was enacted by the governor 
council and general assembly, " that whosoever within the county 
of Westchester, Christian or Indian, freeman or slave, after the 
first day of January, which will be in the year of our Lord, 1705, 

Legend of Sleepy Hollow. 


shall kill or destroy any buck, doe or fawn, or any sort of deer 
whatsoever, at any time of the year, except only between the 
first day of August and the first day of January, shall forfeit and 
pay the sum of twenty shiUings lawful money of New York, 
or in default thereof, suffer imprisonment for the time and space 
of twenty days without bail or mainprize, and all dogs also found 
chasing deer, to be shot during those times.''^ 

These sp2cial enactments were doubtless procured through the 
influence of the Philipses and Van Cortlandts, whose families 
were both represented in the governor's council at that period, espe- 
cially, as the lord of the manor of Cortlandt, was ranger within 
the forests of Cortlandt. The manorial proprietors of Phil- 
ipsburgh and Cortlandt, had a charter of free warren, i. e. an 
exclusive right of pursuing and killing game throughout their re- 
spective patents, a privilege which they frequently conceded to 
their tenantry. This beautifully wooded region contains many 
wild and picturesque scenes, united with charming prospects of 
the river. 

In the immediate vicinity and bordering the shores of the 
Hudson, are located the residences of Commodore M. C. Perry, 
the distinguished commander of the gulf squadron, also Commo- 
dore Slidell Mac Kenzie. About a mile north from the mouth of 
the Pocanteco, is a beautiful little cove called the Haventje,b 
near which, is situated the estate and residence of Col. James 
AVatson Webb. Within the fertile valley of the Nepera, a 
few miles east of Beeckmantown, stands the county poor house, an 
incorporated and endowed institution for the afiiicted and indi- 
gent. Its officers consist of three superintendants, (who are 
nominated by the board of county supervisors,) a keeper, 
a physician and teacher. Religious services are maintained 
weekly, by the voluntary aid of the neighboring clergy. The 
buildings are extensive, and principally constructed of stone. Its 
inmates at present, number one hundred and eighty-four. There 
are accommodations for three hundred, if necessary. To the 

• Acts of Colonial Assembly, G4. 

>> Haventj« irt the diiDiniilive of IJ;iven and means a little haven or harbor. 


south east of the poor house, lies the Paulding farm, now occu- 
pied by John Paulding.^ 

The surrounding neighborhood is rendered pecuUarly attract- 
ive, from the contiguity of high hills rising to bold heights, 
crowned with rich hanging woods. 

The road leading north from the county house, passes near the 
celebrated Raven Rock, around which cluster a thousand strange 
stories and superstitions. The rock is said to have derived its 
name from the fact, that it was once the favorite haunt of that omi- 
nous bird, whose hoarse croakings were believed to prognosticate 
approaching ill. The ferocious wife of Macbeth, on being advised 
of the approach of Duncan, whose death she had conspired, is 
made to say in the language of the poet, 
'' The raven himself is hoarse 
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under my battlements." — Macbeth, Act 1. scene 5. 
This ill omened bird, once, very numerous on our coasts, has 
long since retired with the wild game into the interior. 

But the dark glen of Raven Rock is now haunted by a far 
different object, viz., the lady in white, whose shrill shrieks are 
said to be often heard during the long and weary winter nights, 
as if presaging a storm. Tradition asserts she perished here in 
a deep snow. 

" The hungry worm my sister is, 
This winding sheet I wear, 
And cold and weary lasts my night, 
Till the last morn appear." 

Margaret'^s Ghost. 
The wild and romantic scenery of the glen, seems to favor 
these superstitions. 

In this vicinity, Jacob Acker and Isaac van Wart, two well 
known patriots, made a bold attack upon a small party of British 
cavalry. For the purpose of annoying the enemy they concealed 
themselves in a neighboring wood, from whence they could 
obtain a view of the road ; and, as the British passed in full 

e See Greenburgh. 


gallop, Acker fired at the commanding officer. The sudden re- 
port of the musket frightened the horse, which immediately com- 
menced plunging ; the rider in his efibrts to restrain the restive 
animal, lost his hat, which Acker determined to possess himself 
of; was again reloading his piece, when the enemy not knowing 
the number of their assailants deemed it proper to retire, which 
they effected with much haste and confusion. 

Jacob Acker, commonly called Rifle .Take, is reported to have 
killed with his own hands, on different occasions, five or six of the 

Two miles north-east of the county house are situated the 
^^four corners,^^ (so called in contradistinction to the upper,) bet- 
ter known as Young^s burnt house. 

We learn from the petition of Samuel Young, (former proprie- 
tor of this place,) and the report of the committee made thereon, 
that at the commencement of the revolutionary war Joseph 
Young, father of said Samuel Young, resided about four miles 
east of Hudson river, on the road leading from Tarrytown to the 
White Plains, that after the British took possession of the city of 
New Yoik and part of the county of Westchester, that road was 
denominated the American lines. The elevated situation of the 
dwelling house and the number of out buildings, rendered it a 
convenient post for the American troops ; that from August, 1776, 
until February, 1780, the said dwelling house was occupied as 
head quarters for the several commanders in those lines, and the 
out houses were occupied as barracks for the soldiers, and places 
of deposit for their provisions and military stores ; that on the 
night of the 24lh of December, 1778, Capl. Williams of the Amer- 
ican army, who, with about forty soldiers, was quartered in the 
dwelling house and barns, was attacked by the British refugees, 
under the command of Major Bearmore ; that said Captain Wil- 
liams and a party of soldiers, and said Joseph Young were taken 
prisoners ; that the said Young was himself confined in the 
provost of the city of New York about one year ; that the barn 
of the said Joseph Yonng was burnt by the British refugees, who 
also took from the said Joseph Young a large and valuable stock 
of cattle; that inj the winter of 1779, said dwelling house and 
other buildings were occupied by tiie said continental troops, un- 


der the command of Colonel Burr, and in the spring of that year 
Major Hull ; that in the winter of 1780 they were occupied by 
Colonel Thompson of the American army, who then commanded 
the American troops stationed on the lines; that the prisoners 
and military stores belonging to said detachment were deposit- 
ed in said buildings ; that on the third of February, 1780, an 
attack was made on that post by about 1000 British troops and re- 
fugees, under the command of Colonel Norton ; the action com- 
menced in the dwelling house, and continued in and about it 
until Colonel Thompson had lost either in killed or wounded 
about 50 of his men when he surrendered ; that immediately 
thereupon the buildings of the said Joseph Young were burnt, by 
order of the British commander; that all the clothing, beding 
and furniture of the said Joseph Young were destroyed at that 
inclement season of the year. 3- 

This spot is celebrated in the Westchester Spy, as the site of 
the hamlet of the Four Corners, whilst a little west of the pres- 
ent Van Wart residence stood the "Hotel Flanagan, a place of 
entertainment for man and beast." In front of this imposing edi- 
fice, on a rough board suspended from a gallows-looking post, was 
written in red chalk, 


This illustrious personage, (who is said to have invented 
the well known beverage, vulgarly called "cock tail,") was 
the widow of an American soldier who had fallen in the service 
of his country. She appears to have gained her livelihood by 
driving a cart to the various military encampments; and as the 
Four Corners happened at this time to be the head-quarters of 
the Virginia horse, Betty Flanagan had emigrated thither with the 
troops. Here she was stationed when the lawless Skinners 
dragged in the .pedlar spy.b 

After Colonel Burr left the command of the troops on the lines, 
in the year 1779, Colonel Thompson, a man of approved bra- 
very, assumed it, and fixed his head-quarters at this place. " On 
the morning of the 3d of February, 1780, about 9 o'clock, (says 

» American State Papers on Revolutionary claims. Doc. 600, page 858. 
b See Westchester Spy, by Fennimore Cooper. 


General Heath,) ilie enemy made an attack on Lieut. Col. Thomp- 
son, who commanded the troops on the lines ; the colonel's 
force consisted of two hundred and fifty men, in five companies, 
properly Dl^cered ; they were instructed to move between Croton 
River and the White Plains, Hudson's River and Bedford; never 
to remain long at any one place, that the enemy might not be 
able to learn their manner of doing duty, or form a plan for stri- 
king them in any particular situation. The colonel had for some 
days taken post himself at Young's, not far from the White Plains. 
Capt. W\atson, with his company, was with the Lieut. Colonel ; 
Capt. Roberts and Capt. Stoddard, with their companies, were on 
the right ; Capt. Lieutenant Farley, and Capt. Cooper, on the left. 
The force of tlie enemy consisted of four flank companies of the 
first and second British regiments of guards, detachments from 
two Hessian battalions, some mounted yaugers,and mounted refu- 
gees — the whole under the command of Colonel Norton, of the 
guards. The roads were so filled with snow, that the enemy ad- 
vanced but slowly, and were obliged to leave their field-pieces 
behind on the road. They were discovered at a distance by Mr. 
Campbell, one of our guides. Vv^ho, from the goodness of his 
horse, reconnoitred them pretty near. He gave the lieutenant- 
colonel notice of their advancing, and that their force was consid- 
erable, and advised him to take a stronger position a little in his 
rear. But the lieutenant-colonel was very confident that the en- 
emy were only a body of horse, and that he could easily disperse 
them, and would not quit his ground. The enemy first attacked 
a small advance guard, consisting of a sergeant and eight men, 
who behaved well, and meant to reach the main body in season ; 
but were prevented by the horse, and all taken prisoners. The 
enemy's horse soon appeared in sight of the Americans, and dis- 
charged their rifles at long shot, and waited the coming up of the 
infantry, when a warm action commenced ; the enemy scattered, 
taking the advantage of the ground and trees in the orchard, and 
closing up Oil all sides. The three companies of the detachment 
which had joined, fought well. After about fifteen minutes 
sharp coijflict, our trooj)S broke; some took into the house, and 
others made off'; the enemy's horse rushing on at the same instant, 
and the whole bhouting. At this time, the two flank companies 


came up, but finding how matters stood, judged it best to retreat, 
Capt. Stoddard's company giving a fire or two at long shot, 
Capt. Cooper's, from their distance, not firing at all. Some who 
were engaged effected their escape, others were overtaken by the 
horse. The enemy collected what prisoners they could, set Mr. 
Young's house and buildings on fire, and returned. 

Of the Americans, thirteen were killed on the spot, and Cap- 
tain Roberts, who was mortally wounded, lived but a few min- 
utes. Seventeen others were wounded, several of whom died. 
Lieut. Col. Thompson, of Marshall's, Capt. Watson, of Greaton's, 
Capt. Lieut. Farley, of Wesson's, Lieut. Barley, of Tupper's, 
Lieut. Maynard, of Greaton's, Ensign Fowler, of Nixon's, 
Ensign Bradley, of Bigelow's, with eighty-nine others, were 
taken prisoners. The enemy left three men dead on the field, 
and a captain of grenadiers was wounded in the hip, and a lieu- 
tenant of infiuitry in the thigh. The British, in their account of 
the action, acknowledged that they had five men killed, and 
eighteen wounded. Lieut. Col. Badlam, with the relief for the 
lines, was at the time of the action far advanced on his march ^ 
but not within reach of those engaged. 

- One MayheWj a pedlar, well known in Massachusetts, was of 
this detachment ; he made off up the road, but finding the horse 
rushing on, he struck off into the snow, almost up to his hips. 
Two of the enemy's horse turned into his track after him ; and, 
gaining fast upon him, he asked them if they would give him 
quarter; they replied, "Yes, you dog, we will quarter you." 
This was twice repeated, when Mayhew, finding them inflexible, 
determined to give them one shot before he was quartered ; and, 
turning round, discharged his piece at the first horseman, who 
cried out, " The rascal has broken my leg ;" when both of them 
turned their horses round, and went off, leaving Mayhew at liberty 
to tread back his path to the road, and come off.''^ 

Thacher, in his Military Journal, thus describes the action. 
" February, 1780, Lieutenant Colonel Thompson had the com- 
mand of about two hundred and fifty men, as an advanced par- 

» Heath's Mem. p. 229. 

Vol. L - 45 


ty, on onr lines. He was instructed to be constantly alert, and 
in motion, that the enemy might not be able to take advantage, 
and form a plan for his destruction. It happened, however, that 
a detachment of British, Hessians, and mounted refugees, were 
discovered advancing towards him, but on account of a very 
deep snow obstructing the road, they marched slowly, and Col. 
Thompson resolved to defend his ground. The enemy's horse 
first advanced and commenced skirmishing till their infantry 
approached, when a sliarp conflict ensued, which continued about 
fifteen minutes; some of our troops manifested symptoms of 
cowardice, and gave way. The enemy secured the advantage, 
and rushed on with a general shout, wliich soon decided the con- 
test. The Americans lost thirteen men killed, and Captain Ro- 
berts,^ being mortally wounded, soon expired ; seventeen others 
were wounded. Lieut. Col. Thompson, and six other officers, 
with eighty-nine rank and file, were made prisoners. Of the en- 
emy, two officers and eighteen men were wounded ; and five 
men killed. ''t» 

The British advanced by the southern road and divided at the 
junction of the Four Corners, one party going west, the other 
marching directly upon the house. The party moving west in- 
tercepted or cut ofi' Isaac van Wart and a small company under 
his command, who were attempting to succour their comrades. 
The dead who fell in this engagement, were buried on the east 
side of the road, upon the rising bank of a small hollow, north- 
east, of the Van Wart residence. 

a It was afterwards related by Issac van Wart that (he day previous to this fatal 
occurrence, Captain Roberts in a conversation with him, mentioned that his father 
had been killed in the old French war, and he was sure he should fall in the pres- 
ent struggle. He fell, alas ! not by the hand of a foe, but by one of his' own coun- 
trymen, a refugee named Hammond, who as he recognized this brave officer, ex- 
claimed " Now I will give it you," and fired with deadly effisct. His body was 
found after the conflict, with one of the fingers barbarously bitten for the purpose 
of obtaining a gold ring. His murderers had also inhumanly placed their feet 
upon the body to draw off his boots. It may be as well to mention here that Col_ 
Norton was promoted for his services on this occasion. — Editor. 

1 Thachcr's Military Journal, 185. , 


" On this occasion," (says Samuel Young, in a letter written to 
Commodore Valentine Morris, dated Mount Pleasant, 25 January, 
1814,) " my father's house with all his out-houses were burnt. 
After this disaster our troops never made an effort to protect that 
part of the country. The American lines were afterwards 
changed and extended from Bedford to Croton brido^e, and from 
thence following the course of that river to the Hudson. All the 
intermediate country was abandoned and unprotected, being 
about twenty miles in the rear of the ground which Colonel 
Burr had maintained, when posted on the lines. Samuel Young 
served under the comaiand of Colonel Burr during the Revolu- 
tionary war. a 

In the summer of 1S20, a stranger was observed loitering around 
the residence of Mr. Van Wart. Upon being questioned, this per- 
son stated, that he had taken an active part in the above engage- 
ment, and v/ell remembered the spot where he stood, (pointing 
to a stone,) when the British guard were first seen advanciiig 
from the west. He had just discharged his piece, and was en- 
gaged in loading it, v\hen he received a bullet in his breast^ 
which passed through his body. Fortunately he happened to be 
leaning a little to the right, otherwise the vitals could not have 
escaped. I'he old veteran further stated that he was then on hi§ 
way to obtain certificates I'or a pension. 

At the Four Corners, Thaddeus Kosciusko also fixed his 
head-quarters, when the American army lay eiicamped in this 
vicinity.^ From Samuel Young the Corners passed to Isaac van' 

» Davis's Mem. of Burr, vol. i. 105. "^ '•■ ' 

b Near the blacksmith's shop^ (on the road leading from the Corners to Whitja 
Plains,) a duel was fought between General Gates and Colonel Wiikins, Sept. 11, 
1778. Two shots, saj's Thaclier, were exchanged without bloodshed, and a recon- 
ciliation was efTected. The gentlemen, it is said, displayed a firmness and bravery 
becoming their rank and cliaracter, and have established their claim to the title of 
gentlemen of honor, «fcc., &c. Thacher's Military Journal, p. 145. 

In this neighborhood resided the noted Brom Boycc, " who at the early age of 
sixteen, enrolled himself among the minute men of the American army. He was 
Boon distinguished for his bravery and daring, and was recognized as the best guide 
to be procured in this vicinity.'' " Boyce, after the Revolution, followed tlie busi. 
ness of a carman iu the city of Xew York. He was a member cf the Bedford 

<- —^ — 
• / 


Wart, one of the captors of Andre, who exchanged the original 
farm granted by the State tor this property. Jt is at present 
owned by his son the Rev. Sandy van Wart. 

In the south-east comer of this town is situated upon lands of 
William Fowler a gloomy cavern connnonly called Kettle Hole, 
near the moutji of which rises a mineral spring. 

The settlement of the upper corners is situated three miles north 
of the lower. Here stands the well known tavern of Isaac 
Twitchings, whose name has conferred on the place the appellation 
of Twirchings' corners. During one period of the revolution, 
a continental picket guard \vas stationed here. 

On the 30th of August, 1779, Capt. Hopkins of Moylan's light 
dragoons, together with a small detachment from Sheldon's horse, 
proceeded from their quarters in North Castle, to the vicinity of 
the upper cross roads: here they ascertained that Col. Emmer- 
ick was advancing by the way of White Plains. Emmerick him- 
self having received similar information of Hopkins' advance, 
had previously dispatched Col.Bearmore with a strong body of De 
Lancey's cavalry, directing them to proceed by the way of Davis's 
brook east of the upper cross roads. Hopkins pursued another 
route inclining west of Twitchings', passing the residences of 
IMr. Avery and Col. Hammond, where he posted a strong de- 
tachment of light dragoons under the command of Cornet Pike, 
(afterwards General Pike) south of the Tarrytown road. He 
then proceeded witfi the rest of his detachaient, to meet Emmer- 
ick in person. He soon perceived the enemy advancing with a 
smnll body of cavalry. 

Hopkins now retreated, leading Emmerick into his ambuscade 
stationed in Storms's wood. The consequence of this sudden 
surprisal was the destruction of the whole corps, with the excep- 
tion of Emmerick and a few dragoons. Twenty-three of the 
enemy were killed in this encounter. Hopkins now turned upon 
Einmerick, pursuing him so closely for the distance of half a 

Slri'cl church about thirty-five years, and died in 1839, aged eighty-two years. 
Huj reiuaLiid were interred at 'i'arrvtovvn." — Noah's Sunday Times. 


mile, that several strokes were exclianored between both parties 
until Emmerick cleared a stone wall, behind which he had con- 
cealed his riflemen. The whole company instantly rose and 
fired simullaneously upon Hopkins, who escaped uninjured ; but 
Isaac Odell who rode by his side, was slightly wounded. Hop- 
kins thus in turn taken by surprise, wheeled to the west with 
his party, and succeeded in overtaking his prisoners, resolving to 
make good his retreat by tlie way of the poor house road. He 
had proceeded no great distance, when he beheld approaching, a 
strong body of Bearmore's horse, in the neighborhood of Avery's 
mill, a little north of the poor house. Finding his retreat thus in- 
tercepted, he was compelled to take the Bedford road, but he had 
scarcely arrived at See's store, when he found Emmerick again 
drawn up to dispute the passage. Hopkins a second time discover- 
ing his retreat terminated, decided upon a vigorous charge and suc- 
ceeded in cutting his way through the detachment with the loss of 
a k\v prisoners. A running fight now ensued for about two miles 
when Hopkins again found his course blockaded by Col. Wurmb's 
yagers. The post road also, was guarded by Pruschanck's 
corps, so that Hopkins had no resource left but the fields. He 
therefore crossed the mill creek a little north of the Dutch church, 
Sleepy Hollow, the whole body of the enemy joining in the pur- 
suit. This was kept up until Hopkins arrived near the house of 
Job Sherwood, a short distance from the present arch of the Cro- 
ton acqueduct, on the road to Sing Sing. Hopkins now rightly 
judging that the best horses of his pursuers were far in advance 
of their comrades, instantly checked his horse, and in turn be- 
came the pursuer. At the spring brook which crosses the road 
in the Beeckman wood, he succeeded in capturing one or two 
prisoners in the very face of the enemy, and made good his re- 
treat. a 

Near Twitchings' tavern, resides John Yerks, one of the seven 
volunteers connected with the capture of Andre. Mr. Yerks 

» The above was related to the author, by Jacob Romer. aij eye witness of tlie 


served for several years in the capacity of a water guard, and re- 
members to have seen on one occasion, as many as fifty British 
vessels and galleys stationed on the Hudson river. Near his pre- 
sent place of residence, himself with nine others, engaged in a 
deadly conflict with a party of twenty Cow boys. In this skir- 
mish, they brought off three prisoners and four horses, besides 
leaving six of the enemy dead on the field. 

The road from Twitchings' descends gradually to the valley 
of the saw mill, on the east bank of which, stands the church 
and hamlet of Union ville, delightfully sheltered by high hills. 
The most prominent object in the immediate vicinity, is the 
Buttermilk mountain, which towers like a giant, far above the 
neighboring scenery. A small perennial spring rises on its 
eastern edge, which has conferred this fanciful name on the hill. 
The summit of the mountain commands an extensive view of 
the Hudson River and surrounding country. 

During the progress of the United States coast survey, the 
Buttennilk formed one of its stations. 

The Dutch Reformed Church of Unionville, was first organized 
in lS20,a under the pastoral charge of the Rev. Tliomas Smith, 
and incorporated on the 8th of August, 1842, by the title of the 
" Minister, Elders and Deacons of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church of Unionville," First elders, John Newman, 
Abraham Onderdonck, and Isaac G. Graham, Jun. : first deac- 
ons, Abraham Yerks, Thomas Angevine, and Ebenezer New- 
man> The successors of the Rev. Thomas Smith have been the 
Rev. John JMaule, and the Rev. William S. Moore, present pas- 

-Church Memoranda^ 
1S25, communicants 122, baptisms 26- 
1845, ditto 88, ditto 4. 

This church is in connection with the New York classis. 

In the immediate neighborhood of Unionville is the residence 

• The present churcli edifice was erected the same year. 

* Religious Soc Co. Kec. Lib. B. 73. 


and estate of Isaac G. CTraham, M. D , for some years a member of 
General Washington's medical staff, and a lineal descendant of 
the ancient and lionorable family of the Grahams of Montrose in 
Scotland, who derive their origin from tlie renowned Grasme in 
the fifth cenlnry. In this vicinity also resides Mr. Walter Hunt, 
an aged soldier of the revolution. 

Pleasantville (formerly Clark's corners,) lies nearly midway 
between the Pocanteco and Saw Mill rivers on the north east 
border of Mount Pleasant ; the village is delightfully situated 
on the western edge of Bear ridge. A beautiful vale extends south, 
while through the gap of the western hills may be seen the dis- 
tant mountains of Rockland. It contains one church, two stores 
a post office, and several dwellings. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Pleasantville appears to 
have been the first of that denomination founded in this section 
of the country. As early as 1800 a class meeting was organized 
on Bear ridge, near the residence of Mr. Jesse Barker. The 
present building was erected in 1820. Its pastor in 1847 was the 
Rev. Charles T. Pelton. A small burying ground surrounds the 
church which contains memorials to the Clarks, Brouvvers, Mon- 
troses, Searles, Romers, Ackers and others. - ""-' .^ 

A short distance west of the village, is situated the Westches- 
ter rail road depot and hotel, in front of which, rise high hills, 
crowned with luxuriant woods ; among the former are most con- 
spicuous, Searles' and Wild boar hills. 

" There is in this town a great variety of timber and wood, be- 
ing a good proportion of almost every kind which is known to 
grow in this part of the country." The surface of the town 
is mostly hilly, the soil productive and well cultivated. Mount 
Pleasant has the reputation of being rich in mineral productions; 
an iron mine has been recently opened on the land of David 
Acker. Native iron ore also (probably of meteoric origin) is fre- 
quently found on the surface of the earth in various parts of the 

The following town officers were elected in pursuance of the 
act of 1845. 

Isaac Coutant, Supervisor. 


Jacob T. Broil wer, Town Clerk. 

William Brown, Town Superintendant. 

Abraham Brouwer, Trustee of the poor. 

Hervey Romer, Assessor. 

Henry Clark, Jan., Commissioner of highways. 

Amos Clark, Overseer of the poor. 

Hebby Brown, Sealer of weights and measures. 

Andrew Vincent, Constable. 



This township is situated ten miles north of the village of 
White Plains, and distant one hundred and twenty-one miles 
from Albany ; bounded north by Cortlandt, Yorktown and So- 
mers, east by Bedford, south by North Castle, and west by Os- 
sin-in^r and Mount Pleasant. New Castle was taken from the 
older town of North Castle, and set off as a separate or distinct 
township, on the 18th of March, 1791. By the Indians it was 
called Shappequa, probably a corruption of the Algonquin term, 
Chapacoiir, which signifies "a vegetable root.''^ The name still 
survives in the Shappequa hills. The chief proprietor of these 
lands in 1696 was the Indian sachem Wampus, whose principal 
residence is said to have been situated near the pond of that 
name, in the south-west part of the town. On the south side of 
Kirby's pond, (at New Castle corner,) the Indians had their wig- 
wams and a burying ground. Their tools are occasionally found 
ill the adjoining fidds..b v. ;■ . '. , 

In 1660 John Richbell, of Mamaroneck; purchased of the In- 
dians, (who claimed to be lords of the soil,) a large tract of land 
extending twenty miles north of the Sound. This grant com- 
prised the entire township of New Castle. 

The next proprietor was Colonel Caleb Heathcote who obtain- 
ed of Mrs. Anne Richbell, a patent right to purchase lands 
''which are already included in her husband's sale of 1660." 
Upon the 12ih of October, 1696, his Excellency Benjamin 
Fletcher, Captain General and Governor of his Majesty's Pro- 
vince of New York, &c., did grant unto Caleb Heathcote, Esc^., 

» Beverly's Hist, of Virginia, p. 121. 

b The Indians a^e s,^ld io have been very numerous in this town seventy years 
ago. , ?',-.' 

Vol. I. ' 46 . ' 


"free liberty and license to pnrcliase vacant land in the county 
of "\^'esIchester, between Cioton's river and the south bounds of 
j\]r. Harrison's purchase, (fcc."' 

Twelve days after the date of the above license, occurs the fol- 
lowing deed from the Indians. 

"This inueiifure made on the 19th of October, in the eighth year of the 
reign of our Sovereign Lord William the Third, by the grace of God, &c., 
&c., and in ilie year of our Lord Christ, 1696, between Wampus, Indian sa- 
chem, and others, whose names are hereunto set and seals affixed, native pro- 
prietors of all that tract of land, situate, lying, and being in the county of 
Westchester in the Province of New York in America, bounded north by 
Scroton (Croton) river, easterdly with Byram river and Bedford line, souther- 
ly by the land of John Harrison and his associates, and the line stretching to 
Byram river aforesaid, and westerdly ly the land of Frederick Philipse." 

" Xow ^?ioiv all men that said Wampus, Cornelius and Coharnith, Indian 
sachems, and others, whose names are hereunto subscribed and seals affixed, 
the native proprietors of all the aforesaid tract of land, have, for and in con- 
sideration of the sum of lOOZ. good and lawful money of New Y^ork to them in 
bands paid by the said Caleb Heathcote, at and before the ensealing and de- 
livery of these present'?, the receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge, 
and themselves and each and every of them to be therewith fully satisfied, 
contented and paid, and thereof and every part and parcel thereof, they do by 
these presents for ever acquit and discharge the said Caleb Heathcote, his 
heirs, executors and administrators, &c. have given, granted, bargained and 
sold, aliened, enfeoffed, released and confirmed, and do by these presents clearly 
and absolutely give, grant, bargain and sell, alien, enfeof, release and confirm 
unto the Baid Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns, for ever, all that the 
before mentioned tract of land within the county of Westchester, bounded as 
above expressed and set forth, together with all and singular, the messua- 
ges, tenements, gardens, orchards, arable land, pastures, feedings, woods, un- 
derwoods, meadows, marshes, lakes, ponds, rivers, rivulets, mines, minerals, 
(royal mines only excepted,) fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, rights, 
privileges, hereditaments and appurtenances to the same belonging or in any 
ways appertaining, and all the estate, right, interest, claim, possession, pro- 
perty and demand of the said Wampus, Cornelius and Coharnith, sachems, 
and the other Indians whose names are hereunto subscribed, and each and 
every of them, in and to the premises, in and to every part and parcel thereof, 
to have and to hold the before mentioned tract of land and all other the above 
granted premises to him the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs and assigns, to 
the only proper benefit and behoof of him the said Caleb Heathcote, his heirs 
jj.nd assigns for ever. In testimony whereof, the parties to these presents 


have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals, the day and year first 
above vi'ritten.* 

Sealed and delivered in Pathiinck. 

presence of Coharnus. 

William Lawrence, and Betty Pathunck. 

Joseph Samuel. WiUro Coharnus's wife. 

Wacapo ^ her mark. 
. - ■• '■ • W^ampus, Indian, O liis mark. 

(>ornelius, ^ his mark. 
Roe Roe, ^ his mark. 

The above sale included the township of New Castle, and all 
that portion of North Castle, lying west of the Byram River. 
Upon the 14th day of February, 1701, the following letters pa- 
tent were issued under the great seal of the Province of New York. 

"William the Third, by the grace of GoJ, of England, Scotland, France, 
and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c., to all to whom this present 
shall come or may concerne, greeting : Whereas, our loving subjects, Robert 
Walters, Leigh Atwood, Cornelius Depeyster, Caleb Heathcote, JMatthew 
Clarkson, John Chohvell, Richard Slater, Lancaster Simes, Robert Lurting, 
and Barne Cosens, have, by their petition, presented unto our trusty and well 
beloved John Nanfan, Esq., our Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in- 
chief of our province of New York, and the territories depending thereon in 
America, &c., prayed our grant and confirmation of a certain tract of land in 
our county of Westchester, bounded northerly by the manor of Corilandt, and 
eastwardly with Bedford line of three miles, the white fields and Byram River, 
southerly by the land of John Harrison, Rye line stretching to Byram River 
aforesaid, and the White Plains, and westwardly by Broncks's River and the 
manor of Philipsburgh, excepting out of the bounds aforesaid, all the land in 
Mr. Richbell's patent, now in the tenure and occupation of Colonel Caleb 
Heathcote, which first above named tract of land was purchased by Caleb 
Heathcote and others, with whom he has agreed, excepting James Mott and 
Henry Disbrow, whom he hath undertaken to satisfy. Within ye bounds there 
are, by estimation, about five thousand acres of profitable land, beside wastes 
and woodland, which reasonable request wee being willing to grant, hioio ye, 
that of our special grace, certain knowledge, and meer motion, we have given 
granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents doe, for us, our heirs, 
and successors, give, grant, ratify and confirm unto our said loving subjects, 
Robert Walters, Leigh Atwood, Cornelius Depeyster, Caleb Heathcote, Mat- 
thew Clarkson, John Chohvell, Richard Slater, Lancaster Simes, Robert 

» Alb. Rec. ludiaa deed.s, warrant for survey, Lib. i. 52, 53, 


Lurtino-, and Barne Cosen3,'all the above recited tract of land within our coun- 
ty of Westchester, and within the limits and bounds aforesaid, together with 
all and singular the woods, underwoods, trees, timber, feedings, pastures, mea- 
dows, marshes, swamps, ponds, falls, waters, \-rater courses, rivers, rivulets, runs, 
brooks, streams, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, mines, minerals (silver 
and gold mines excepted,) and all other profits, benefits, privileges, libertyes, 
advantages, hereditaments, and appurtenances whatsoever, to the aforesaid 
tract of land within the limits and bounds aforesaid, belonging or in any wise 
appertaining, to have and to hold, all the aforesaid tract of land, together with 
all and singular the woods, underwoods, trees, timbers, feedings, pastures, 
meadows, marshes, swamps, ponds, pools, water courses, rivers, rivulets, 
runs, brooks, streams, fishing, fowling, hunting and hawking, mines and miner- 
als, (silver and gold mines excepted,) and all other profits, benefits, privileges, 
liberties, advantages, hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever to the 
aforesaid tract of land within the limits and bounds aforesaid, belonging or in 
any ways appertaining unto them, the said Robert Walters, Leigh Atwood, 
Cornelius Depeyster, Caleb Heathcote, Matthew Clarkson, John Cholvvell, 
Richard Slater, Lancaster Simes, Robert Lurting, and Barne Cosens, their 
heirs and assigns, to the only proper use, benefit, and behoof of them, the 
said Robert Walters, Leigh Atwood, Cornelius Depeyster, Caleb Heath- 
cote, Matthew Clarkson, John Cholwell, Richard Slater, Lancaster Simes, 
Robert Lurting, and Barne Cosens, their heirs and assigns for ever, to be 
holden of us, our heirs, and successors, in free and common soccage, as of our 
manor of East Greenwich, in our County of Kent, within our Realm of En- 
gland, yielding, rendering and paying, this year and every year forever, at our 
city of New York, unto us, our heirs and successors, or to such officer or offi- 
cers as shall from time to time be empowered to receive the same, the annual and 
yearly rent of six pounds four shillings, current money of New York, in lieu 
and stead of all other rents, dues, duties, services and demands whatsoever, 
hi testimony whereof, we have caused the great seal of our said Province to 
be hereunto affixed. Witness John Nanfan, Esq., our Lieut. Governor and 
Commander-in-chief of our province of New York, and the territories de- 
pending thereon in America, vice-Admiral of the same, and at our fort in New 
York, this I4ih day of February, A.D. 1701, and in the 13ih year of our 


John Nanfan." 

Tliis grant was subsequently known as the West Patent of 
North Castle. 

The following items occur in the town records: 

• Hook of Tat. Alb., No. vii. 191- 


February 21st, 1743, an agreement between the Receiver Gen- 
eral and others^ "concerning money that is coming to the former 
on the behalf of the King, for quit-rent of the West PatoitJ^^ 

In 1744 Joseph Hutchins and Caleb Green were aj^pointed 
" assessors for the west side of the branch of Byram River ;" 
"also Thomas Walters for the West Patenty^ 

John Halleck, of North Castle, in 1755 "sold to Joseph Fow- 
ler and Caleb Fowler three quarters of an acre of undivided land 
in North Castle, within a certain Patent known and called by the 
name of Fauconier's West Patent, and to be in the right of 
Thomas Weaver, who was one of the Patentees of said Patent, 
it being a part of a greater right purchased 13th of March, 1753, 
of John Thomas, one of the representatives of Westchester 

In the Secretary of Staters office at Albany is a map of part of 
a tract of land (granted by letters patent under the great seal of 
the colony of New York, bearing date the fourteenth day of Feb- 
ruary, 1701-2, to Robert Walters and others) " which remains 
unsold, and contains four thousand one hundred and fifty one 
acres, divided into sixteen lotts by Charles Clinton, Jonathan 
Brown, and Elisha Budd, Commissioners, and Nathaniel Merritt, 
Surveyor, appointed by virtue of an act of the liieutenant Gov- 
ernor, the Council, and the General Assembly of the colony of 
Nev»r York, passed the eighth day of January, 1762, entitled an 
act for the more effectual collecting of his Majestie's quit-rents in 
the colony of New York, and for partition of lands in order 
thereto," <fcc.<^ 

Upon the 10th of June, 1766, occurs the following public no- 
tice for the sale of the above lands : . ; . , ;. . • 

" Whereas his late majesty, King William the Third, by letters patent under 
the great seal of the colony of New York, bearing date the 4th day of Febru- 
ary, 1701-2, and the 30th year of his reign ; did grant and confirm unto Robert 

* Town Rec. vol. i. 4. 

b In 1743 Robert Walters and Peter Fauconier had rights concerning quit-rents on 
the West Patent. 

« Field Book, Sec. of State's office. 


Wallers, Leigh Atwood, Cornelius Depeyster, Caleb Heathcote, Matthew 
Clarkson, John Chohvell, Richard Slater, Lancaster Simes, Robert Lurtingi 
and Barne Cosens ; a certain tract of land in the county of Westchester, 
bounded northerly by the manor of Cortlandt, easterly with Bedford line of 
three miles square, the V»*hite Fields and Byram river ; southerly by the land 
of John Harrison, Rye line stretching to Byram river aforesaid, and the White 
Plains ; and westerly by Bronck's river, and the manor of Philipsburgh, except- 
ing out of the bounds aforesaid, all the lands within Richbell's patent, accord- 
ing 10 the lines of the said patent, now in the tenure and occupation of Col. 
Caleb Heathcote ; which first above named tract of land was purchased by- 
Col, Caleb Heathcote, and others, with whom he has agreed, except James 
Mott, and Henry Disbrovv, whom he hath undertaken to satisfy ; within which 
bounds, there are by estimation, about 5000 acres of profitable land, besides 
wastes and wood lands. And whereas we the subscribers, in pursuance cf a 
certain act of the lieutenant governor, the council, and general assembly of this 
colony, entitled, An Act for the more effectual collecting of his majesty's quit- 
rents in the colony of New York, and for partition of lands in order thereto* 
have lately made a survey of all that part of the lands above-mentioned, which 
have not been sold by the proprietors and owners thereof We do hereby give 
notice, that true maps and field books of the survey of the said part thereof, 
and of the allotments made, specifying the bounds of every lot ; on which maps 
the lots are laid down and numbered, and the number of acres in every lot ; 
and the said maps and field books signed by us, and by Nathaniel Merrit, our 
surveyor, are filed, one of the said maps and field books in the office of the 
clerk of the county of Westchester, and the other in the secretary's office in 
the city of New York- And we do hereby appoint Wednesday, the 6th of 
August next, at the city hall of the city of New York, to be the day and place 
for balloting for the said lots and allotments ; and do require all persons inte- 
rested, then and there to attend, and to see the several allotments balloted for. 
Given under our hands this 23d day of June, 1766. 

[Pat. 7, 223.] " CHAR. CLINTON, } Surviving 

" JONATHAN BROWN, \ Commissioners." 

We find the following indenture, on the 5tli of April, 1774, be- 
tv\een Benjamin Smith, Caleb Fowler, and Joseph Sutton all of 
the west patent of JNorth Castle, (fee, of the first part, and Caleb 
Sands of Bedford, of the other part, witnesseth that his gracious 
mnjesly, King William the Third, of glorious memory, by letters 
patent, under the great seal of tlie province of New York, bearing 
date the 1 4th day of February, in the fourteenth year of his reign, 
granted unfo Robert Walters and others, a certain tract of land 
in the county of Vrestchesler, bounded, 6cc., 6oC. All which 
trpct of land is called tjie west patent of North Castle, and where- 


as the said Benjamin sSmitli, Caleb Fowler and Joseph Sntton 
were deputed for to, and did make, a purchase of the greater part 
of the abovesaid tract of land for themselves and their associates,* 
as by a general map of the same may appear. Now this inden- 
ture witnesseth, that for and in consideration of the sum of 
£15 125. of good current and lawful money of the province of 
.New York, well and truly paid by tlie said Caleb Sands, one of 
the associates in making of the above said purchase, we the said 
Benjamin Smith, Caleb Fowler and Joseph Sutton doth acknow- 
ledge by these presents, and therefore have given, granted, and 
released unto him, the said Caleb Sands, his heirs and assigns^ 
all that certain part of the above recited tract of land containing 
thirty-nine acres, bounded as follows: by a heap of stones at the 
south-west corner of Bedford new purchase, so called, and run- 
ning north with Bedford line till it comes to a chestnut oak tree, 
marked with a heap of stones about it, at the south-east corner of 
the land of Benjamin Hall, then westward to a white wood tree 
with a heap of stones about it, then south-eastwardly as the fence 
stands to a large black oak tree, marked, then more southerly as 
-the fence stands to an oak stump or a cliff of rocks, still southerly 
to a chestnut sapling, on a knoll of rocks, then eastwardly as the 
fence stands, to a chestnut oak tree, marked, still eastwardly as 
the fence stands to the land of Peter Disbrow, from thence to the 
first bounds, a heap of stones, (fee, &c.b .^ ■ ■ r- ■_;•. 

^. .-?. Benj. Smith, 

Caleb Fowler. 

The principal proprietors of New Castle are the Wards, Conck- 
lins. Hiatts, Underbills, Haights, Carpenters, Greens, Kirbys, 
Davenports, Van Tassels, Griffens, Tomkins, Kipps, Secors, Bra- 
dys, Reynolds, duinb^^s, and Merrits, 6cc., &c. 

The first election for town officers took place on the 5th of 
April. 1791, vvhen the following individuals were chosen for the 
year ensuing : 

a One of the associate patentees appears to have been Col. Matthews, who held 
]2S0 acres in the west patent of North Castle. 

b The original document is in the possession of Mr. Caleb Sands of North Castle, 


Isaac Siiiitb, supervisor. 
Abraham Hyatt, town clerk. 
SiUtoii Craft, constable. 
Benjamin Carpenter, collector^ and 
Caleb Carpenter, security. 
Caleb Haight, ) 

Nathaniel Smith, > assessors. 
Henry Slason, \ 

Caleb Carpenter, / .^^..^g.^,. ^/-^^g jj^.^. 
Abraham Hyatt, \ ^^^^^^^^^ ^/ '^^ P^^^- 

Caleb Haio^ht, ) 

Nathaniel Smith, > commissioners of roads, 

Henry Slason, ) 

Jan:ies Underbill, pounder. 

Nathaniel Concklin, ) 

Jesse Brady, > damage prizers and fence viewers. 

Isaac Powell, 3 

" Isaac Smith, Caleb Carpenter and Isaiah Green; were deputed 
to meet a committee from the town of North Castle for to settle 
all disputes which may exist between the town of New Castle 
and the aforesaid town of any nature or kind whatsoever, also to 
settle the line between the two towns.^ 

The village of New Castle Corners^ is pleasantly situated in 
the north-east angle of the town, on the west side of Kirby's 
pond. It contains a Methodist church, several stores, a post-office, 
a grist mill, a needle manufactory, and twelve or fifteen dwelling 
houses. The neighborhood of this beautiful spot abounds with 
the most romantic scenery. It is now about one hundred and 
twenty-eight years since the first families settled in this place. 
They appear to have met with great discouragements, and to have 
endured severe trials, for they were in the midst of a wilderness, 
and constantly exposed to Indian depredations. The Rev. Ro- 
bert Jenney, minister of Rye, writing to the Propagation Society 
in 1722, thus alludes to the place. " I have lately been to a set- 
llement in the woods, where 1 had good success, having baptized 
a whole family, parents and children ."i* This evidently refers 

-* Formerjy called North Castle. ^ Rep. of Propagation Soc, 


to the present village, for in 1728 the Rev. T. Wetniore, his sue- 
cessor informs the same society, ihat "at North Castle, a new set- 
tlement in the luoods, there are more than forty families most 
of which are uhbaptized, and that he preaches there every fiftli 

Prior to the Revolution. North Caslle formed one of the pre- 
cincts or districts of Rye parish, which accounts for the parochial 
clergy officiating here at this early period. In 1725, North Cas- 
tle contributed towards the minister's rate and poor of the parish, 
£2. 9. 0, The same year Mr, Dwight was school-master at 
North Castle with a salary of £10 a year. At a vestry meetinj^, 
held March the 1st, 1730, for the parish of Rye, it was ordered, 
that " whereas the vestrymen of the district of North Casth 
have neglected to make up their parish rate last year and this 
year, though often requested thereto, ordered therefore by ye 
vestry and justices, that the North Castle vestrymen^ for ye last 
year and this year do appear at Rye at Francis Doughty's, on the 
16lh of this month at noon, in order to make their rates without 
any farther delay, or ordered to be presented immediately, and 
that the clerk do send forthwith a copy of this order to said North 
Castle vestrymen.''^ The Rev. Mr. Wetmore, writing to the 
Propagation Society in 1753, states, " that his congregations at 
Rye, White Plains, North Castle and Bedford are large and 
flourishing, the new light preachers have removed from Bedford, 
and there is some hopes of the people uniting with North Caslle, 
towards supporting a minister." 

Among the reports of the Society in 1761, occurs the follow- 
ing; "Second Sunday in October, 1761, the Rev. Mr. Dibble 
preached at the opening of St. George's church, North Castle. 
Mr. St. George Talbot, the pious and noble benef\ictor was pre- 
sent, and was highly pleased with the number and devout be- 
haviour of the people. The same day, Mr. Dibble baptized thir- 
teen inumts, and one adult. 

In the spring of 1762, St. George's church was visited by the 

» Propagation Soc Fep. 
b Rye Rec 

Vol. I. ^ - 47 


Rev. George Dibble and St. George Talbot, Esq. Of the latter 
gentleman, Mr. Dibble thus writes to the Society : " He is inde- 
fatigable in his endeavors to serve the interests of true religion 
and our holy church, whose services 1 find universally accepta- 
ble, and his life agreeable to his public character. He was (con- 
tinues Mr. Dibble) surprised both at the number and devout be- 
haviour of the people at North Castle^ for the church could not 
contain them," ^fcc* 

St. George's church, which had stood for nearly eighty years 
in the Episcopal burying ground, was dismantled in 1S39, and 
sold at public auction for the sum of forty dollars.^ 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the 
grave yard. 

In In 

Memory of Memory of 

Isaac Lounsberrv, James Wright, 

who was born Oct. llth, 1703, who was born March 14th, 
and died March 3, 1721, and departed this life, 

1773. May the 17th, 1776, 

aged 55 years, 1 mo. 
and 25 days. 

There are also memorials to the Greens, Woolseys, Ferrises, 
Sarleses, Harts, Pinckneys, Tompkinses, Carys, Seamans, For- 
shays, Haineses, Millers, Carpenters, Clapps, Merritts, Mon- 
Irosses, &c. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of this place was first incor- 
porated in 1S24. Caleb Kirby, James Fish, John B. Horton, 
Tyler Fountain and Benjamin Kirby, *trustees.c The present 
church was erected in 1843, to it, is attached a small parsonage 
and grave yard. 

» Hawkins' Hist. Not. of the Missions of the Church of England. Original let- 
ters in Lambeth collection, vol. xix. 208. 

b It deserves to be recorded that Judge Miller strenuously opposed its destruction. 
YoT a further account of t' is pariah, see Bedford. 

e Religious Soc. Co. Rcc. Lib. A. 183. 


During the Revolution, this part of the county was greatly an- 
noyed by the enemy, who frequently made sudden inroads, plun- 
dering and capturing the defenceless inhabitants. February 7lh, 
17S2, (says General Heath,) about fifty of De Lancey'rf horse 
came out within four miles of Chappequa, where they halted. 
On the 8th ihey moved toward North Castle, but turned off by 
\Yright's Mills ; from thence to King street, Rye.''^ For a long 
time St. George's church was occupied as a guard-house and hos- 
pital by the Continental troops. 

In the vicinity of Abraham Weeks's mill dam, in this town, a 
party of British refugees waylaid and murdered a French doctor 
of some distinction. It appears that the unfortunate man was on 
his route to the American hospital at New Castle, when arrested 
by his murderers, who dragged him from his horse, and conveyed 
him into an adjoining swamp. Here, having secured their vic- 
tim, they proceeded to play a game at cards, as to which of them 
should be his executioner. In vain their victim plead in broken 
English for his life, numbering his children upon his fingers. 
The lot fell upon one Totten, who, approaching the doctor, in- 
stantly shot him dead as he knelt on the ground. He was now 
stripped of his clothing, watch and money, and dragged a few 
rods further into the bushes- The skeleton was afterwards found 
and interred upon the spot.^ 

Near the centre of the town is situated the small hamlet of 
Sarlesville. Here the town business is principally transacted. 

In the southwest corner are located the Friends' meeting hou- 
ses. The Friends' Society was organized here some time prior 
to the Revolution. c 

The general surface of New Castle is uneven, hills and vales 

'^ Heath's Mem. 328. 

b Tradition reports, that the following remarkable accident befel the assassin sooa 
after : he was struck by lightning, which dissolved the metal on his shoe buckles. 
When asked if this was a fact, the conscience stricken murderer replied, " If I 
should say yes, that would be an admission of my guilt." Totten is said to have 
been a terror not only to himself, but all who knew him. This miserable man lieg 
J n the Friends' burying-ground at Pines Bridge. 

= The Methodist Episcopal Church was erected ia 1845. 



interspersed ; soil gravelly, clay and sandy loam. The natural 
growth of wood is of various kinds, as oak, chestnut, hickory 
ash. maple, walnut, elm and v/hitewood, <fcc. The Chappequa 
Isills in this town are worthy of particular notice. They begin 
near the great hill known by the name of the Buttermilk Moun- 
tain, and extend north easterly four miles, terminating north- 
ward in the Kisco Mountain. These hills are very stony and 
rocky in general, but afford vast quantities of excellent timber. 
At the foot of the Kisco Mountain is situated the Westchester and 
Harlem railroad depot. New Castle is exceedingly well watered 
by rivers, rivulets, and springs. The Saw Mill River (Nepera) 
takes its rise from two springs near the centre of the town, one 
of them situated on the land of Job Collins, the other on the 
property of Willett Kipps. The Bronx River (Aquehung) has 
its source in the Dark Valley of this town. The Mill River 
(Pocanteco) rises on the lands of Isaac Lownsberry, 

There are tvvo or three large ponds, which supply valuable 
mill seats. Kirby's Pond receives its waters from Simmons's 
Pond, vv^hile its outlet passes into the Pepemighting, or Kisco. 
Wampus Pond is situated on the boundary line between New and 
North Castle. This pond covers about fifty acres, and empties 
into the Byram (Armonck) River, Fish were never caught here 
until within a few years, when pike were put therein, which have 
multiplied exceedingly.* Upon the west side of Wampus Pond 
rises Prospect Hill, the property of Mr. Caleb Quinby.b It is 
impossible to describe the variegated prospect that meets the eye 
from its summit ; a more extensive view is not to be had in the 
town. Near this hill an iron mine was opened seventy-four 
years ago, but, the war commencing, put a stop to the project, 
which has never since been resumed. 

The Chappequa sulphur springs, which have acquired some 
celebrity, are situated ^' four miles northeast of Sing Sing. They 

« Ten years ago vast flocks of wild duck and geese used to frequent this pond. 

t. The Quinby family were among the first settlers of this part of New Castle, 
and dpfifen.d frora John Quinby, one of the patentees of the town of Westchester in 

To face page 372, vol. i. 

Arms, or, on a bend sa. three trefoils slipped ar. Ci 

«3 i^ 

nat. March Cornell of 
31, 1G92. Scarsdale 


nat. 13 Feb. 1695. 


Samuel—Pliilakett \s 

nat. 2 may, Lester. ? 

1697. I- 




2 Aaron 

nai. April 

1, 1747, 

ob. s. p. 

3 Mo5es=BatliPli«ba Jam?s_-1 Anne Underliiil 

nat. 11 



Pell of 
Eastchester. 12 

da of Jacob of 


_.2 Hannah Un- 
derliiil da. of Is- 
aac and Sarah 
of Yoikiovvn. 

^5= X 

_ • 3 

K)3 M 

, 2^ ?. 

, w: 

Ti y'-3 3 

> -::.SL 


» a 


ib. Daniel. 

Aaron_l Plioebe Sutton. 
I 2 Hannali Barnes. 
3 C.iroline Under- 

^ zti m J 

s » — . Moses=: Abigail 
■" " "^ Carpen- 

ter, da. 
of Bene- 
dic . 


*« 2 

3- " 



I da. of 

> H 






O JJi 












O ti 

— •e-t 

C 3 



- B 














I I I 

s s? ^ 

5g = 
P p. 



ft cy 


"^ > ^ 

J- 7J 

C :a .. 

3- 2 = 3 

r c 3 "^ 

I I I aron J. 

> o 

-1 3" -^ 

ft. ~ • 


2 > 

Mary J. 


interspersed ; soil gravelly, clay and sandy loam. The natural 
growth of wood is of various kinds, as oak, chestnut, hickory 
ash, maple, walnut, elm and whitewood, (fcc. The Chappeqna 
hills in this town are worthy of particular notice. They begin 
near the great hill known by the name of the Buttermilk Moun- 
tain, and extend northeasterly four miles, terminating north- 
ward in the Kisco Mountain. These hills are very stony and 
rocky in general, but afford vast quantities of excellent timber. 
At the foot of the Kisco Mountain is situated the Westchester and 
Harlem railroad depot. New Castle is exceedingly well watered 
by rivers, rivulets, and springs. The Saw Mill River (Nepera) 
takes its rise from two springs near the centre of the town, one 
of them situated on the land of Job Collins, the other on the 
property of Willett Kipps. The Bronx River (Aquehung) has 
its source in the Dark Valley of this town. The Mill River 
(Pocanteco) rises on the lands of Isaac Lownsberry. 

There are tvv'o or three large ponds, v/hich supply valuable 
mill seats. Kirby's Pond receives its waters from Simmons's 
Pond, vs^hile its outlet passes into the Pepemighting, or Kisco. 
\\ ampus Pond is situated on the boundary line between New and 
North Castle. This pond covers about fifty acres, and empties 
into the Byram (Armonck) River, Fish were never caught here 
until within a few years, when pike were put therein, which have 
multiplied exceedingly. a Upon the west side of Wampus Pond 
rises Prospect Hill, the property of Mr. Caleb Quinby.b It is 
impossible to describe the variegated prospect that meets the eye 
from its summit ; a more extensive view is not to be had in the 
town. Near this hill an iron mine was opened seventy-four 
years ago, but, the war commencing, put a stop to the project, 
which has never since been resumed. 

The Chappequa sulphur springs, which have acquired some 
celebrity, are situated ^' four miles northeast of Sing Sing. They 

• Ten years ago vast flocks of wild duck and geese used to frequent this pond. 
t The Quinby family were among the first settlers of this part of New Castle, 
and descend from John Quinby, one of the patentees of the town of Westchester in 

To face page 373, vol. t. 

Arms, or, on a bend sa. three trefoils elipped i 

Creat, a cubit arm, erect, vested, or, with three slashes in the sleeve, in the hand ppr a cimetar, hilted of the firat, the blade enibrued i 
William Quinby emigrated from England— 

1 of Westchester io 1664, and t 

Josiah^Mary Mullioex, June 17, 1783. 


" Ciirnull of 
- Scariidale 


not. i:t Feb. 1095. 


lat. 7 Feb. llaliday. 

30 Oct. 1702, 

mar. 17 Feb. 


»at — Elizabeth 

Cornell- ila 
of Ricliard 
and Uaanatl. 

Moses nat._,Jane Pelbatn 

12 Nov. 1701 

mar. 17 Oct. 


i. Nov. 
p a. p. 

da. iif Franc 

und Elizabeth 

of Newcastle. 

Dnniel^Mary iBaiah—Rache] 

nat. II Thorn ' nat. 11 Warlord 

Jan, of April, of New 

1709. Flushing. 1716. Jetsej'. 


3 MoSPBr 



nat. 11 

Pell of 






1 Anne Underbill 



da of Jacnb of 



2° = 

_2 Hannah Un- 

f6 g 

derhillda.of Is. 

,' ■ iT 

aac and Sarah 

s-gws 1 

of Yoiklown. 




Francis^ Esther 
nat. :10 da. of 
Sept. Benj. and 
17J1. Maiy Sniit 



nat. ,1 Underbill 
da. of Is- 
aac and 
Sarah of 
mar. Sept. 
18, 1793. 


3=« ■sk r,; 

si Si 

I I 
3| a| 

mjab. Daniel. 

1 Phoebe Sulton. 

2 Hannah Barnes. 

3 C.troline Under- 

I Carpen- 

Obadiahi=Freelove Jo6iah=Amy da. of 
I Caleb Un. 
1 Nov. 176:1, ^^ 

I J i I I 

> William=Phnebe 

'L ill 

5 g >: 

Moses— Esther 

I I I 

-„ ail. 

> H 


f i 

dn. of 


Reubeii=Susnn Daniel—Rachel CaIeb=:Eli2abeth 

Carpen- (rf White I Pugsley. I Tomp- 

ter da. Plains. kins, 

of John. 

lEa)ab=Amy. Azarlah. 
da. of 

Joeiah— Dphorah 
I naight 

John J. Eliza F. 
nat. Feb. nat. Nov. 
35, ieS6. 2U, 1824. 

S-M 2;= 3^ 

2." I." !:& 

1 I ' I 

^ ;? M V- 



Mosea. Thomas^Susan P 2 33 
Hunter. 3 ffl 3 

Josiah. George M. George W. Aa 


issue from a cleft in the rock, near the base of a hill about two 
hundred feet in height. The vvaterj as it rises from the rocks, is 
transparent, but in its course deposites a reddish yellow powder. 
The salts held in solution are said to be sulphate of lime, chlo- 
ride of calcium, and the muriate of iron, and manganese. The 
water is supposed to possess medicinal properties similar to those 
usually ascribed to sulphur springs.''^- 

It is a singular fact, that sulphuretted springs are to be found at 
short distances from this spot to Fort Miller, in Washington 
county, a distance of a hundred and fifiy miles. 

In the northeast corner of the town lies the romantic valley of 
the Pepemighting,b through which the river of that name mean- 
ders in its passage to the Croton. This part of New Castle has 
been recently taken from the adjoining township of Somers.^ 

» Nat. Hist, of N. Y. Part iii. 141. Sulphuretted hydrogen is the gas evolved. 
b Misnamed the Kisco. 

c Laws of N. Y. May 12, 1846. 69th Session, chap. 249. The Sutton family 
settled in this part of the town 104 years ago. 

374 ^ 



The town of New 
Rochelle, (which for- 
merly constituted a por- 
tion of the manor of p 
Pelham,) is situated on g 
the south-east side of i 
the county, distant eight 
miles south of the vil- 
lage of White Plains, 
and one hundred and Indian imagp stone a 

forty miles from Albany ; bounded by Scarsdale on the north, by 
Mamaroneck and Scarsdale on the east, by Hutchinson's river 
and Pelham on the west, and on the south by the Sound. 

This tract of land was originally included in the grant made 
by the Indians, in the year 1640, to the Dutch West India Com- 
pany, but no settlement was actually commenced upon it until 
long after Thomas Pell's purchase, which occurred in 1654.^ 

The aborigines appear to have resided principally on Daven- 
port's Neck, where they had a large settlement, denominated 
Shippa. Within a very short period there were old persons 
{living in the town) who could well remember when the neck 
was covered with Indian wigwams. ^ Of this the extensive 
"shell beds," on its southern shores afford conclusive evidence. 

* This image stone was discovered on the lands of John Soulice some few 
years since. Beneath it lay a smooth stone, (weighing 7 lbs.) resembling in shape a 
kidney, and encompassed with a circular grove. 

^ J^ee Pelham. 

■■- Testimony of Mrs. Le Count, who died January, 1841, aged 105 years; also 
Mra. Pine. 


A few settlements were also scattered along tlie fertile meadows 
bordering the various fresh water streams, especially in the north- 
ern part of the town.^ 

As late as 1694-5 the Indians were in the habit of coming 
down into the northern part of New Rochelle from the neighbor- 
hood of White Plains, for a cider frolic, which they considered 
as a kind of usufruct title to the soil. The remains of an oak tree 
which they burnt upon one of these occasions, is still visible on 
the farm of John Soulice, Esq. This seems to have been the last 
chapter in their history connected with New Rochelle ; although 
in 1767 a small remnant of the aborigines (then inhabiting the 
Highlands,) visited the town. 

Upon the sixth day of October, 1666, Richard NicoUs, govern- 
or of the province, did give, grant, ratify and confirm unto 
Thomas Peil, gentleman, all that tract of land lying to the east- 
ward of Westchester bounds, (subsequently known as the manor 
of Pelham,) &c., " which said tract of land hath heretofore been 
purchased of the Indian proprietors, and ample satisfaction given 
for the same."^ 

In 1669, the patentee devised the whole manor of Pelham to 
his nephew John Pell, (commonly called Lord Pell,) who obtained 
a further confirmation for the same from Thomas Dongan, go- 
vernor of the province, on the 29th of October, 1687.^ 

Upon the 20th of September, 1689, we find John Pell, Lord of 
the manor of Pelham, and Rachel his wife, conveying to Jacob 
Leisler of the city of New York, merchant, "all that tract of land 
lying and being within the manor of Pelham, containing 6000 
acres of land," (fcc, <fec., (the present township of New Rochelle,) 
"The grantee and his heirs yielding and paying unto the said 
John Pell and his heirs, &c., as lords of the said manor, one fat 
calf on every four and twentieth day of June yearly, (fee., if de- 
manded," ifec.d 

^ One of these was situated on the property of John SouUce, where there is also 
a quarry of quartz from which the Indians manufactured their javelin and arrow 

b See Pelham, for Thomas PeU's patent. 

c See Pelham, for John PeU's confirmation. 

<! Whenever the fat calf was demanded by the lords of the manor, (on the festival 


The above tract was granted in the following manner : 

To all Christian people to whom this present writing shall conne, John Pell, 

proprietor of the manor of Pelham, within the county of Westchester, in the 
province of New York, within the dominion of New England, gentleman, and 
Rachel his wife, sendeth greeting in our Lord God everlasting, Know yee 
that the said John Pell and Rachel his wife for and in consideration of the sum 
of sixteen hundred and seventy-five pounds and twenty-five shillings sterling, 
current silver money of this province, to him in hand paid and secured to be 
paid at the, or before, the ensealing and delivery thereof by Jacob Leisler of 
the city of New York, merchant, the receipt whereof they, the said John Pell 
and Rachel his wife, do thereby acknowledge themselves to be fully satisfied 
and contented, and thereof, and of every part and parcel thereof, do hereby 
freely and clearly acquit and exonerate and discharge the said Jacob Leisler, 
his heirs, executors, administrators, and every of them, by these presents have 
granted, bargained, and sold, and by these presents do grant, bargain and sell 
unto the said Jacob Leisler, his heirs and assignees, all that tract of land lying 
and being within said manor of Pelham, containing six thousand acres of land, 
and also one hundred acres of land more, which the said John Pell and Rachel 
his wife do freely give and grant for the French church erected, or to be 
erected, by the inhabitants of the said tract of land, or by their assignees, being 
butted and bounded as herein is after expressed, beginning at the west side of 
a certain white oak tree, marked on all four sides, standing at high water 
mark at the south end of Hog Neck, by shoals, harbour, and runs, north-wes- 
terly through the great fresh meadow lying between the road and the sound, 
and from the north side of the said meadow where the said line crosses the 
said meadow, to run from thence due north to Bronckes river, which is the 
west division line between the said John Pell's land and the aforesaid tract, 
bounded on the south-easterly by the sound and salt water, and to run east- 
northerly to a certain piece of salt meadow lying at the salt creek which run- 
neth up to Cedar Tree brook, or Gravelly brook, and is the bounds to southern. 
Bounded on the east by a line that runs from said meadow north-westerly by 
marked trees, to a certain black oak tree standing a little below the road, 
marked on four sides, and from thence to run due north four miles and a half, 
more or less, and from the north side of the said west line, ending at Bronckes's 
river, and from thence to run easterly till it meets with the north end of the 
said eastermo^;t bounds, together with all and singular the islands and islets 
before the said tract of land lying and being in the sound and salt water, with 
all the harbors, creeks, rivers, rivuleits, runns, waters, lakes, meadows, ponds, 
marshes, salt and fresh, swamps, soils, timber, trees, pastures, feedings, en- 

of St. John the Baptist,) each Huguenot paid his proportion towards its purchase. 
This ceremony was last performed in a house which occupied the site of Mr. James 
Morgan's residence in Ejistchester. A feast invariably followed the presentation. 


closures, fields, quarries, mines, minerals, (silver and gold mines only excepted) 
fishing, huniing, fowling, hawking, and also all the messuages, houses, tene- 
ments, barns, mills, mill dams, as they were at the time of the ensealing and 
delivery of the articles of agreement of sale for said land, hearittg dale the 
second day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred and 
eighty-seven. As relation being thereto had doih more fully and at large ap- 
pear, as also the reversion and reversions, remainder and remainders of a cer- 
tain lott of land and meadow, now in the tenure and occupation of John Jefferd, 
and Olive his wife, being part of the aforesaid six thousand acres of land, with 
all the privileges belonging thereto or any wise appertaining, or therewith now 
used, occupied and enjoyed, as all the right, title, interest, reversion, remain- 
der, property, claime, and demand whatsoever, of, in, and to the same, and any 
part thereof, as is hereafter expressed. To have and to hold the aforesaid 
tract of land, with all other the above granted premises, unto the said Jacob 
Leisler, his heirs and assigns, for ever, to his and their own sole and proper 
use, benefit, and behoof, for ever, yielding and paying unto the said John Pell, 
his heirs and assigns, lords of the said manor of Pelharn, to the assignees of 
him or them, or their or either of them, as an acknowledgment to the lords of 
the said manor, one fat calf on every four and twentieth day of June, yearly 
and every year for ever if demanded. The said John Pell and Rachel his 
vvite, for themselves, their heirs, executors, and administrators respectively, 
do hereby covenant, promise, and grant to and with the said Jacob Leisler, his 
heirs and assignees, in manner and form following, that is to say, at the time 
of the ensealing hereof, they the said John Pell and Rachel his wife, do avouch 
themselves to be true, sole, and lawful owners of all the afore bargained pre- 
mises, and that they are lawfully seized of and in the same and every part 
thereof in their own proper ri^ht of a good and indefinable estate of inheri- 
tance in fee simple, and have in themselves good right, full power and lawful 
authority to sell and dispose of the same as aforesaid ; and the said Jacob 
Leisler, his heirs and assignees, shall and may from henceforth and forever 
hereafter, peaceably, quietly, have, hold, occupy, possess, and enjoy the above 
granted premises, and every part and parcel thereof, free and clear without 
any charge or intimidation, caused, made, suffered, or granted by said John 
Pell and Rachel his wife, or either of them, their or either of their heirs in 
estate, right, title, interest in law or equity, trust, charge, or other molestation* 
whatsoever. And the said John Pell and Rachel his wife, for themselves re- 
spectively, and for their respective heirs, do covenant, promise, and grant to 
warrant and defend the above granted premises with their appurtenances, and 
every part and parcel thereof, unto the said Jacob Leisler, his heirs and as» 
signees, forever, against the lawl'ul charges and demands. In witness where- 
of the said John Pell and Rachel his wile have hereunto set their hands and 
seals in New York, the twentieth day of September, in the first year of ihe 
reign of our sovereign lord and lady, William and Mary, King and Queen of 

YoL. I. " 4S 


England, &c., &c., in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty 
and nine. 

The mark of* 

John Pell. R- 

Racliel Pell. ^ 

Leisler, the above grantee,^ was authorized by the committee 
of public safety,^ on the 16ih of August, 16S9, '* to use the pow- 
er and authority of commander-in-chief, until orders should come 
from their majesties," King William and Queen Mary. '-And 
further to do all such acts as are requisite for the good of the 
province, taking counsel with the militia and civil authority as oc- 
casion shall require."'^ 

For assuming the government Leisler was afterwards tried on 

a charsre of hio^h treason, and executed on the 16tliofMav, 1691. 

" Ebeling, the Dntch historian of New York, (says Dunlap,) 

gives an impartial account of the transactions of this lime, and 

the fate of Jacob Leisler. 

On the surrenderof the fort (of New York,) Leisler, Milbourne, 
and others who had form.ed the council, were imprisoned and 
immediately tried by a court of oyer and terminer, appointed by 
the governor, instigated by the enemies of Leisler, who again 
formed the court. The fallen party were arraigned as murder- 
ers and traitors. In vain they reminded the court of their zeal for 
William and Mary — in vain Leisler denied the authority of the 
court : any consideration and any humiliation would not have 
satisfied his enemies ; and it appears that he stooped to none, but 
justified his conduct. Dudley was the presidmg judge. Leisler 
and Milbourne were sentenced to die as rebels and traitors. Had 
James been king, they might have incurred the same fate for 
treason aguinst him. Ebeling in his history, says, that after the 
sentence, "the whole matter was laid before the king," (i. e. be- 

2 F'rorn the original document in the possession of Bonnett Underhill, Esq., of 
Upper Koclielle. 

b In a roll or list of persons embarked in the ship Otter, (at Amsterdam, in 1663, 
4,) for the New Netherlands, occurs the name of Jacob Loyseler of Franckfort. 
Alb. Rec. 

' This committee had been appointed by the people. 

«J Dunlap's Hist. N. Y. vol. i. 153. 


fore William TIT.,) but by whom? by thoss who had determined to 
sacrifice him to ilieir private views and passions. 

The assembly that had been convened, were persuaded that 
the misfortunes of the province were ail attributable to Leisler 
and his friends, and tliat assembly pressed for his execution. 

Sloughter feared to exasperate the people who still adhered to 
Leis'er. The governor thought of proroguing the assembly to 
Albany. Lcisler's friends were clamorous on account of his long 
imprisonment :a "and at the sentence passed upon him by the 
opposite party who feared that if the governor and assembly re- 
moved to Albany, the people of New York would liberate the pris- 
oners, and therefore pressed the more for immediate execution. 
Sloughter called, says Ebeling, "a particular council, of both 
houses. In this council he was urged and pressed to execute 
the sentence immediately !'' Sloughter is said to have been unwil- 
ling. Was he not fearful ? The historian Ebeling, says," when 
every thing else failed, he (Sloughter) was made drunk, and 
the execution took place May 17th. Every tiling proves that 
Leisler was cpndeinned unlawfully, and executed unjustly. Af- 
terwards the act of attainder was reversed ; this was done at the 
instance of young Leisler,"'iJ and the Huguenots,c " Governcur, 
and all the others except Mi I bourne were released." 

It has been the policy (continues Dunlap) of men of all a^es tG 
preserve the memory of the founders of the nation tliey claimed 
as their own. It serves to perpetuate nations. Rome, the eter- 
nal, bears the name of its reputed founder. The founder of the 
democracy of New York, was Jacob Leisler: and New York is 
now an empire founded on democracy. The line that says, "an 
honest man is the noblest work of God," has been received as a 

» la the possession of E. N. Boeby, Esq., of Youkers, Westchester County, is a 
gold piece, of the time of James II., said to have been in the possession of the unfor- 
tunate Leisler, the night preceding iiis execution. Around the edge is the following 
inscription, cut with the penknife of Leisler. 

" Remember well and hear in mynd, a faithful friend is hard to find.'' 

b Dunlap's Hist. N. Y. vol. i. 210. 

c A petition in favor of reversing Leister's attainder was signed by the Hugue- 
nots of New Rochelle. — Editor. 



truism. And Jacob Leisler was truly an honest man, who, though 
a martyr to the cause of liberty, ond sacrificed by injustice, aris- 
tocracy, and party malignity, ought to be considered as one in 
whom New York should take pride." 

The descendants of this illustrious man, will be best described 
in the followinof table. 


, execul- 
r in lav; 

-Rev. I. 


D. D. 

'-2 "o ii 

O *- t, 
- rt ^ 






5 C: o 


O c3 




m • 
1— 1 -c 


1 — 






g « = 






3 . 



0) m 








> ^ 

^ • 




O f^ 

*-• 03 









— w 

3 t:: 
^ o 


C =2 

Si ^ 





O j= 



















. 1 



• 1 





















o) r 


>— 1 













c > l^. 






h-i ^ ,^' 












1— ( 


e . 












Throughout the yenr, 1690 (the one preceding his execntion) 
we find Jacob Leisler releasing to the exiled Htignenots, the 
lands which he had purchased in t'leir behalf, of John Pell, in 

To all Christian people to whom this present writing shall conme, Jacob Leisler 
ofthe city of New York, merchant, sendeth greeting in our Lord God everlasting. 
Whereas, John Pell of the manor of Pelham, Esq., together with Rachel his 
wife, have, by their certain deed in writing, from under our hands and seals, 
bearing dale the 20ih of September, A. D. 1689, given, granted, bargained and 
sold, unto the said Jacob Leisler, his heirs and assignees for ever, all that 
tract of land lying within the said manor of Pelham, containing six thousand 
acres of land, and also one hundred acres of land more, which the said John 
Pell and Rachel his wife, hath given freely to such, or cause to be erected for 
the French Church, by the inhabitants residing thereon as relation thereunto 
being had, dolh more fully and at large appear, noiv know ye, that I the said 
Jacob Leisler, for and in consideration of a certain sum of money to me in 
hand paid or secured, at or before the ensealing and delivery hereof, by John 
Neufville, ofthe city of New Y'ork, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowl- 
edged, and thereof, and of any part and parcel thereof, have granted, birgained 
and sold, and by these presents do grant, bargain and sell, unto the said John 
Neufville all that certain piece or parcel of land situate and being within the 
manor of Pelham, being 200 acres of land, 40 acres thereof being in the small 
lot bounded on the north by the Boston road, on the south by the creek, on the 
east by the land of Mary Levilain, and on the west by the land of Lewis Carre 
and one hundred and sixty acres of land on the great lott with Mary Leve- 
laine, Gabriel Le Voiteurs and Marheit, which are not divided lands, his pro- 
portionable interest in the commons of the six thousand acres of land, and in 
the fresh and salt meadows ofthe said six thousand acres therein, comprehend- 
ing four acres of land on the little commons, together with all the appurtenan- 
ces thereunto belonging, to have and to hold the said land and premises with 
their appurtenances, unto the said John Neufville, his heirs and assignees for 
ever, and the said Jacob Leisler doth by these presents covenant, grant and 
agree to and with the said John Neufville, his executors, administrators and 
assignees, in his and their quiet and peaceable possession and seizen, accord- 
ing to the same right and title, as to me appertaineth by the aforesaid deed of 
sale, made and delivered to me, the said Jacob Leisler, and no farther, he the 
said John Neufville, paying his proportion of the quit rent on the aforesaid 
land mentioned and expressed. In witness whereof, I the said Jacob Leisler, 
have set my hand and seal to these presents, this one and twentieth day of 
May, A. D. 1690. . . - . , - . 


The quantity of acres I acknowledge be above the limits, I will not engage 
at all. 

New York, 31 May, 1690. 

Sig. Jacob Leisler, Elsje Leisler. 

The same year, Jacob Leisler with the consent of Elisee his 
wife, conveyed to Alexander Allaire, one hnndred acres. Also 
to Louis Guion, a tract consisting of one hundred and thirty, 
eight acres, &c. <fcc. 

The annexed receipt is taken from the town records. 

New York, 8th Sept. 1690. 

Item: received of Mr. John Bonteillier, the sum of nine and 
twenty pounds seven shillings and two pence, being in full for 
the last payment of his lands. 

Received by me, 

Rachel Pell. 

The township of New Rochelle was first surveyed and divi- 
ded into lots or farms on the 20th of November, 1693, by Alex- 
ander Allaire and Captain Bond, the latter being a surveyor. 
This division was made by running a straight line directly north 
from the old Boston road to Hutchinson's river, and laying out 
lots on each side of it. The land south of tiie Boston road, was 
divided into twenty-six lots. Saghlers and Lacounte's neck, (now 
Davenport's neck) contained, according to the survey, two hun- 
dred acres. 

Upon the 20ih of November, 1700, Sir John Pell^ and Rachel 
his wife, granted to Daniel Sampson and Isaac Cantin, one hun- 
dred acres, " provided that the purchasers aiid their assignees* 
shall do suit and service, now or at any lime hereafter, from time 
to lime in the manor court, and pay their proportion to the min- 
ister of the place.c 

The Huguenots, f^ or French Protestants of New Rochelle, came 

» Town Rec. 20. Jacob Leisler was executed on the 16th May, 1G91* 

t So styled in the Town Records. 

* Town Rec. p. 10. 

d The epithet Huguenot (which has been a subject of much discussion,) is traced 
to the word Eignot, derived froiu the German Eide-genossen — federati or allied. — 
Mr. G. P. Disosway. 


directly from England, and were a part of the 50,000 persecuted 
who fled into that country four years before tlie revocation of the 
edict of Nantz. This is confirmed by the charier of Trinity 
Church in New Rochelle, wherein ttiey specify that ^'- they fled 
from France in 168 1.^ 

" The cruelties which they suffered in France are beyond any- 
thing of the kind on record, and in no age was there ever such a 
violation of all that is sacred, either with relation to God or 
man ; and when we consider the exalted virtues of that glorious 
band of brothers, w^e are amazed, while we are delighted with 
their fortitude and courage. Rather than renounce their Chris- 
tian principles they endured outrages shocking to humanity, per- 
secutions of unheard of enormity, and death in all its horrors. 
The complaint of Justin Martyr to the Roman Emperor, that the 
Christians were pimished wiih torture and death upon the bare 
profession of their being such, might have been made by the 
French Protestants. To be a Huguenot was enough to ensure 
condemnation. Whoever bore this name were imprisoned ar- 
raigned for their lives, and adhering to their profession were con- 
demned by merciless judges to the flames. Some of the name 
and character were murdered in cold blood, and massacred with- 
out any legal forms of justice. 

"It is a singular fact, (continues Mr. Disosway, to whom we 
are indebted for the materials of this sketch.) tliat the Reforma- 
tion originated in France upon her own soil, and its earliest 
seeds were germinated in the University of Paris, then a strong- 
hold of Romanized faith. At this timt", the University was the 
principal seat of European learning and Roman Catholic ortho- 

"Among the people of Picardy and Dauphiny, the first prin- 
ciples of the great work appeared before they were manifest in 
any other country. This is the fact if we regard dates; and 
therefore the earliest honors of the Reformation belong to France, 
a circumstance which lias been generally overlooked. Still Lu- 
ther, in zeal, knowledge and success, was the master spirit of the 

• See Trinity Church Charter. 


age, and in its fullest sense he deserves the epithet of the first re- 

" Among the first doctors of theology in Paris, who zealously 
embraced the ever blessed Reformation, was Lefevre, who while 
engaged in a task of collecting the legends of saints and martyrs, 
felt a ray of divine light from on high suddenly flash into his 
mind, and abandoning his work, cast away such foolish things 
and embraced the holy scriptures. The new impulse grew ra- 
pidly in his heart, and he soon communicated its divine truth to 
his classes in the University. Of this individual, Beza remark- 
ed : 'It was he who boldly began the revival of the holy religion 
of Jesus Christ. Thus a new era opened in France, and the Re- 
formation soon made rapid progress. One of its first witnesses 
in the court of royalty was the celebrated Princess, Margaret of 
Yalois, Duchess of Alen^on, and sister to the reigning monarch, 
Francis the First. '"^ She is said to have dignified her profession 
by a pure religious and blameless life amidst the dissolute and 
literary household of her royal brother, &c. 

'• The bishop of Meaux through Margaret sent to the King a 
translation of St. Paul's epistles richly illuminated, adding: 
'They will make a truly royal dish of a fatness that never cor- 
rupts, and having a power lo restore all manner of sickness ; the 
more we taste them the more we hunger after them, with desires 
that are ever fed and never cloyed.' 

" The fires of persecution now began to rage against this new 
sect. John Le Clerc was the first martyr of the gospel in France. 
He was the pastor of the church at Meaux. For writing against 
antichrist of Rome, he was seized by the enraged priests, whipped 
three successive days, and then branded as a heretic with a heat- 
ed iron on his forehead. But the martyr uttered not a groan, and 
he was again set at liberty. He ihen withdrew to Meiz, where 
more awful sulferings awaited him, and again in the power of 

• Margaret selected for her emblem the marigold which, says Brantome, the an- 
nalist of the co'jrt, " in its flower and leaf has the most resemblance to the sun, 
and turning follows its course. Her device was Non inferiora secutus ; * I seek not 
things below ;' signifying, continues our author, that her actions, thoughts, purposes 
and desires were directed to that exalted sun, namely God. 


his enemies, they cut off his right hand and tormenting him 
with red liot irons, he was at last consumed by a slow fire. 
During all these horrid tortures his mind was kept in perfect 
fidelity and peace, and he ejaculated solemnly: 'Israel trust in 
the Lord, he is their help and their shield.' Such was the first 
confessor of Jesus Christ who suffered and died in France, and 
therefore demands our especial notice. A system of terror soon 
began over the whole of France. 

" But in vain did its enemies oppose ; the glorious march of the 
Reformation was onward and sure. France had now been bap- 
tized with the blood of the martyrs ! 

■• " In the midst of perils, opposition and persecution, the first 
national synod was called at the metropolis of the kingdom. This 
council published to the world their confession, which is entitled, 
' The confession of faith held and professed by the Refornied 
Churches of France, received and enacted by their first national 
synod, celebrated in the city of Paris, and year of our Lord, 1559.' 
" In their contests at this period the Huguer:ot forces were led by 
the celebrated and brave Coligny and the Prince of Conde, two il- 
lustrious names in their annals. The Duke of Guise headed the 
papal armies. Towns were taken and retaketj ; when the Hugue- 
nots triumphed they destroyed altars and images, and the Ro- 
manists in their turn burned all the bibles they could seize. Such 
were the effects of fanaticism on both sides. To assert that the 
excesses were only committed by one party would be untrue, 
and that some of our race were allied to angels ; but we hazard 
nothing in saying that the reformed, in almost every instance, 
resorted to arms from motives of self-preservation." 

"Upon Sunday, August the 24th, 1572, was perpetrated the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. De Thou, a Popish historian, 
relates that thirty thousand perished on this terrible occasion. 
Another estimates one hundred thousand. In Paris alone, they 
amoiuited to ten thousand, and among the number five hundred 
Huguenot lords, knights, and military officers, with several 
thousand gentlemen. 

"This massacre which was perpetrated on St. Bartholomew's 
day, in the year of our Lord 1572, a year most aptly designated 
as infamous by Lord Clarendon, may be pronounced the foulest 

Vol. I. " 49 



and the bloodiest of ancient or modem times. The black deed 
has handed down the names of Catharine de Medicis and her 
son Charles IX. to the universal detestation of after ages. 

*'Ciiarles, by a public edict, proclaimed himself the author of 
it, pretending that he was forced to the measure by the Admiral 
Coligny and his friends. In honor of it high mass was performed 
by the Pope ; salvoes of artillery thundered from the ramparts of 
St. Angelo ; a Te Deum was snng to celebrate the atrocious 
event, and a medal was struck for the same purpose. If every 
Protestant account of this terrible transaction must encounter 
suspicion, we ourselves will be satisfied with the testimony of 
this medal alone of Gregory Xllf., at that time the Pope ; — evi- 
dence that scatters to the winds of heaven all the excuses and 
attempted apologies for those who perpetrated the St. Bartholo- 
mew massacre. The medal has as usual on the obverse a head 
of the Pope, Gregorius XIII. Pont. Max. An. I. The reverse ex- 
hibits a destroying angel with a cross in one hand, and a sword 
in the other, pursuing and slaying a flying and prostrate band of 
heretics. Strange work for an angel.^ The legend is: Hugo- 
nottorumstrages, (slaughter of the Huguenots,) 1572."^ 

Fac-eimile of Papal Medal in honour of the Massaci-e of St. Kartholomew'a. 
Kindly furnished by Mr. Edward Walker, publisher of "Dowling's Uisiory of Romanism." 

Some of the Huguenot families of New Rochelle appear to 

* Sketch of the Huguenots by Mr. G. P. Disosway. See Christian Intelligencer. 

t There is an original medal in the possession of the Rev. S. Farmar Jarvis, D. D. 
L. Ij. D., of Middletown, Connecticut ; who obtained it at the mint in Rome. Elec* 
trotype copies of this medal are very numerous. 


have preserved the memory of that fatal day, by adopting it as a 
christian name for their oitspring.^ 

The city of La Rochelle in France, which had always stood 
firmly attached to the reformed interests, appears to have afford- 
ed (in 1572,) an asylum for the survivors of the bloody massacre 
of St. Bartholomew. It was here they issued their famous decla- 
ration stating the affair to be one of unheard of cruelty, and 
bidding defiance to their enemies the house of Guise. " And it 
was here they armed and fortified themselves, trusting in a just 
cause and to the favor of Heaven. For nine months they fought 
most gallantly in defence of La Rochelle, killing 40,0U0 of their 
enemies, who besieged them with the strongest and mightiest 
army of France witljout success. It was however in 1G27, that 
this city made its last and ever memorable stand for the cause of 
the Huguenots. •.. <• ■ ;' • 

*' And it may safely be said, that this mighty city would never 
have fallen, (such was the undaunted heroism of the Rochellese 
themselves,) had it not been for the powerful minded genius of 
Cardinal Richelieu, who planned and executed such a mighty 
work against it, that in gigantic extent it has been compared by 
historians to the similar one executed by Alexander the Great 
for Tyre. The powerful mind of Richelieu saw at a glance 
that it was useless to carry on the longest siege against the city 
of La Rochelle, whilst a free communication remained open to 
the sea, on which the town was situated. He therefore closed 
the mouth of their channel by the erection of a prodigious mole, 
4482 feet across the harbor, with a central opening. The frame 
work of this mole consisted of huge piles which was filled up 
with stones., and sixty hulks sunk with the same material, for 
the purpose of buttresses. One arm of this immense dyke over- 
lapped the other, so that the entrance instead of being in front 
was lateral. A stockade of piles, interlaced with chains effectu- 
ally stopped the passage. This work he completed and defend- 
ed by 45,000 men, while forty pieces of cannon on the one shore, 
and twenty-five on the other, flanked the approaches ; and the 

* Bartliolomew le Roux and others. 


narrow passage in its centre, (of one hundred and fifty feet,) 
guarded by a flotilla of vessels.''^ 

*' The brave Rochellese manfully defended themselves amidst 
warfiire and starvation. They were reduced from over 27,000 to 
5000, and out of a company of nearly 600 English allies, only 
62 survived. 'Assure the Rochellese that 1 will not abandon 
them ;' was the message of Charles of England to the closely be- 
sieged city, and jnst as Buckingham was taking command of the 
desired expedition, he was assassinated. This event created fur- 
ther delay, and the expedition arrived too late to relieve the 
place. The citizens bore their trials most manfully, and with a 
perseverance seldom equalled. The bearer of a letter was arres- 
ted, and compelled by torture to confess that he had swallowed 
it concealed in a silver almond ; and he with the silver-smith 
who made the almond were both hanged. Two illustrious ladies, 
the Duchess of Rohan and her daughter, who were not named 
in the capitulation, are thus referred to by a writer of that day. 
^ Rigor without precedent, that a person of her quality, at the age 
of seventy, on quitting a siege in which she and her daughter 
had lived for three months on horse flesh and four or five ounces 
of bread per day, should be held a captive, deprived of the exer- 
cises of religion.' ' Protestants were no longer allowed to reside 
in this ' city of refuge,' unless they had been inhabitants before the 
arrival of Bucking'iam's expedition. The walls were prostrated, 
the fortifications razed, and a cross erected. Thus perished this 
little Christian republic which had defied the crown of France 
lor seventy years." 

•' History does not afford an example of more malignant or 
desolating war than that which raged in France during the sev- 
enteenth century. Louis XIV., the easy dupe of the Jesuits, con- 
fessors, and the designing Madame de JVlaintenon, and led on, 
also, by the Cardinal Mazarine, determined to convert the Re- 
r<^rmers to the Roman faith. Not only force, but bribery was 

• Smedley's History of Reform. Religion in Franc, vol. iii., p. 164, Harper's edi- 



now employed ; converts were to be purchased, and proselytism 
in every form resorted to."a 

Arms of La Roclielle. 

To enter into the minute particulars of this disastrous period 
would be superfluous ; suffice it to say. that now commenced 
a renewal of the outrageous proceedings of former years. 
Commissioners were sent into the provinces to dispossess the 
Reformed of all they held as citizens; nothing awaited them 
but fines^ humiliation and poverty. Troops of soldiers were 
quartered among them, who inflicted the most horrid bar- 
barities, while others scoured the country, and dragooned men 
into false confessions. And not only this ; hundreds were con- 
demned to the galleys, and sent to the French provinces in Ame- 
rica. One of their own ministers, Jeurieu, informs us that a 
friend of his saw a great number of men, at Aries, fastened to the 
horses, underneath, by means of cords, followed by long carts 
filled with men and women, tied by their waists to the carts ! and 
these were carried to Marseilles, to be shipped to America; others 
again were sent to the islands of this country in the king's ships, 
to be sold, like slaves, to those who would giv^e most for them.^ 
Wearied with the incessant persecution, and despairing of repose 
around their native hearths, the Huguenots began to leave 
France for more secure regions. Their well known industry and 
skill made them be welcomed in every Protestant country. No 

»■ Sketch of the Huguenots, Christian Intelligencer, Mr- Disosway, 
b Jeurieu's Pastoral Letters, 


less than five hundred thousand thus escaped, and found homes 
in Germany, Holland, and England. "* King Charles 11. granted 
letters of denization in council, under the great seal, and assured 
the exiles that, at the next meeting of Parliament, he would in- 
troduce a bill by which they should be naturalized ; relieved 
them at the momenf from importation duties and passport fees, 
and encouraged voluntary contributions for their support.''^ This 
order was issued on the 2Sth of July, 16SI, the same year in 
which the Huguenots of New Rochelle fled from Frnnce,c con- 
clusive evidence that they constituted a portion of those exiles 
who accepted the royal offers, and afterward, under the patronage 
of the government, purchased and settled here in 1689. The 
Huguenots must have been "aided, in their escape from France, 
by the English vessels that lay for some time off the Island of 
Rhe, opposite La Rochelle, in which they were conveyed to En- 
gland.''d Tradition says that they were subsequently transported 
to this place in one of the king's ships. The point on Daven- 
port's Neck, called Bauffet's or Bonnefoy's Point, was the spot 
where they first landed. 

Upon the 17th of April, 1695, we find letters of denization 
granted to Francis Le Count, under oaths appointed to be taken. ^ 

On the 6th of February. 1G95-6, letters of denization were is- 
sued, under the seal of the province, " to David de Bonrepos, 
Alexander Allaire, Henry Beignon, Esaye Valleau, Andrew Thau- 
net, David Bonnefoy, Louis Guion, and Louis Guion his son, 
Pierre Das, Pierre Palcot, Andrew Naudin, and Andrew and 
Louis Naudin his sons, Theophile Fourrestier, Cliarles Fourres- 
tier, Ambroise Sycard, and Ambroise, Daniel, and Jacques, his 
sons^ Giulliamme Landrin,